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JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN: 

A 
SERIES OF LETTERS 

ON THE 

CONTROVERSY 

BETWEEN 

JEWS AND CHRISTIANS 

COMPRISING 

THE MOST IMPORTANT DOCTRINES 

OF THE 

CHRISTIAN RELIGION. 



BY JOSEPH SAMUEL C. F. FREY, 

AUTHOR OF A HEBREW GRAMMAR, A HEBREW, LATIN, AND ENGLISH DICTIONARY, 
AND EDITOR OF VANDER HOOGHT'S HEBREW BIBLE. 



IN TWO VOLUMES. 
VOL. II. 



These arc written, that yc might believe that Jesus Is the Christ, the 
Soil of God." — John. 



SEVENTH EDITION, 

NEW-YORK : 

PRINTED AND rUBLlSHED BY 

DANIEL FANSHAV/, 

143 Nassau-Street. 

■1840. 



Entered, according to act of Congress, iu the year 1835, by Joseph Samuel C. F. 
Frev, in the Clerk's office of the District Court of the southern district of the Slat* 
of New -York. 



•2./,C7/ 



CONTENTS OF VOL. II. 



PART I. EXALTATION OF THE MESSlAU, 

Page. 

Letter I.— Introduction, 9 

Necessity of Christ's exaltation. It has respect to his divine and 
human nature ; to his body, soul, and person; and his mediato- 
rial office ; it includes power over all creatures. 

Letter II. — Resurrection of Christ, 19 

It was typitied and predicted in the Old Testament, and foretold 
by Christ. Objections answered. 

Letter III. — The subject continued, 28 

The different appearances of Christ after his resurrection ; the 
body could not be taken away; his resurrection proved by the 
testimony of angels, soldiers, pious women. 

Letter IV.— Continuation of the subject, .... 36 
Testimony of the apostles. They were no impostors, which is 
evident from their character, their mode of procedure, th(» 
character of the persons to whom they preached, their perseve- 
rance. Neither could they be mistaken ; for it was a matter of 
fact, they were many in number, exceedingly incredulous, they 
were inspired. Incredulity of Thomas. Testimony of God. 
(Quotation from Saurin. The subject worthy of credit. 

.^etter V. — Importance of the resurrection of Christ, . 49 

Why Christ did not appear to his enemies. The resurrection of 

Christ proves the truth of his divinity, his Messiahship, and the 

acceptance of his sacrifice. It is a pattern and pledge of the 

resurrection of the righteous, and a strong motive to holiness. 

Letter VI. — The ascension of Christ, 61 

It was typified and predicted. It is proved by the testimony of 
Scripture, of angels, the destruction of Jerusalem, and the dis- 
persion of our people. Circumstances respecting the manner, 
time, and his employment on the occasion. Design: to prove 
his mission and faithfulness ; as a reward for his humiliation, 
and a triumph over his enemies; to carry on his work ia 
heaven ; to send the Holy Spirit ; to prepare a place for hfs 
people ; to encourage the penitent ; to comfort his people, and 
to draw their affections from earth to heaven. 

Letter VII. — The intercession of Christ, , . . .70 

Taught in the Old Testament, and confirmed by the apostles. Its 

nature. Christ appears in heaven for us, as mediator, in ov(x 

nature, and pleads for the blessings he has purchased. Its 

foundation. Its objects. The blessings he intercedes for are, 



4 CONTLNTS. 

the acceptance of their persons and services ; that their neces- 
sary wants may be supplied ; that their accusers may be 
silenced ; their enemies overcome ; and they be kept from evil ; 
and that they may persevere. Properties of Christ's interces- 
sion : He pleads skillfully ; compassionately and feelingly ; 
righteously and faithfully; powerfully and authoritatively; 
zealously and fervently; successfully, and constantly, and 
solely. The subject teaches the majesty, holiness, and justice 
of God; the evil of sin, and the dignity and love of Christ. It 
encourages the penitent sinner, and comforts the afflicted be- 
liever. 

Letter VIII.— The kingly office of Christ, .... 9? 
It was typified and predicted. Ensigns of royalty ascribed to the 
Messiah. The people wished him to be a king. Jesus Christ is 
a King. He is well qualified. The nature of Christ's kingdom. 
Mistaken views of our people concerning it. It difiers from the 
kingdoms of this world with respect to its foundation, subjects, 
laws, officers, soldiers, weapons, ensigns, and equipages. Ex- 
ploits, extent. Design and duration. 

Letter IX. — Administration of Christ's kingdom, . . .110 
With respect to his subjects. They are made willing, and ruled 
by his laws. They are supported, corrected, defended. They 
enjoy many privileges : and are received at death into glory. 
With respect to his enemies. He has them absolutely in his 
power. Uses them for the good of his people. Restrains them 
at present, and ultimately destroys them. History of the king- 
dom of Christ. Improvement. How glorious the King ! How 
honorable the subjects ! How encouraging to missionary efforts! 
How important to submit to this King ! 

PART II. divinity of the Messiah. 

LiETTER I. — A plurality in unity, 122 

This is a great stumbling-stone. Messiah is God by nature. 
Distinct persons in the Godhead. The doctrine is not absurd. 
Incomprehensibility no objection to faith. Our people believe 
doctrines though mysterious. A doctrine revealed should be 
believed. The unity of the Godhead proved. A plurality 
taught in the Scriptures. The word Elohivi used as a plural. 
Our rabbins greatly perplexed on this subject, and acknowledge 
a mystery in the word EloJdm. 
Letter II.— On the Trinity, .... - 135 

Proved from passages of Scripture, and from the testimonies of 
the rabbins. Importance of the subject. 



CONTENTS. 5 

Letter III. — Distinguishing marks of Deity, .... 142 

Certain criteria necessary to distinguish God from the creature. 

The Mosaic dispensation designed to prevent idolatry. Divine 

criteria are names, titles, attributes, works and worship, proved 

from reason and from Scripture. 

Letter IV. — The Angel- Jehovah, ...... 155 

The Angel of the Lord. Philo, his character. Seven propositions. 
Different appearances of the Angel. He is called by the rabbins 
by different names. They ascribe all the appearances to the 
same Angel. All the divine criteria ascribed to this Angel. 
His appearance to Hagar considered. She knew him to be 
Jehovah. 

Letter V. — The subject continued, 164 

The appearance of the angel to Abraham. To Jacob. To Moses. 
To Joshua. To Gideon, and to Manoah. Gtuotalion from Eu- 
sebius. Design of these appearances. This Angel is Jehovah. 
Promised as a guide to the children of Israel. The rabbins 
expected the Messiah to be divine. Messiah the second per- 
son in the Trinity. 

PART III. CHRIST IS truly god. 

Letter I. — He is the Angel- Jehovah, 180 

Striking similarity between Christ and the Angel. All the divine 
criteria ascribed to Jesus Christ. He is called God, Jehovah, 
the First and the Last, the Son of God. 
Letter II. — Divine criteria, or the continuation of the subject, 191 
The divine attributes ascribed to Jesus. Divine works. Such as 
creation, redemption, and raising the dead. Divine worship, 
baptism, and the Lord's supper. 

PART IV. IMPORTANCE OF THE SUBJECT. 

Letter I.— Consequences if Christ be not God, . . . 201 
Then it follows : That he was not the promised Messiah, but a 
deceiver and blasphemer. That the Jews were bound to put 
him to death. That the ceremonial law is not abrogated, and 
no atonement made. That all who have worshiped Christ 
have been idolaters. That into this fatal error they were 
led by believing the sacred Scriptures. 

Letter II. — Continuation of the subject, . . . ,21) 
If Christ be not God, then the following Scriptures in particular 
must lead to idolatry, viz. John, 17 : 6. 2 Cor. 8 : 9. Gal. 1:1. 
4:4, h. Phil. 2 : 5-11. Heb. 1 : 1-3. 

Letter III.— Consequences if Christ be truly God, . . 210 



6 CONTENTS. 

Then it appears that God is love. That love and obedience to 
God, and love and compassion to men, are illustrated and en- 
forced by the strongest motives. That sin is an abomination, 
and most hateful to God. That to honor and worship the 
Son, and to believe in him, is most reasonable and just. That 
tne condition of those who do not acknowledge him as the true 
God must be most awful. That the true penitent has the great- 
est encouragement to trust in Christ for salvation. That the 
state of true believers is most safe and blessed. And that all 
efforts to promote the cause of Christ must ultimately succeed. 

Letter IV.— The deity of the Holy Ghcst, . . . .234 
All the divine criteria are ascribed to him. He is called God and 
Jehovah. He possesses all the incommunicable attributes. 
Such as eternity, unchangeableness, omnipresence, omnisci- 
ence, omnipotence. Divine attributes, such as creation, the 
formation of the human nature of Christ; the new creation. 

Letter V. — The subject continued, 243 

Regeneration is the work of the Holy Spirit. The resurrection. 
Divine worship. Baptism and doxologies. Particular pass- 
ages of Scripture considered. Believers the temple of the 
Holy Ghost. Lying to the Holy Ghost punished with death. 
Blasphemy against the Holy Ghost an unpardonable sin. The 
Holy Ghost is the Author of inspiration. Testimonies from 
Jewish writers. Conclusion. 

PART V. SECOND ADVENT OF THE MESSIAH. 

Letter I. — Introduction, 25' 

The subject acknowledged to be difficult. (Quotations from Bishop 
Newton respecting the millennium. From rabbins. From Chris- 
tian fathers. Satan to be bound for a thousand years. 

Letter II.— The subject continued, 267 

Extracts from the Rev. G. S. Faber. Sentiments of the rabbins. 
Ten signs of the advent of Messiah. Ten consolations. 

Letter III. — Restoration of the Jews, 281 

Events expected to take place. Prophecies not to be spiritualized. 
Covenant with Abraham j'-^t to be fulfilled. A literal restora- 
tion proved from prophesies. Lev. 26, Deut. 30, Ezek. 36. 
Letter IV. — The subject continued, ..... 297 

Ezek. chap. 37 : 38. Hosea, 3 : 4, 5. 

Letter V. — Continuation of the subject, .... 310 

Jer. 31 : 31-40. Zech. 12: 10-14. Restoration proved from facts. 

The extent of the land promised not yet possessed. The distinct 

preservation of Israel. Their general expectation of a literal 



CONTENTS. 7 

return. Their favorable circumstances. The way preparing. 
Jerusalem to be rebuilt. Judaism to be re-established. This 
called heresy. Objections answered. Such as their return not 
mentioned in the New Testament. There shall be but one fold. 
The end of their being kept distinct has been answered. 
Christ's kingdom not of this world. Their restoration con- 
ditional. 

PART VI. MESSIAH THE JUDGE OF THE WORLD. 

Letter I. — The general resurrection, .... 332 

The term explained. Importance. The doctrine proved. Pos- 
sible. Analogy. Ideas of reward and punishment. Proved 
from Scripture, 2 Cor. 5 : 10. Job, 19 : 25-27. Isaiah, 26 : 19. 
John, 5:28, 29. 1 Cor. 15. Its nature. Author. Design. Im- 
provement. 

Letter II. — General Judgment, 341 

Proved from man's relation to God as his creatures and subjects. 
From the justice of God. From the dictates of conscience. 
From remarkable judgments inflicted. From the Scripture. 
From the testimony of heathens. The person to be the judge 
is Christ. He is invested with this office, as a reward for his 
sufferings. To the honor of his kingly office. The manner of 
his appearance. The persons to be tried. The matter for which 
they will be judged. The evidence to be produced. The pro- 
perties of the trial. Impartial. Distinct. Convincing. Close. 

Letter III.— Misery of the wicked, 365 

Its nature. Punishment of loss. Debarred from the beatific 
vision of God. Excluded from the court of heaven. Punish- 
ment of sense. Torments of conscience. Duration. 
Letter IV. — Happiness of the righteous, .... 373 
Inconceivably great. Character of the righteous. Nature of their 
happiness. Negatively freed from sin. From the consequences 
of it. Positive happiness. Perfection of knowledge. Of Aviil. 
The powers of the soul in full exercise, also of the body. The 
society and employment of heaven. Beauty and glory of the 
place. Duration. 

Letter V. — Conclusion, - 385 

Address to Benjamin, 385. To the Jewish nation, 38fi. To Chris- 
tians, 390. 
Index to subjects. 393 

Ditto of scripture, ...... 397 



PART I. 

THE EXALTATION OP THE MESSIAH. 



Lietter I. 

INTRODUCTION. 



My beloved Brother Benjamin, 

Jehovah, the God of our fathers Abraham, Isaac, and 
Jacob, the Angel of the covenant, having preserved me in 
my journey, and brought me safely back to my family, I 
now, agreeably to my promise in my last letter, resume 
with pleasure our correspondence, in a second series of let- 
ters, on some of the most important and interesting subjects 
respecting the Messiah. 

Having in the former series considered the predictions 
which relate to Messiah's state of humiliation, and their 
accomplishment in the birth, life, sufferings, death and 
burial of Jesus Christ, I propose to consider, in the first 
part of this series of letters, those predictions which relate 
to his state of exaltation. 

§ 1. In the sufferings and death of Christ, we have seen 
the Sun of Righteousness setting in great darkness, and all 
nature in mourning; but we shall now see him rising and 
shining brighter and brighter unto the perfect day, to go 
down no more. What is said respecting every believer, is 
perfectly true respecting Jesus Christ: "Light is sown for 
the righteous, and gladness for the upright in heart. Fcr 
his anger endureth but a moment: in his favor is life; 
weeping may endure for a night, but joy cometh in the 
morning. They that sow in tears shall reap in joy. He that 
goeth forth and weepeth, bearing precious seed, shall doubt- 
less come again with rejoicing, bringing his sheaves with 

Vol. IL 1 



10 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part L 

him." Ps, 97 : 11. 30 : 5. 126 : 6. The same volume of 
inspiration which foretold his suflerings unto death, also 
announced his exaltation unto eternal gloiy. Hence, when 
the two disciples that went down to Emmaus, on the morn- 
ing of Christ's resurrection, had told him the cause of their 
sadness, viz. their disappointment in Jesus of Nazareth, 
who, they trusted, would have redeemed Israel, but had 
been crucified; and that it is now reported that he was 
risen again, Jesus said unto them, "O fools, and slow of 
heart to believe all that the prophets have spoken. Ought 
not Christ to have suffered these things, and to enter into 
his glory? And beginning at Moses, and all the prophets,/ 
he expounded unto them in all the Scriptures the things 
concerning himself." Luke, 24 : 25-27. The one was as 
necessary to our salvation as the other. The former was 
the sure foundation, and the latter the glorious superstruc- 
ture. 

His sufferings were necessary for the expiation of our 
sins, and his exaltation was necessary for the application 
of the merits of his death. " For it became him for whom 
are all things, and by whom are all things, in bringing 
many sons unto glory, to make the Captain of their salva- 
tion perfect through sufferings." Heb. 2 : 10. As it was 
necessary for him to reconcile us by his death, so it was 
necessary for him to reinstate us in happiness by his life. 
Rom. 5: 10. Reconciliation is ascribed to his death; sal- 
vation to his life in glory. He could not have been a Savior 
without being a sacrifice; he could not have applied that 
salvation without being a King; he was to descend from 
heaven clothed with our infirmities, to suffer for our crimes ; 
he was to ascend to heaven invested with immortality, to 
present our persons before God, and prepare a glory for 
every believer. 

Christ's state of humiliation Ave have already considered, 
and now I invite your attention to his state of exaltation. 

But before we consider its different steps or parts, it may 



Let. 1.] INTRODUCTION. 11 

not be improper to make a few observations to explain its 
nature. 

§ 2. As Christ's state of humiliation respected his two 
natures, the divine and the human, so also his exaltation has 
respect to both. With respect to his divine nature: 

Not that an addition was made to his intrinsic glory, 
for his deity was never deprived of any essential glory ; 
nor could that be advanced, because it being infinite, was 
not capable of any higher degree, and was above all change. 
The subsistence and properties of that nature, which always 
remain the same, are incapable of abasement and elevation. 
We may as well conceive of a diminution of the essence of 
God, as a decrease of his essential glory. But there was a 
manifestation of his divine nature. Whilst Christ dwelt or 
tabernacled in the flesh, his divine nature wanted that repu- 
tation which was due to it from man ; and in this respect 
Christ is said "to have made himself of no reputation," or 
emptied himself, as the word Ekenose signifies. Phil. 2 : 7. 
He that was sovereign became subject, as the seed of the 
woman, to the law of nature; subject as an Israelite to the 
law of Moses; subject as a man, and our surety, to the pe- 
nal infirmities belonging to the human nature, as weariness, 
hunger, thirst, death. And as the divine nature seemed to 
be humbled, in being obscured under the veil of our flesh, 
so it is glorified in breaking out with the most resplendent 
rays in the Son. As he was humbled under the form of a 
servant, so he was exalted by appearing in the form of God. 
In the same sense that we say Christ as God was humbled, 
in the same sense we may say Christ as God was glorified; 
but it is certain that Christ, who was equal in regard of his 
deity with the Father, did humble himself to the form of a 
servant. Phil. 2 : 7, 8. As the divine nature may be said to 
be humbled by suffering an eclipse, so it may be said to be 
glorified by emerging out of it; as the sun may in a sort 
be said to enter into a glory, or reassume its glory, when it 
scatters a dark cloud which involved it, and strikes its v/arm 



12 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part L 

and clear beams through the air, there is nothing here of 
a glory added to the sun, but a glory exerted by the sun, 
which before lay in obscurity under a thick mist ; and when 
God is said to be glorified by men, we must not conceive 
any addition of intrinsic glory to God, but an acknowledg- 
ment of that glory he displays in his works of creation, 
providence, and redemption. So the exaltation of Christ 
was not a conferring of a new glory upon the divine nature, 
but the outshining of it in the sacred vessel of his humanity, 
and the surmounting of those mists wherewith before it had 
been clouded. 

^ 3. With respect to his human nature, it was a real and 
intrinsic exaltation into glory. There was a glory confer- 
red upon his humanity, by the grace of union with the se- 
cond person in the blessed Trinity at his incarnation ; and 
there was a glory bestowed upon it by the communication 
of unmatchable perfections to his soul, a fullness of the Spi- 
rit, a spotless sanctification, and an infallible knowledge of 
God, and of those truths he was to reveal. But now his hu- 
manity did ascend up where his person \vas before, and our 
nature was carried up to sit with him in the same court 
where he had been glorious before in his deity. That na- 
ture wherein the person of the Son of God was made lower 
than the angels, was crowned with glory and honor. Heb. 
2 : 7. That nature wherein he was raised up, was set at 
God's right hand in heavenly places; Eph. 1 : 20; and in 
that nature, as well as in the divine, the person of the Son 
of God had a sovereign authority granted to him. Thus the 
humanity was glorified above all the reach of any human 
understanding. The glory of the saints is not to be fathomed 
by the conceptions of men, much less the glory of Christ, 
the exemplar of all the glory they are to have. Again, as 
the humanity of Christ consisted of two parts, body and soul, 
so his exaltation respects both. 

^ 4. His body was changed into a spiritual nature, in- 
opposition to infirm flesh. The natural bodies of the saints 



Let. 1.] INTRODUCTION. 13 

shall at the resurrection be changed into spiritual ; 1 Cor, 
15:41; much more is the body of Christ in glory so changed, 
since it is the pattern according to which the bodies of the 
saints shall be copied and fashioned. Phil. 3:21. 

The body of Christ became immortal. He lives and shall 
live for evermore. Rev. 1:18. That body was not dissolved 
to dust by the power of the grave, and cannot sink into 
nothing in the glories of heaven. The union of the God- 
head (o it preserved it here, and the perpetual confirmation 
of that union preserves it for ever above. His body lives 
an endless life; death shall never more lay hands on it; 
he has no more sufferings to endure, or satisfaction to make 
to the demands of law. Men and devils cannot touch him 
in his person, though they do in his mystical body. If the 
righteous are to shine as the sun in the kingdom of their 
Father, Matt. 13 : 43, the Head of the righteous shines with 
a splendor above that of the sun, for he hath a glory upon 
his bod}'-, not only from the glory of his soul, (as the saints 
shall have,) but from the glory of his divinity in conjunc- 
tion with it. 

§ 5. The exaltation of Christ has respect to his soul, as 
well as his body. That soul which was sorrowful even 
unto death, was filled with joy unspeakable and full of 
glory. David being a prophet, spake of the Messiah when 
he said, "Thou wilt not leave my soul in hell; neither 
wilt thou suffer thine Holy One to see corruption. Thou 
wilt show me the path of life : in thy presence is fullness 
of joy, at thy right hand there are pleasures for evermore." 
Ps. 16 : 10, 1 1. This is the language of Christ, triumphmg 
in consideration of his exaltation, and taking pleasure in 
the fruits of his sufferings ; " Thou wilt show me the path 
of life." God has now opened the way to paradise, which 
was stopped up by a flaming sword, and made the path plain 
by admitting into heaven the Head of the believing world 
This was part of the joy of the soul of Christ ; he hath now 
a fullness of joy, a satisfying delight, instead of an over- 



14 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part 1. 

whelming sorrow; a fullness of joy, (not only some sparks 
and drops as he had now and then in his debased condition,) 
and that in the presence of his Father. His soul is fed and 
nourished with a perpetual vision of God, in whose face 
he beholds no more frowns, no more designs of treating 
him as a servant, but finds smiles that shall give a perpe- 
tual succession of joys to him, and fill his soul with fresh 
and pure flames ; pleasures they are, pleasantness in com- 
parison whereof the greatest joys in this life are anguish 
and horror. His soul has joys without mixture, pleasures 
without number, a fullness without want, a constancy with- 
out interruption, a perpetuity without end. 

O my beloved brother Benjamin, if I could but commu- 
nicate to you some of that joy and felicity which fills my 
soul at the contemplation of that glory which shall be re- 
vealed in those who are regenerated by the Spirit of God, 
and adopted into his family ! For although '' it doth not yet 
appear what we shall be, yet we know that when he shall 
appear we shall be like him ; for we shall see him as he 
is." 1 John, 3:2. To be like unto the Son of God ! What 
tongue can express, what pen can describe, or what heart 
conceive the holiness, and the purity of body and soul, the 
perfection of knowledge, the height of love, and the com- 
plete satisfaction to be realized through the never-ending 
ages of eternity ! May you and I, my dear Benjamin, be 
now conformed to the image of God's dear Son, that "when 
Christ who is our life shall appear, we also may appear 
with him in glory." Col. 3 ; 4. To return to our subject. 

§ 6. The exaltation respects the person of Christ also. 
His divine nature being glorified in a manifestation, and a 
new manner of manifestation of it; and his human nature 
being glorified by an accession of new qualities to it, his 
person then was glorified. As his person was the prime 
subject of humiliation, in taking upon him the form of a 
servant, so it was the prime subject of exaltation and glory. 
In regard of his person, he is glorified, as in regard of his 



Let. 1.3 INTRODUCTION. 15 

person he was humbled ; the same person that was rich 
became poor. 2 Cor. 8 : 9. He that was rich, and he that 
was poor, was one and the same person. Although riches 
and poverty were distinct conditions, and divinity and hu- 
manity were distinct natures, yet they were the conditions, 
and they were the natures of one and the same person, who 
is both rich and poor in regard of different states, as well as 
immortal and mortal, existing from eternity, and born in 
lime, in regard of different natures; eternal as God, and 
born as man, the person that was crucified was the Lord 
of glory. 1 Cor. 2 : 8. 

6 7. Th-e exaltation of Christ is in respect of his being 
mediator. 

The glory to which Christ was advanced was not the 
essential glory of God, for that he always possessed, and 
k is inseparable from his divine nature. As being God, he 
had all the prerogatives of God; but it was a mediatory 
glory conferred upon his person, as the first-born of every 
creature; such a glory as the humanity, dignified by the 
divine nature's assumption of it, was capable of. The hu- 
manity being a creature, was not capable of a divine and 
uncreated glory ; the glory Christ hath as God, is the same 
with the glory of the Father ; but the glory Christ hath as 
a mediator, is peculiar to him as a person consisting of a 
divine and a human nature ; therefore it is his glory, Luke, 
24 : 26, in a way of peculiarity belonging to him as a suf- 
ferer ; for the divine nature was not capable of an addition 
of glory, nor the human nature capable of the infinite per- 
fections of the divine. In regard of his essential glory, he 
was the Son begotten : in regard oi his mediatory glory, 
he was the heir appointed. Heb. 1 : 2. He is appointed 
heir, in order after his sufierings, as he was appointed me- 
diator, in order to his sufferings. Heb. 3 : 2. As he was 
mediator by a voluntary designation, so he was heir by a 
voluntary donation. His glory was given to him upon con- 
dition of suffering, and conferred upon him after his suffer- 



16 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part I. 

ings ; but he was from eternity the Lord of glory, and Son 
of God by a natural generation ; the one belonged to him 
by birth, the mediatory by office ; the one natural to his 
person, the other is the reward of his sufferings. Phil. 2:8,9. 
" Wherefore, God hath exalted him," viz. because of his 
obedience to death. In the essential glory, he is one with 
the Father; in his mediatory glory, he is lower than the 
Father, as being his deputy and substitute; his essential 
glory is absolute, his mediatory glory is delegated ; "judg- 
ment is committed to him." John, 5:21. The essential 
glory is altogether free, and hath no obligation upon it ; 
the mediatory hath a charge annexed to it, (for he is ascend- 
ed far above the heavens, that he may fill all things. Eph. 
4 : 10,) an office of priesthood to intercede, and a royal office 
to gather and govern those that are given to him by his 
Father. His essential glory he would have enjoyed if he 
had never undertaken to be our ransom ; yet, without his 
sufferings for us, he had never had the glorious title of the 
Redeemer of the world. God would have been essentially 
glorious in himself if he had never created a world, but he 
had not then been so manifest under the title of Creator. 
Hence, though Christ, in regard of his divine nature, was 
equal with his Father, Phil. 2 : 6, yet in the state of media- 
tor and surety for man, his Father was greater than he; 
John, 14 : 28; and in this state he was capable of a gift and 
glory from the Father, as from one that was superior to 
him in that condition ; as it hath been recorded in history, 
that a king equal, nay, superior to another prince, hath put 
himself under the ensigns of that prince inferior to him, 
and received his pay ; as he puts himself in such a military 
state, he is inferior to that prince he serves as his general; 
and what military honor may be conferred upon him for 
his valor and service, it is an honor distinct from that royal 
dignity he had before, as a sovereign in his own territories ; 
so is this name given to Christ above every name, Phil. 2: 9, 
i. e. a glory surpassing that of all creatures, the potentates. 



Let. 1.] INTRODUCTION. 17 

of the earth, or the seraphims of heaven ; which was a dis- 
tinct glory from that which he had as one with the Father, 
before his incarnation and sufferings, and which he had 
possessed if he had never suffered ; but this glory mentioned 
by the apostle was given him upon his sufferings. It was 
therefore a mediatory glory, whereby the authority of God 
was conferred upon him, not absolutely and formally, as 
though he were then made God, but as to the exercise of it 
as mediator in the human nature, which he had so obe- 
diently subjected to the cross, for the glory of the Father, 
and the good of the creature. 

^ 8. The exaltation of Christ as mediator, includes in it 
a power over all creatures, for it was such a name as was 
" above every nanic, that at the name of Jesus every knee 
should bow, and that every tongue shall confess that Jesus 
Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father." Phil. 2 ; 
10, 11. He had the same power committed to him which 
the Father hath ; his throne is the highest, being the same 
with that whereon the Father sat, Rev. 3: 21, a throne of 
government and dominion. His commission is extensive; 
a power as large as the confines of heaven and earth. Matt. 
28 : 18, '* All power is given me, both in heaven and earth." 
A power over hell is also put into the patent, Rev. 1:18, 
and " have the keys of hell and death." He had a right to 
the power by the promise of his Father : " Yet it pleased 
the Lord to bruise him; he hath put him to grief, when thou 
shalt make his soul an offering for sin : he shall see his 
seed, he shall prolong his days, and the pleasure of the 
Lord shall prosper in his hands. Therefore will I divide 
him a portion with the great, and he shall divide the spoil 
with the strong ; because he hath poured out his soul unto 
death; and he was numbered with the transgressors; and 
he bare the sins of many, and made intercessions for the 
transgressors." Isa. 53 : 10, 12. The solemn investiture was 
not given him till his ascension. God put the sceptre in his 
hands, when he used that form of words, Ps. 110: 1, "Sil 

1* 



18 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Parti- 

thou at my right hand, till I make thine enemies thy foot- 
stool." At his resurrection he was stript of his servile garb, 
at his ascension he put on his royal robes, on his session 
at the right hand of God he was crowned, and began the 
exercise of his royal dignity. He has all power over all 
the treasure and all the inhabitants of heaven, and all things 
on the earth, "for there is nothing left that is not put under 
him." Heb. 2 ; 8. He hath a name above every name in 
the earth, no person was ever so famous, none was ever 
adored by so many worshipers, none worshiped with so 
much fervency, none ever had so many lives sacrificed for 
his glory, and the acknowledgment of his mediation and 
person. His glory hath extended one time or the other over 
the whole world. 'Tis a power that hath given check to the 
power of kings, and silenced the reason of philosophers; 
it hath put to flight the armies of hell, and been celebrated 
by the songs of angels; no name was ever so glorious, no 
power ever so great. 

Having made these preliminary observations, I will in 
ray next letter consider the different steps or parts of the 
Messiah's exaltation. 

Farewell. 



I^t 2.] RESURRECTION OF THE MESSIAH. 19 



I^etter II. 



RESURRECTION OF THE MESSIAH. 

My dear Benjamhi, 

Agreeably to promise, I will now invite your attention 
to the different steps or parts of the exaltation of the Mes- 
siah ; they may be divided into his resurrection from the 
dead ; his ascension into heaven ; his intercession as a 
priest; his reign as King, and his coming to judgment. 

We commence with the first of these subjects, viz : The 
resurrection of the Messiah. 

§ 1. That the Messiah was to rise from the dead on the 
third day, was typified in sundry instances. Isaac rescued 
from the jaws of death, on the third day from the time 
Abraham had the order to sacrifice his son, and from which 
time he was looked upon by him as a dead man ; Joseph 
being taken from prison and promoted to the court of Pha- 
raoh ; David, after being hunted by Saul like a partridge, 
raised to the throne of Israel ; Jonah raised again the third 
day from the belly of the fish ; the scape goat let go into 
the wilderness, when the other taken v\rith it was slain ; and 
the living bird let loose after having been dipped in the 
blood of the bird that had been slain ; very fitly represented 
the resurrection of the Messiah, after his painful and igno- 
minious death. Dr. Pierson considers the sheaf of the first 
fruits on the second day of the feast of unleavened bread, 
as a type of the resurrection of the Messiah, who rose on 
that very day, and became the first fruits of them that sleep. 
Lev. 23 . 10-12. 

" Under the Levitical law," says he, " all the fruits of the 
earth in the land of Canaan were profane, none might eat 
of them till they were consecrated, and that was done in the 



20 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN, [Part J. 

feast of the first fruits. One sheaf was taken out of the 
field and brought to the priest, who lifted it up as it were in 
the name of all the rest, waving it before the Lord, and it 
was accepted of them, so that all the sheaves of the field 
were holy from the acceptation of that ; for ' If the first 
fruits be holy, the lump also is holy.' Rom. 11 : 16. And 
this was always done the day after the Sabbath, that is 
the paschal solemnity after which the fullness of the har- 
vest followed ; by which thus much was foretold and repre- 
sented, that as the sheaf was lifted up and waved, and the 
lamb was offered on that day by the priest to God, so the 
promised Messiah, that immaculate lamb which was to die, 
that priest which, dying, was to offer up himself to God, was 
upon this day to be lifted up and raised from the dead, or 
rather to shake, and lift up and present himself to God so 
as to be accepted for us, that so our dust might be sanctified, 
our corruption hallowed, our mortality consecrated to eter- 
nity." On the creed 259. 

But this all-important event has also been predicted in 
several passages of Scripture. 

§ 2. In Psalm 2d, verse 7th, it is said, '' I will declare the 
decree : the Lord hath said unto me, thou art my son ; 
this day have I begotten thee." That this Psalm relates to 
the Messiah, is acknowledged by our Rabbins (p. 120,) 
With respect to this verse in particular, see Zohar in numb. 
fol. 82, 2. Tal. Succah, fol. 52, 1, Maim, in Tract. Sanhed, 
c. 10. What is said in this Psalm is not applicable to Da- 
vid or any other mere creature. Neither David, nor Solo- 
mon, nor any other ever had the promise of possessing " the 
heathen for his inheritence or the uttermost parts of the 
earth for his possession." To give that reverence, adora- 
tion, and worship required ; to exercise that trust and con- 
fidence in any other but the Messiah, would be idolatry. 
Besides, as the Apostle justly observes, "to which of the 
angels, said God, at any time, thou art my sor. this day 
have I begotten thee ?" Heb. 1 : 5. Hence, the same 



Let. 2.] RESURRECTION OF THE MESSIAH. 21 

apostle, in the midst of the synagogue, applies it to the re- 
surrection of Christ, saying, " We declare unto you glad 
tidings, how that the promise which was made unto the 
fathers, God has fulfilled the same unto us, their children, 
in that he has raised up Jesus again ; as it is also written 
in the second psalm ; thou art my son, this day have I begot- 
ten thee." Acts, 13 : 32, 33. 

^ 3. Another prediction of the resurrection of the Mes- 
siah is in Psalm 16 : 10, " Thou wilt not leave my soul in 
hell, neither wilt thou suffer thine holy one to see corrup- 
tion." The plain meaning of the words is, that the person 
spoken of was to rise from the dead without seeing corrup- 
tion. The word nephesh, translated soul, more frequently 
relates to the mere body ; Lev. 19 : 28-21 : 1 ; and the word 
sheol, translated hell, signifies frequently the grave ; Gen. 
4 : 38 ; Isa. 38 : 18 : i. e, thou wilt not leave my body in the 
grave. But had the Psalmist stopped here, it would have 
been applicable to all mankind, for none shall be left in the 
grave; the next clause, therefore, explains the former, viz. 
for thou wilt not suffer thine holy one to see corruption. 
The wav conjunction, translated neither, is frequently ex- 
planatory, (page 167.) Hence it is said in Medresh Te- 
hilkim, " The moth and worm shall have no power over 
him." The learned Dr. Kennicot translates it, " For thou 
wilt not abandon my life to the grave." It is evident, there- 
fore, that David did not speak of himself, for he died, was 
buried, and saw corruption. Hence, said the apostle, " Men 
and brethren, let me freely speak unto you of the Patriarch 
David, that he is both dead and buried, and his sepulchre is 
with us unto this day. Therefore, being a prophet, and 
knowing that God had sworn with an oath to him, that of 
the fruit of his loins, according to the flesh, he would raise 
up Christ to sit on his throne ; he seeing this before, spake 
of the resurrection of Christ, that his soul was not left in 
hell, neither his flesh did see corruption." From the whole 
tenor of the Psalm, it appears to relate to the Messiah as 



22 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. (Part 1. 

expressing" his abhorrence of the general idolatry of man- 
kind, and his own zeal for the honor of Jehovah ; with the 
full assurance of his being raised from the dead before his 
body should be corrupted in the grave. Hence, the in- 
spired apostles, Peter and Paul, apply it to Jesus Christ to 
prove his resurrection from the dead, as 1 shall show here- 
after. 

^ 4. I proceed to another prediction in Psa. 118:22, 
" The stone which the builders refused is become the head- 
stone of the corner, this is the Lord's doing, and it is 
marvelous in our eyes." Kimchi says some of our Rab- 
bins ascribe the whole of this Psalm to the Messiah ; the 
22d verse is expres.sly applied to him in Zohar. Exod. fol. 
93, 3, Tickcone Zohar. correct, 5 fol. 15:2. Yarchi in 
Mica, 5 : 2. The Lord Jesus Christ applied these verses to 
himself Math. 21 : 41, and the apostle Peter applies them 
to him, Acts, 4:11; 1 Peter, 2: 7. Nor did the Jews in 
their time object to the application ; yea, the common people 
that attended Christ when he rode into Jerusalem, and the 
children in the temple, took their Hosannah from this Psalm, 
vers. 25, 26; Math. 21 : 9, 15. The Messiah is often com- 
pared to a stone for strength and duration, as a foundation, 
in the temple of the living God. Hear the words of the 
Lord, " Therefore, thus saith the Lord God, behold I lay 
in Zion for a foundation, a stone, a tried stone, a precious 
cornerstone, a sure foundation ; he that believeth shall not 
make haste." Isa. 28 : 16. The Targum interprets this pas- 
sage of a great King ; but Yarchi, of the King Messiah. 
See also Tal. Bab. Sanhed. fol. 38 : 1 ; and it is applied to 
Jesus Christ by the apostle, Rom. 9 : 33 ; I Peter 2 : 6. He 
is that " stone cut out of the mountain without hands." 
Dan. 2 : 45. Him the builders refused. The High Priests, 
Scribes, Lawyers, and Pharisees, who professed to build up 
the people in knowledge and righteousness, and in the 
knowledge and faith of the true Messiah, rejected Jesus as 
the Christ, and refused him as the Messiah, the Savior, and 



Let. 2.] RESURRECTION OF THE MESSIAH. 23 

Redeemer, and set him at naught; but to their great morti- 
fication, agreeably to this prediction, he rose again from the 
dead, and became the head-stone of the corner which unites 
angels and men, Jews and Gentiles, saints above and below, 
saints in all ages and places. " This is the Lord's doing," 
and blessed be his holy name. 

^ 5. Isaiah, 26 : 19, may probably be considered as another 
prediction of the resurrection of the Messiah. " Thy dead 
men shall live ; together with my dead body shall they arise : 
awake and sing, ye that dw^ell in the dust, for thy dew is as 
the dew of herbs, and the earth shall cast out the dead." 
The passage is understood of a literal resurrection from the 
dead, both by Jewish and Christian interpreters, see Meade's 
work, p. 713. Sanhed, fol. 90 : 2. Kethuboth, 111:1. Mid. 
Cohel. 62 : 3. Remarkable are the words of Elias Levite 
in his Tish. 109, " The word nevelahr saith he, " is never 
used in Scripture but of the carcass of a beast or fowl that is 
dead; and never of a man that is dead, but of him that dies an 
unnatural death, excepting this place, which speaks of the 
resurrection of the dead ; and I greatly wonder that the 
prophet should call the bodies of the pure righteous ones 
a carcass ; no doubt there is a reason for it known to the 
wise men and cabalists, which I am ignorant of" Had R. 
Elias compared this passage with Daniel, 9 : 24, where 
Messiah is said to die an unnatural death, the death of a 
criminal, to be cut off] he might have found a solution to his 
mystery. To return : the person speaking appears to be 
the Messiah, from the character of him in the context, who 
is the Lord Jehovah, in whom is everlasting strength, ver. 4 ; 
the desire, the expectation of his people, verse 8, 9, who 
ordains peace for them, and works all their w'orks in them, 
verse 12 ; and has sole dominion over them, verse 13. Hence, 
at the time of the resurrection of the Messiah's dead body 
from the grave, others were to arise with him, which was 
fulfilled at the resurrection of Jesus Christ : " The graves 
were opened, and many bodies of the saints that slept arose 



24 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part 1. 

and came out of the graves after his resurrection." Math. 27, 
52, 53. Now, it is worthy of observation that, although these 
saints arose from the dead at the crucifixion of Christ, yet 
they did not leave their graves till after the resurrection of 
Jesus. Hence, saith the apostle, Christ is risen from the 
dead and become the first fruits of them that slept. 1. Cor. 
15-20 

§ 6. The apostle Paul, in proving the resurrection cf Jesus, 
produces the following passage : " I will give you the sure 
mercies of David." Psa. 53 : 3. That the Messiah is here 
intended, is evident from his name David, which is fre- 
quently given to him, see Jer. 30 : 9, Ezek. 34 : 23, 24, Ho* 
sea, 3 : 5, as also from his several offices, " given for a \Ait- 
ness to the people, as a leader and commander," which 
words as well as the former are, by Aben Ezra and Kinchi, 
understood of the Messiah. Now, by the " sure m.ercies 
of David," are to be understood the blessings of the ever- 
lasting covenant, which the xMessiah by his death and resur- 
rection was to procure; but had he only died and not risen 
from the dead, these blessings had not been ratified or made 
sure. Therefore, when God promises his people that he 
will give them the sure mercies of David, or of the Mes- 
siah, he promises that the Messiah shall not only die to 
procure mercies for them, but that he shall rise again from 
the dead to make those mercies sure to them. 

§ 7. Permit me, my dear Benjamin, to mention but one 
passage more from the prophets, which many ha^-e consi- 
dered not only as a prediction of Messiah's resurrection 
from the dead, but also as pointing out the exact period he 
was to remain under the power of death. You Avill pro- 
bably anticipate that I allude to Hosea, 6:2 "After two 
days will he revive us ; in the third day he will raise us up, 
and we shall live in his sight." This passage is applied to 
the resurrection and to the Messiah, by R. Moses Haddar- 
shan, in Gen. 22 : 4. Ber. Rab. and the Targum says, 
"After two davs he will revive us: he will revive us in the 



Let. 2.] RESURRECTION OF THE MESSIAH. 25 

days of consolation which are to come." Now, what else 
can he mean by the days of consolation, but the days of 
Messiah, who is the only consolation of Israel. Luke, 2 : 25. 
Nor are these words applicable in their literal sense to any 
one but to the resurrection of the Messiah, and they have 
been fulfilled in Jesus Christ, as shall be shown hereafter. 

^ 8. Having shown from the Old Testament that the re- 
surrection of the Messiah was both typified and predicted, 
I will now refer to the predictions delivered by Jesus him- 
self concerning his resurrection from the dead: and the de- 
sign of our Lord in delivering these and other predictions 
is stated in these words. Having spoken of the treachery 
of Judas, he adds, " Now I tell you before it come, that 
when it is come to pass, ye may believe that I am." John 
13: 19. 

When Jesus had driven out of the temple the buyers and 
sellers, the Jews asked for a sign, to prove his authority for 
such conduct ; " Jesus answered and said unto them. De- 
stroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up. Then 
said the Jews, forty and six years was this temple in build- 
ing, and wilt thou rear it up in three days ? But he spake 
of the temple of his body. When, therefore, he was risen 
from the dead, his disciples remembered that he had said 
this unto them : and they believed the Scriptures, and the 
word which Jesus had said." John, 12: 18-22. On a simi- 
lar occasion, Jesus answered and said unto them, " an evil 
and adulterous generation seeketh after a sign ; and there 
shall no sign be given to it, but the sign of the Prophet 
Jonas ; for as Jonas was three days and three nights in the 
whale's belly, so shall the Son of Man be three days and 
three nights in the heart of the earth." Math. 12 : 39, 40. And 
on another occasion he said, " Therefore does my Father 
loveme, because I lay down my life, that I might take it again. 
No man taketh it from me, but I lay it down of myself I have 
power to lay it down, and I have power to take it again. 
This cojprnandment have I received of my Father." John, 



26 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Parti. 

10 : 17, 18. In these different passages our Lord predicted 
his own resurrection. And it appears that the Priests and 
Pharisees both knew and understood the meaning of these 
sayings, for as soon as Christ was dead, they went to Pilate, 
saying, " Sir, we remember that that deceiver said, while 
he was yet alive, ' After three days I will rise again.' " 
Math. 27 : 62, 63. 

^ 9. I will name but one prediction more, recorded by the 
Evangelist Luke, chap. 18 : 31-34, " Then he took with 
him the twelve, and said unto them, Behold we go up to 
Jerusalem, and all things that are written by the prophets 
concerning the Son of Man shall be accomplished. For he 
shall be delivered unto the Gentiles, and shall be mocked, 
and spitefully entreated and spitted on ; and they shall 
scourge him and put him to death ; and the third day he 
shall rise again. And they understood none of these things ; 
and this saying was hid from them, neither knew they the 
things which were spoken." Hence, immediately after the re- 
surrection of Christ, the angel said to the women who came 
to embalm the body of Jesus, '* he is not here, but risen : re- 
member how he spake unto you when he was yet in Gali- 
lee, saying, the Son of Man must be delivered into the hands 
of sinful men, and be crucified, and the third day rise again." 
And the Lord Jesus Christ himself, on the very day of his 
resurrection, met the apostles, and after having given them 
visible proofs of being risen from the dead, reminded them 
of these predictions, saying, " these are the words which 
I spake unto you while I was yet with you, that all things 
must be fulfilled which were written in the law of Moses, 
and in the prophets, and in the Psalms, concerning me. 
Then opened he their understandings, that they might 
understand the Scriptures, and said unto them, thus it is 
written, and thus it behoved Christ to suffer, and to rise from 
the dead the third day." 

§ 10. Against these predictions of the Lord Jesus it has 
been obiected. " that the throat of the whale is so narrow 



Let. 2.j RESURRECTION OF THE MESSIAH, 27 

as not to admit the body of a man." Let the objectors 
read the Scriptures in the original, and they will not meet 
with a whale in the book of Jonah ; nothing is said of a 
whale cither in the original or in the translation; and in 
the New Testament, the word Ketas signifies any great 
fish. The next objection is that our Lord was not much 
more than one day in the grave, for he was buried at the 
close of Friday and rose early on the first day of the week. 
You are too well acquamted, my dear Benjamin, with the 
custom of our people in computing time, to lay any stress 
on this objection. You well know that a part of a day is 
considered as much as a day and night or twenty-four 
hours. A male child is to be circumcised when eight days 
old. Now, if a child is born at the last hour of the day, 
nay, an hour before sun-set, that hour is considered the 
first day. Six days and one hour after that the child may be 
circumcised, and is said to be eight days old, though in re- 
ality only six days and two hours. Hence, as Christ was 
buried before sun-set on Friday, and lay in the grave the 
whole of the Sabbath, if he rose but one hour after the 
Sabbath was ended, every Jew would call that three days 
and three nights, though in reality but twenty-six hours. 
In my next letter, I hope to prove the reality of Christ's 
resurrection. " Now may the God of peace, that brought 
again from the dead our Lord Jesus, that great Shepherd 
of the sheep, through the blood of the everlasting cove- 
nant, make you perfect in every good work to do his will, 
working in you that which is well pleasing in his sight, 
through Jesus Christ, to whom be glory for ever and ever. 
Amen. Farewell. 



28 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part J- 



L.£TTER III. 



THE SUBJECT CONTINUED. 



My dear Benjamin, 

Having proved in my last letter, that the resurrection of 
the Messiah was both typified and predicted, I will now 
show their fulfillment in Jesus Christ. As the resurrec- 
tion of Jesus Christ is an event the most important, so 
likewise it is related most minutely and most circumstan- 
tially by the four Evangelists, and is established upon the 
best evidences possible. 

§ 1. I will endeavor to give you a distinct account of 
the appearances of our Lord, from the time of his resur- 
rection from the dead until his ascension into heaven, in 
their regular order. •' In the end of the Sabbath, as it be- 
gan to dawn towards the first day of the week, came Mary 
Magdalene and the other Mary, to see the sepulchre. And 
behold, there was a great earthquake, for the angel of the 
Lord had descended from heaven, and came and rolled back 
the stone from the door, and sat upon it. His countenance 
was like lightning, and his raiment white like snow ; and 
for fear of him the keepers did shake, and became as dead 
men." Probably the earthquake frightened the two women 
that had come to the sepulchre at the close of the Sabbath; 
but the next morning very early they came again, "bring- 
ing the spices which they had prepared, and certain others 
with them." And as they were going along, " they said 
among themselves, who shall roll us away the stone from 
the door of the sepulchre 1 for it was very great. And 
when they looked they saw that the stone was rolled away, 



Let. 3.] RESURRECTION OF THE MESSIAH. 29 

and they entered in, and found not the body of the Lord 
Jesus." " Then one of the women ran and came to Simon 
Peter, and to the other desciple whom Jesus loved, and 
saith unto ihem, they have taken away the Lord out of the 
sepulchre, and we know not where they have laid him. 
Peter therefore went forth, and that other disciple, and 
went to the sepulchre." Whilst this was doing, the women, 
who had remained about the sepulchre, entering in a second 
time, " saw a young man sitting on the right side, clothed 
in a long white garment. And they were affrighted. And 
the angel answered and said unto the women, Fear not 
ye; for I know that ye seek Jesus which was crucified. 
He is not here, for he is risen, as he said ; Come, see the 
place where the Lord lay ;" upon this invitation of the an- 
gel, they went into the sepulchre, and there they saw two 
other angels, who said unto them, " Why seek ye the living 
among the dead ? He is not here, but has risen ; remem- 
ber how he spake unto you when he was yet in Galilee, 
saying, the Son of Man must be delivered into the hands 
of sinful men, and be crucified, and the third day rise again. 
And go quickly and tell his disciples that he is risen from 
the dead ; and behold he goeth before you into Galilee, 
there shall ye see him ; lo, I have told you. And they re- 
membered his words, and returned from the sepulchre, and 
told all these things unto the eleven. And their words 
seemed to them as idle tales, and they believed them not." 
In the meanwhile Peter and John had gone to the sepul- 
chre, and Peter went in first, and saw the linen clothes lie ; 
and the napkin that was about his head not lying with the 
linen clothes, but wrapped together in a place by itself. 
" Then went in that other disciple which came first to the 
sepulchre, and he saw and believed. For as yet they knew 
not the Scriptures, that he must rise again from the dead. 
Then his disciples went away again to their own home; 
But Mary stood without at the sepulchre, weeping. And 
as she wept, she stooped down, and looked into the sepul- 



so JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part 1. 

chre, and seeth two angels in white sitting, the one at the 
head, and the other at the feet, where the body of Jesus had 
lain. And they say unto her, Woman, why weepest thou? 
she saith unto them, Because they have taken away my 
Lord, and I know not where they have laid him. And 
when she had thus said, she turned herself back, and saw 
Jesus standing, and knew not that it was Jesus. (Christ's 
iirst appearance.) Jesus saith unto her. Woman, why weep- 
est thou? whom seekest thou ? She, supposing him to be 
the gardner, saith unto him, Sir, if thou hast borne him 
hence, tell me where thou hast laid him, and I will take 
him away. Jesus saith unto her, Mary ; she turneth her- 
self and saith unto him, Rabboni, which is to say, Mas- 
ter. Jesus said unto her, go to my brethren and say 
unto them, I ascend unto my Father and your Father, and 
to my God and your God." Now, as the company or wo- 
men who had carried the news of having seen an angel 
who had told them that Jesus had risen from the dead, 
were returning, " Jesus met them, saying. All hail. And 
they came and held him by the feet, and worshiped him. 
Then said Jesus unto them, be not afraid ; go tell my breth- 
ren that they go into Galilee, and there shall they see me." 
(Christ's second appearance.) 

^ 2. The woman, thus ordered by Jesus himself to carry 
the tidings of his resurrection into the city, went no further 
in quest of Peter, but being now charged with a more im- 
portant message, turned back immediately to publish the 
glad tidings of having seen the Lord. 

" Now, when they were going, behold some of the watch 
came into the city, and shewed unto the chief priests all 
things that were done; and when they had assembled with 
the Elders, and taken counsel, they gave large sums (i. e. 
great bribes) unto the soldiers, saying, say ye, his disci- 
ples came by night and stole him away while ye slept. 
And if this come to the governor's ears, we will persuade 
him, and secure you j so they took the money and did as 



Let. 3.] RESURRECTION OF THE MESSIAH. 31 

they were taught. And this saying is commonly reported 
amongst the Jews until this day." 

During this time, as is supposed, the Lord appeared to 
Peter, according to 1 Cor. 15: 5; which is his third ap- 
pearance. 

After this Jesus met the two disciples in the way to Em- 
maus. This is his fourth appearance on the day of his re- 
surrection. This interesting and important meeting and 
conversation which took place, is narrated hy thie Evan- 
gelist Luke, c. 24 : 13-29. On the evening of the same 
day, Jesus appeared to the apostles and others, Thomas 
being absent. This is the fifth appearance, and is thus re- 
lated. " The same day at evening, being the first day of 
the week, when the doors were shut where the disciples 
were assembled for fear of the Jews, came Jesus, and stood 
in the midst, and saith unto them. Peace be unto you. But 
they were terrified and aflrighted, and supposed that they 
had seen a spirit. And he said unto them. Why are ye 
troubled, and why do thoughts arise in your hearts ? Be- 
hold my hands and my feet, that it is I myself; handle me, 
and see, for a spirit has not flesh and bones, as ye see me 
have. And when he had thus spoken, he showed them 
his hands and his feet, and his side. And while they yet 
believed not for joy, and wondered, he said unto them, Have 
ye here any meat ? And they gave him a piece of broiled 
fish, and of an honey comb. And he took it and did eat 
before them. But Thomas, one of the twelve, called Didi- 
mus, i. e. the twin, was not with ihem when Jesus came, 
The other disciples therefore said unto him. We have seen 
the Lord. But he said unto them. Except I shall see in his 
hands the print of the nails, and put my finger into the 
print of the nails, and thrust my hand into his side, I will 
not believe." 

§ 3. The sixth appearance of our Lord took place when 
all the apostles were together, and Thomas with them. 
A.nd Jesus said to Thomas, " Reach hither thy finger, and 



32 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part 1 

behold my hands ; and reach hither thy hand, and thrust 't 
into my side ; and be not faithless, but believing. And 
Thomas answered and said, My Lord and my God. Jesus 
said unto him, Thomas, because thou hast seen me thou 
hast believed ; blessed are they that have not seen, and yet 
have believed." 

Next, our Lord appeared to his disciples, the seventh 
time, at the sea of Tiberias ; John, 21 : 1-25 ; and afterwards 
the eighth time to five hundred of the brethren in Galilee. 
Math. 28: 16, 17. The ninth appearance was to James, 
as we are informed by the apostle Paul, 1 Cor. 15: 6; and 
lastly he appeared to the apostles, and in their presence 
ascended into heaven. 

§ 4. Thus, my dear Benjamin, I have endeavoured to 
give you, in as brief a manner as possible, an account of 
the ten different appearances of our Lord and Savior in 
the order in which they seem to have taken place; but it 
is more than probable that he did appear more frequently, 
for we are expressly told by the Evangelist Luke, " that ho 
showed himself alive after his passion by many infallible 
proofs, being seen forty days, and speaking of the things 
pertaining to the kingdom of God." Acts, 1 : 3. And the 
Evangelist John says : " many other signs did Jesus truly 
m the presence of his disciples, which are not written in 
this book ; but these are written, that ye might believe that 
Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God ; and believing, ye 
might have life through his name." John 20 ; 30, 31. We 
shall now proceed to examine the subject. 

§ 5. That Jesus Christ died on the cross, that he was buried 
in the tomb of Joseph of Arimathea ; that his tomb was 
sealed with the seal of the High Priest ; that it was guard- 
ed by a band of Roman soldiers ; and that the body of Je- 
sus was not found in the tomb early on the first day of the 
week, is believed by our people as well as by Christians. 
The only question of dispute is what became of the body 
of Jesus ? It must either have been taken away, or it must 



Let.3.j RESURRECTION OF THE MESSIAH. 33 

have risen from the dead. If it was taken away, it must 
have been done either bj^ the enemies of Jesus or by his 
friends. The enemies surely would not do it ; for this is 
the very thing they were anxious to prevent, and therefore 
procured a guard to watch the tomb, lest his disciples should 
come and take away the body, and say he had risen. And 
as the enemies would not do it, so the friends could not, 
even if they had been inclined to do so. For consider, 
dear Benjamin, their cowardly spirit. They had frequent 
demonstrations of the almighty power of their Master, who 
but spake to the raging waves, and there was a great calm ; 
and gave but the word of command, and legions of devils 
trembled and obeyed. What then had they to fear? Yet when 
they saw but a few men approaching the Garden of Geth- 
semane, all fled and forsook Christ except Peter; and he, the 
most zealous, denied his Lord and Master thrice, and swore 
and cursed that he knew not the man. Now, is it credible that 
men of such timorous dispositions, and so few in number, 
would attempt to approach the tomb and take away the dead 
body, when they knew that a band of soldiers, not less 
than fifty in number, were placed there for the purpose ol 
preventing the body from being taken away ? But sup- 
posing the temper and disposition of the disciples to have 
been the reverse of what they were, bold, enterprizing, 
cunning impostors, and capable of making so hazardous an 
attempt ; can it also be supposed that a company of Roman 
soldiers, trained up under the strictest discipline, and placed 
there but a few hours before night, should be all asleep at 
the same time, and slL>:p so soundly and so long as not to 
be awakened, either by the rolling away of the stone, which 
must have been very large to cover the whole tomb, or by 
the carrying off the body. Besides, what evidence have we 
that the disciples took away the body ? None hath ever 
been offered, except that of a part of the soldiers ; who said, 
that whilst they were asleep the disciples came and stole 
away the body. How ridiculous the storv ! If thev were 
Vol. II 2 ' " 



34 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN, [Part 1. 

asleep, how could they know what became of the body, 
whether it arose or was taken away ? And if taken away, 
how did they know that the disciples did it? We should 
think it almost incredible that any one in his right senses 
would believe such an ill-contrived, self-refuting story. 
Would any people or jury receive the testimony of such a 
set of men, who deposed, that one night, while they were 
fast asleep, they saw the accused break open his neighbor's 
stable and steal his horse ? And yet, my dear Benjamin, 
you well know that this most idle, inconsistent, and im- 
probable story, which rests wholly and solely on the testi- 
mony of the soldiers, is still believed by our people, whilst 
they deny the resurrection of Christ, which is established 
by evidence superior to any other fact that has been proved 
to the satisfaction of all. Let us then carefully and most 
scrupulously examine the following testimony in favor of 
the resurrection of Christ. 

^ 6. First, w^e have the testimony of aogels. 

The apparition of angels was very common under the 
Old Testament, whereby God used to attest and verify to 
man the truth and reality of things. From the preceding 
statement, it appears that at first one angel from heaven 
came and removed the stone from the mouth of the sepul- 
chre, and sat upon it, and spoke to the women as they were 
entering into the sepulchre, and bade them be of good cheer, 
for Christ was risen, and shewed them the place where the 
Lord lay, void of Christ's bod\^ After the women went 
out, two other angels met them, and confirmed what the 
first had said. " They appeared," said the Evangelist, "in 
shining white garments f but these could not be more clear 
than their testimony is true. " He is not here, for he is risen." 

§ 7. Secondly, We notice the testimony of the soldiers. 

Because the testimony of an adversary is in most cases 
thought of greater validity, we have not only friends but 
even enemies of Christ to confirm the truth of his resur- 
rection. For " behold some of the watch came into th».^ 



Let. 3.] RESURRECTION OF THE MESSIAH. 35 

cit}' and showed unto the chief priests all the things that 
were done," i. e. gave them an account of the earthquake, 
and of the vision of the angel that rolled away the stone, 
and of the empty sepulchre. 

Nor is it unlikely that the soldiers told many of the things 
that had happened before they were bribed by the high 
priest. Thus, whilst the priests proposed to prevent our 
Lord's resurrection from being palmed upon the world, re- 
solving no doubt to show his body publicly after the third 
day as an impostor, they put the truth of Christ's resur- 
rection beyond all question, by furnishing a number of un- 
exceptionable witnesses to it, whose testimony they them- 
selves could not refuse. 

§ 8. Thirdly, The testimony of the pious women deserves 
our next consideration. 

These having gone to the sepulchre with the spices they 
had prepared, found the stone rolled away, and saw angels, 
who declared the good news that Jesus had risen from the 
dead, and commissioned them to go and tell the apostles of 
it, and to direct them to go to Galilee, where Jesus had ap- 
pointed to meet them. Accordingly, they hastened to obey 
the heavenly command, and behold Jesus himself met them, 
bid them " All hail," and confirmed the commission they 
had received. Thus they were well qualified to testify of 
the resurrection of Christ upon sensible and sure evidence, 
having heard it with their own ears from the lips of holy 
angels ; and seen the Lord Jesus himself with their own 
eyes. Here we may see, my dear Benjamin, the truth of 
God's word, " them that honor me I will honor, and they 
that dispise me shall be lightly esteemed." 1 Saml. 2 : 30, 
These pious women first saw the Lord after his resurrec- 
tion, and were made as it were apostles to the apostles. 
This was an honour put upon them, and a recompense for 
their constant aflfectionate adherence to him at the cross 
and in the grave, and a rebuke to the disciples who forsook 
him Still God chooseth the weak things of the world 



36 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [P^^t 1. 

to confound the mighty; and puts the treasure not only 
into earthen vessels, but here into the weaker vessels. 
In my next letter we sha.l examine the testimony of the 
apostles. Farewell. 



Letter IV. 



CONTINUATION OF THE SUBJECT* 

My dear Benjamin, 

§ 1. Fourthly. — I will now call your attention to the testi- 
monies of the apostles. 

That they preached the resurrection of Christ, is not 
denied by any. It was one great part of their office to 
testify of the resurrection of Christ. On this account 
Peter urged the necessity of electing another apostle in the 
place of Judas, Acts, 1 : 21, 22, and he made it a prominent 
part of his sermon to Cornelius and his household, saying 
" We are witnesses of all things which he said both in the 
land of the Jews and in Jerusalem, v/hom they slew, and 
hanged on a tree : Him God raised up the third day and 
showed him openly, not to all the people, but to witnesses 
chosen before of God, even to us who did eat and drink 
with him after he rose from the dead." Acts, 10; 39-41. 
See also Acts, 1 : 22. 3:15. 4:2,33. 17:30,32. 13:31. 
15 : 18. 

Now, the apostles must either have believed the resurrec- 
tion of Christ to be a fact, or they must have conspired to 
act the part of deceivers, to impose upon the world by as- 
serting to be fact what they knew to be false. That the 
latter could not be the case, is evident, 

§ 2. From their character. They were men of God, of 
unspotted character, unblemished honesty and integrity 



Let. 4] nESlTRRECTION OF THE MESSIAH 37 

Men of that sort would neither tell a lie, nor sanction it. 

When Ananias and Sapphira attempted to impose upon 
the apostles by telling a lie, Peter told them that their 
punishment was death, which immediately took place. In 
all their writings, the apostles enforced the duty of speaking 
truth upon all occasions, and enforced the duty by the con- 
siderations of a judgment day. In Eph. 4 ; 25, the apostle 
commands that, "putting away lying, they speak every 
man truth with his neighbor." And again in Col. 3 : 9, 
" Lie not one to another." Nay, it is very evident that they 
considered it sinful for any man to lie^ even out of zeal for 
the glory of God. For says the apostle, *' If the truth of 
God has more abounded through my lie unto his glory, 
why yet am I also judged as a sinner? And not rather, (as 
we be slanderously reported, and as some affirm that we 
say,) Let us do evil that good may come ? whose dam.nation 
is just." Rom. 3 : 7, 8. 

Now, that any men, who firmly believed that God would 
punish them for speaking an untruth, though for the ad- 
vancement of a good cause, should, at the hazard of their 
lives, and without a prospect of gain or advantage, make 
assertions, which at the same time they knew to be false ; 
should, for instance, affirm that they saw and conversed 
with Jesus Christ after his resurrection, knowing or believ- 
ing that he was not risen from the dead, and expect to be 
judged hereafter by that very same Jesus, is too impossible 
to gain credit. 

The motives of their actions show the excellency of their 
character. The motives by which wicked men are actuated 
they detested. " Gold and silver they had none;" the ho- 
nours and pleasures of the world they renounced; poverty, 
reproach, sufferings and martyrdom they expected and met 
with , and all this, because they preached the resurrection 
of Jesus. Nothing else but an attachment to their Lord and 
Master, through evil as well as good report, could be their 
motive. BcsicVs, if Jesus had not risen from the dead, in- 



88 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Pari 1. 

Stead of feeling such an attachnfient to him, as to constrain 
them to do and suffer all things in honor of him, we should 
have expected that his disciples would have publicly de- 
clared him to have been an impostor and deceiver, because 
he had so often declared, that after three days he would 
rise again. 

^ 3. That they were no impostors, appears from their 
mode and manner of procedure. Had they published the 
resurrection of Christ first in distant countries, after the 
lapse of so many years, it might have been supposed that 
distance of place and time, rendering it exceedingly difficult 
for their hearers to obtain exact information, had facilitated 
the establishment of error, and concealed deception. But 
the apostles, agreeably to instruction received from their 
Lord and Master, " to commence at Jerusalem," preached 
.first the resurrection on the day of Pentecost, in that city, 
in the public synagogues, in the very place where the Sa- 
vior had been condemned and executed, had died, and been 
buried, and his tomb guarded by a band of soldiers, who de- 
clared that the body was not found in the grave on the first 
day of the week. Now, my dear Benjamin, would impos- 
tors have acted thus ? Suppose that a set of men had deter- 
mined to deceive and impose upon the public a report that 
a certain well-known person who had been executed in the 
city of New- York, and publicly buried, had a few days 
afterwards risen again from the grave, and had appeared 
repeatedly to different public characters, to whom he was 
w^ell known, and with whom he had conversed, ate, and 
drank, would they commence to circulate this report wilinn 
a few days after the fact is said to have taken place, in the 
city of New- York, in the most public places, where it was 
within the power of all to inquire of the persons to whom 
he is said to have appeared, and to examine, and le-examine, 
all the circumstances of the case; or would they not rather 
go to a remote part of the country, where it was not in the 
power of the people to contradict the report, and where, 



Let. 4 3 RESURRECTION OF THE MESSIAH. 39 

however strange and incredible it might appear to some, 
yet it would find credit with many, for want of evidence to 
the contrary. Besides, 

^ 4. The apostles preached the resurrection of Christ 
before such persons as were perfectly qualified to detect the 
imposture, if such had been the case. Their testimony was 
examined by Jews and heathens, by philosophers and rab- 
bins, and by an infinite number of people who went annu- 
ally to Jerusalem. " For, my brethren," saith the great Mr. 
Saurine, "Providence so ordered these circumstances that 
the testimony of the apostles might not be suspected. Pro- 
vidence continued Jerusalem forty years after the resurrec- 
tion of our Lord, that all the Jews in the world might exa- 
mine the evidence concerning it, and obtain authentic proof 
of the truth of Christianity. I repeat it again, then, the 
apostles maintained the resurrection of Jesus Christ before 
Jews, before Pagans, before philosophers, before rabbins, 
before courtiers, before lawyers, before people expert in 
examining and cross-examining witnesses, in order to lead 
them into self-contradiction. Had the apostles borne testi- 
mony in consequence of a preconcerted plot between them- 
selves, is it not morally certain, that as they were examined 
before such different and capable men, some one would have 
discovered the pretended fraud ?" 

^ 5. Another proof that the apostles believed the resur- 
rection of Christ as a fact, arises from the harmony of their 
testimony. They all unanimously deposed that Jesus Christ 
rose from the dead. It is very extraordinary, that a gang 
of five hundred impostors, (I speak the language of infi- 
dels,) a company in which there must needs be people of 
different capacities and tempers, the witty and the dull, the 
timid and the bold ; it is very strange that such a numerous 
body as this should maintain an unity of evidence. This, 
however, is the case of our witnesses. It is indeed acknow- 
ledged that there are appearances of inconsistency in the 
history of the resurrection of Christ, given by the four 



40 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part 1. 

Evangelists ; but these have been frequently reconciled by 
the critics, and especially in that excellent work of West on 
the resurrection of Christ, and in M'Knight's Harmony of 
the Gospels Nay, from the seeming inconsistency, it may 
be inferred, to the advantage of the Evangelists, that they 
did not write in concert ; which doubtless they would and 
must have done had they endeavored to impose upon the 
world "a cunningly devised fable." But truth, like honesty, 
oftentimes neglects appearances. Hypocrisy and imposture 
are always guarded. 

^ 6. The perseverance of the disciples in their testimony, 
to the end, is a very striking proof that they believed the 
resurrection of Jesus to be a fact. In general, the more 
wicked a traitor is, the more he trembles, alters, and con- 
fesses at the approach of death. Having betrayed, for his 
own interest, the law of his country, the interests of society, 
the confidence of his prince, and the credit of religion, he 
betrays the companion of his imposture, the accomplices of 
his crimes. Here, on the contrary, the apostles persist in 
their testimony till death, and sign the truths they have 
published with the last drop of their blood. What Christian 
ever contradicted himself? What Christian ever impeached 
his accomplices ? What Christian ever discovered this pre- 
tended imposture ? 

Hence, it is evident, my dear Benjamin, that the apostles 
believed the truth and reality of the resurrection of Christ ; 
and hence the apostle Peter, who was one of the witnesses, 
appeals to the church in behalf of himself and the rest of his 
brethren, where he says, " We have not followed cunningly 
devised fables, when we made known unto you the power 
and coming of our Lord Jesus Christ, but were eye witnesses 
of his majesty." 2 Pet. 2: 16. 

^7. I am perfectly aware, my dear Benjamin, that it may 
be said, " Granted the apostles believed what they testified, 
yet they may have been mistaken." Doubtless many may 
have died as martyrs to their peculiar opinions and senti* 



Let. 4] RESURRECTION OF THE MESSIAH. 41 

merits, and yet they were mistaken. But this could not have 
been the case with regard to the subject in hand. The 
apostles could not be mistaken. This will evidently appear, 
if we consider, that, 

It was a matter of fact, and not of mere opinion. Their 
judgment was guided and informed by the exercise of their 
senses. They had the same "infallible proofs" of Christ's 
being alive after his sufferings and death, as they had of 
his being alive before it. They saw him, saw the particular 
marks of identity in his person and countenance, in his 
hands, feet, and side, which had been pierced at the cross. 
And Thomas, who had refused to believe it, except he put 
his finger into the print of the nails, and thrust his hand 
into his side, had that farther satisfaction, unreasonable as 
it was, granted him, and the effect was, that he exclaimed, 
*' My Lord and my God !" Farther, they saw him also eat; 
they heard him speak, and were by him commanded to 
handle him, and see that he was flesh and bones. The evi- 
dence was so clear and convincing, that the apostles were 
emboldened to preach this doctrine in opposition to all con- 
tradictions and hardships. " We cannot but speak the things 
which we have seen and heard.'''' St. Luke informs us, that 
what he wrote he "had a perfect understanding of from the 
very first." And the apostle John says, '' That which was 
from the beginning, which we have heard, which we have 
seen with our eyes, which we have looked upon, and our 
hands have handled, of the word of life; that which we have 
seen and heard, declare we unto you." That profound rea- 
soner, Mr. Saurine, speaking of the facts, says, "Had they 
been metaphysical reasons, depending on a chain of prin- 
ciples and consequences ; had they been periods of chrono- 
logy, depending on long and difficult calculations; had they 
been distant events, which could only have been known by 
the relation of others, their reasonings might have been 
suspected ; but they are facts which are in question ; facts 
which the witnesses declared they had seen with their own 



42 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part 1 

eyes, at divers places, and at several times. Had they seen 
Jesus Christ ? Had they touched him ? Had they sat at the 
table and eaten with him ? All these are questions of facts ; 
it is impossible they could be deceived in them." 

§ 8. It was not an individual, or a few, who said that they 
saw Jesus risen from the dead. The imagination of one 
might have been so wrought upon, by a desire of seeing 
Jesus again, that he might have fancied he had actually 
seen him ; but when he was seen by a number of pious 
women, by Peter, by the disciples in the way to Emmaus, by 
the ten apostles, and again afterwards when Thomas was 
with them, and, lastly, by more than five hundred brethren, 
what possible room is there left for doubt or suspicion ? 
And as they were many in number, so also they saw him 
often, as is evident from the statement in the first paragraphs 
of the preceding letter. 

^ 9. The incredulity of the apostles is another proof that 
they were not deceived. Had they been persons forward 
and credulous, then we might have cause to suspect what 
they said, their testimony might have been looked upon as 
the product of a fond precipitancy, and not of sober reason 
and conviction. But they were far otherwise. Notwith- 
standing the repeated promises of our Lord, that he would 
rise again from the dead, yet when they were told that he 
had actually risen, *' their words seemed to them as idle 
tales," and they believed them not ; they looked upon the 
story which the women had told, as a mere scheme, or as 
the delusion of a disordered imagination. The two disciples, 
in the way to Emmaus, acknowledged that the news brought 
by the women, of the resurrection of Christ, was rather a 
matter of astonishment and perplexity to them, than welcome 
news. Hence the Lord Jesus reproved their unbelief, say- 
ing, '* O fools, and slow of heart to believe all that the pro- 
phets have spoken!" and having opened their eyes, so that 
they knew him, they immediately went up to Jerusalem to 
the apostles, and told them that the Lord had risen indee^p 



Let. 4.] RESURRECTION OF THE MESSIAH. 43 

and had appeared to them, but "they believed them not;" 
" whilst they were yet speaking, Jesus himself appeared in 
the midst of them, and said, Peace be unto you ; but they 
were terrified and affrighted, and supposed that they had. 
seen a spirit." To dispel their fears, and r.emove their 
doubts, Jesus came forward and spake to them, and showed 
them his hands and feet, desiring them to handle him, and 
be convinced, by the united report of their senses, that it 
was he. Thus, you perceive, my dear Benjamin, that the 
apostles would not believe that Jesus had risen from the 
dead, even after they had received the testimony of the pious 
women, and of Peter, and of the two disciples that came from 
Emmaus, and even after they themselves had seen Jesus 
standing in the midst of them, until they had actually looked 
attentively to his hands and feet; nay, although they began 
to rejoice and be glad, yet their minds were still wavering 
and full of doubts. Jesus, therefore, knowing their thoughts, 
called for meat, and did eat with them, to prove more fully 
the certain truth of his resurrection from the dead, and the 
reality of his presence with them on this occasion. 

^10. Yet after all these ocular and sensible demonstra- 
tions of the reality of the resurrection of Christ, something 
more was necessary to remove from their minds the deep 
rooted prejudices against the sufferings and death of the 
Messiah, and their worldly expectation of an earthly king- 
dom; therefore the Lord Jesus "breathed" on them, and 
said "receive ye the Holy Ghost." The effect of this spiri- 
tual illumination was, that by perceiving the agreeableness 
of the things which had befallen him with the ancient pro- 
phecies respecting Messiah, their minds were quieted, and 
perfectly satisfied, respecting the necessity of his sufferings, 
as well as the reality of his resurrection. Thus the credu- 
lity of the apostles is overruled for the confirmation of our 
faith ; that they were not deceived in preaching the resur- 
rection of Christ. 

§ 1 1. In addition to what has been said, I cannot but no* 



44 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. Part 1. 

tice the conduct of St. Thomas, overruled by the condescen- 
sion of our Lord, as another proof of the validity of his re- 
surrection ; it is thus recorded and needs no comment. — 
"But Thomas, one of the twelve, called Didymus, was not 
with them when Jesus came; the other disciples therefore 
said unto him, We have seen the Lord ; but he said unto them, 
Except I shall see in his hands the print of the nails, and 
put my finger in the print of the nails, and thrust my hand 
into his side, I will not believe. Then after eight days, 
again his disciples were within, and Thomas with them : 
Then came Jesus, the doors being shut, and stood in the 
midst and said, Peace be unto you. Then said he unto 
Thomas, reach hither thy finger and behold my hands, and 
reach hither thy hand and thrust it into my side, and be not 
faithless, but believing. And Thomas answered and said 
unto him, My Lord and My God ; Jesus said unto him, 
Thomas, because thou hast seen me thou hast believed, 
blessed are they which have not seen, and yet have believed." 
^ 12. Now, my dear Benjamin, we have seen and exam- 
ined the testimonies of holy angels, of pious Vvomen, of in- 
veterate enemies, and of disinterested and honest men, and 
I trust you will be convinced that the " Lord is risen in- 
deed." But such is the importance of the subject, (as will 
be shown,) that although I have already detained you so 
long, I must beg your attention for a few moments longer to 
the testimony of God himself; for if we receive the witness 
of men, surely the witness of God is greater. For God, 
who is truth himself, will never set the seal of his omnipo- 
tence to a lie. Our Lord had promised to his disciples the 
Holy Spirit, who should be to them a comforter, and with re- 
spect to himself, an advocate to plead his cause and defend his 
innocence; this promise was partially fulfilled, on the very 
day of his resurrection, (as has been shown in the prece- 
ding ^,) *' be breathed on his disciples, and said, receive ye 
the Holy Ghost." And after his ascension on the day of 
Pentecost, he bestowed the Holy Ghost more plentifullv : 



Let. 4l RESURRECTION JF THE MESSIAH. 45 

enabling the apostles to speak to the multitude in different 
languages, which they had never known before. And when 
the people were not able to account for these strange things, 
the apostle Peter pointed out to them the true cause, say- 
ing, " This Jesus has God raised up, whereof we all are wit- 
nesses ; therefore, being at the right hand of God exalted, 
and having received of the Father the promise of the Holy 
Ghost, he has shed forth this, which ye now see and hear. 
Therefore, let all the house of Israel know assuredly, that 
God hath made that same Jesus, whom ye have crucified, 
both Lord and Christ. And we are his witnesses of these 
things ; and so also is the Holy Ghost, whom God hath 
given to them that obey him." Thus the Holy Ghost con- 
firmed the doctrine of the resurrection of Christ, preached 
by the apostles, by furnishing them with miraculous pow- 
er, both to be exercised by them and to be communicated to 
others. 

^13. The great and pious Mr. Saurine, speaking of this 
part of the subject, says, " Imagine these venerable men, ad- 
dressing their adversaries on the day of the Christian Penti- 
cost, in this language : You refuse to believe us on our depo- 
sitions ; five hundred of us you think are enthusiasts, all in- 
fected with the same malady, who have carried our absur- 
dities so far as to imagine we have seen a man whom we 
have not seen ; eaten w^ith a man with whom we have not 
eaten ; conversed with a man with whom we have not con- 
versed ; or perhaps you think us impostors, or take us for 
madmen, who intend to suffer ourselves to be imprisoned 
and tortured, and crucified, for the sake of enjoying the 
pleasure of deceiving mankind, by prevailing upon them 
to believe a fanciful resurrection : you think we are 
so stupid as to act a part so extravagant ; but bring your 
sick; present your demoniacs; fetch hither your dead; 
confront us with Medes. Partheans, Elamites; let' Cappa- 
docia, Pontius, and Egypt, Phrygia, and Pamphylia, let all 
the nations and people send us some of their inhabitants; 



40 JOSLPII AND EEXJAMIN. [Pari 1. 

we will restore hearing to the deaf and sight to the blind ; 
we will make the lame walk ; we will cast out devils, and 
raise the dead. We, we little publican?, we illiterate men, 
we tent makers, we fishemen, we will discourse with all the 
people of the world in their own languages. We will ex- 
plain prophecies, illuminate the most obstruse predictions, 
develop the most sublime mysteries, teach you notions of 
God, precepts for the conduct of life, plans of morality and 
religion more extensive, more sublime, and more advanta- 
geous, than those of your priests and philosophers; yea, than 
Moses himself AVe will do more still. We will commu- 
nicate these gifts to you, the word of wisdom, the word of 
knowledge, faith, gifts of healing, the works of miracles, 
prophecy, discernment of spirits, divers kinds of tongues. 
1 Cor. 12 : 8. All these shall be communicated to you by 
our ministry. All these things the apostles professed, all 
these proofs they gave of the resurrection of Christ. " This 
Jesus has God raised up ; and he hath shed forth this, 
which ye now see and hear." " Collect all these proofs 
together." continues that profound reasoner, " consider them 
in one point of view, and see how many extravagant sup- 
positions must be advanced, if the resurrection of our Sa- 
viour be denied. It must be supposed that the guards, who 
had been particularly cautioned by their officers, sat down 
to sleep, and that however, they deserve credit when they 
said the body of Jesus Christ was stolen; it must be sup- 
posed that men who had been imposed on in the most odi- 
ous and cruel manner in the world, hazarded their dearest 
enjoyments for the glory of an impostor. It must be sup- 
posed that ignorant and illiterate men, who had neither re- 
putation, fortune, or eloquence, possessed the art of fascin- 
ating the eyes of all the church. It must be supposed, ei- 
ther that five hundred persons were all deprived of their 
senses at one time ; or that they were deceived in the 
plainest matter of fact; or that this multitude of false wit- 
nesses had found out the secret of not contradicting them- 



Let. 4.] RESURRECTION OF THE MESSIAH. 47 

selves or one another, and being always uniform in iheir 
testimony. It must be supposed that the most expert courts 
of judicature could not find out a shadow of contradiction in 
palpable imposture. It must be supposed that the apos- 
tles, sensible men in other cases, chose precisely those 
places which were the most unfavorable to their views. It 
must be supposed that millions madly suffered imprison- 
ment, tortures, and crucifixion, to spread an illusion. It 
must be supposed that ten thousand miracles were wrought 
in favor of a falsehood, or all these facts must be denied ; and 
then it must be supposed, that the apostles were idiots, that 
the enemies of Christianity were idiots, and that all the 
primitive Christians were idiots. The arguments that 
persuade us of the truth of the resurrection of Jesus Christ, 
are so clear and so conclusive that if any difficulty remains, 
it arises from the brightness of the evidence itself Yes, I 
declare, if any thing has shaken my confidence in it, it has 
arisen from this consideration. I could not conceive how 
a truth attested by so many irreproachable witnesses, and 
confirmed by so many notorious miracles, should not make 
more proselytes ; how it could possibly be, that all the 
Jews, and all the heathens, did not yield to this evidence. 
But this difficulty ought not to weaken our faith ; in the 
folly of mankind its solution lies. Men are capable of any 
thing to gratify their passions, and to defend their prejudi- 
ces ; the unbelief of the Jews and the heathen is not more 
wonderful than a hundred other phenomena, which, were 
we not to behold them every day, would equally alarm us. 
The ancient unbelief is not more wonderful than yours, 
Protestants. You profess to believe there is a judgment 
and a hell, and to know that misers, adulterers, and drunk- 
ards, must suffer everlasting punishment there ; and ai 
though you cannot be ignorant of your being in this fatal 
list, yet you are as careless about futurity as if you had 
read your names in the book of life, and had not reason to 
doubt of your salvation." 



48 JOSLrii AXD CLNJAMIN. [Part 1. 

^ 1 -1. From what has been stated on ihis subject, I trust, my 
dear Benjamin, it is abundantly evident that we have no rea- 
son to doubt the truth of the resurrection of Christ. There 
is no history, there is no matter of fact which we yet believe 
firmly, that is established upon evidence half as good. Who- 
ever, therefore, disbelieves it, does it not for want of evi- 
dence and sufficient motives of belief, but from a faulty 
principle and culpable neglect ; and such person will find 
the truth of those words addressed to those who wanted to 
see a sign from heaven : " An evil and adulterous genera- 
tion seeketh after a sign, and there shall no sign be given 
to it but the sign of the prophet Jonas ; for as Jonas was 
three days and three nights in the whale's belly, so shall 
the Son of Man be three days and three nights in the heart 
of the earth. The men of Nineveh shall rise in judgment 
with this generation, and shall condemn it, because they 
repented at the preaching of Jonas : and behold, a greater 
than Jonas is here." The remainder of this important 
subject I shall consider in my next letter. And may I 
myself, and my dear Benjamin, not only believe, but ex- 
perimentally "know the power of the resurrection of 
Christ." Amen. 

Farewell. 



Christ the Lord is risen to day ! 
Sons of men and angels say : 
Raise your joys and triumphs high 1 
Sing, ye heav'ns— and earth, reply. 

Love's redeeming work is done — 
Fought the fight, the battle won : 
Lo ! the sun's eclipse is o'er ; 
Lo 1 he sets in blood no more. 



Ler. 5.] importance of Christ's resurrection. 49 

L,ETTER V. 

importance of Christ's resurrection. 



Dear Brother, 

Having shown that the resurrection of the Messiah was 
both typified and predicted, and that Jesus Christ did actu- 
ally rise from the dead ; I will now answer but one ques- 
tion or objection relative to this subject, and then show its 
importance and happy effects. 

\ 1. It is asked, " why did not Christ appear to his ene- 
mies as well as to his friends ?" This might well be con- 
sidered a question of presumption and blasphemy. " O 
man, who art thou that repliest against God ?" But is it not 
a common thing for men to find fault with God's work of 
creation and providence ? and why should it be thought 
strange to hear them find fault with God's dispensations 
of grace ? It is reported by creditable historians, that Al- 
phonsus, one of the kings of Castile, greatly blamed the 
dispositions of the frame of nature, and blasphemously said 
he could have advised the Creator better in adjusting the 
frame of nature, had he been present at the creation of the 
world. I will now give you the question in their own 
words. Celsus, an Epicurean philosopher, w^ho wrote 
against the Christian religion when in its infancy, says, 
" If Christ would have in reality his divine power to ap- 
pear, he ought to have shown himself to his enemies, to his 
judge, and absolutely to all the people ; had he done so, 
infidelity would have been eradicated, and every one would 
have believed his own eyes." Orig. Cont. Cel. L. 2, ^ 63, 
p. 434. The same objection has been urged by modern 
philosophers, who have asked, " Why should the credit of 
the fact depend on the testimony of the ax^o sties alone ; that 



50 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part 1, 

if they had been enemies, and unconverted by me miracu- 
lous resurrection of Christ, this would have been much 
better; and he ought to have appeared especially to the 
magistrates and the Jews : that they did not own him as the 
Messiah, was owing to his not appearing to them after his 
resurrection." Resur. of Jesus Consid. p. 73. 

This objection, my dear Benjamin, has been thought by 
the enemies of the cross unanswerable. Let us examine it- 
Our modern infidels say, that " if the apostles had been 
enemies, and converted by the miraculous resurrection of 
Christ, this would have been much better." I wonder 
whether these objectors have ever read the history of Saul 
of Tarsus ; (for no doubt many have these objections against 
the Bible at the tip of the tongue, who have never 
read the precious book itself; but have gathered their ob- 
jections from the writings of a Paine, Hume, or Voltaire ;) 
was not this great champion of the Christian religion an 
open enemy of Christ and his followers ? did he not verily 
think he was doing God service by persecuting the saints? 
and was he not converted by seeing Christ after his resur- 
rection ? And did not he most zealously preach and defend 
ihis fact before Jews and Gentiles, and before the priests and 
sanhedrim, &c. ? Again, upon what authority do these men, 
who are so cautious to believe nothing but upon unexcep- 
tionable evidence, assert " that the Jews did not own him as 
Messiah, because he did not appear to them after his resur- 
rection ? Did the Jews in Christ's time make such an ob- 
jection ? Did they assign this as the reason for not believ- 
ing the Gospel, when preached by the apostles? Or do 
our people, at this day, reject Christ because he appeared 
only to his friends? No such thing; you know better, my 
dear Benjamin ; the same cause which led them to cry, 
crucify him, crucify him, led them to reject him after his 
resurrection, and keeps our people still in unbelief. What 
this cause is, has been stated in former letters, viz. that he 
did not answer their worldly and carnal expectations, by 



Let. 5.] IMPORTANCE OF CHRISt's RESURRECTION. 51 

delivering them from the galling yoke of the Romans, and 
raising them in authority over all nations, and leading them 
on to the accumulation of riches, the enjoyment of plea- 
sure, and so forth. Further, that Epicurean Celsus would 
not have been satisfied if Christ had not appeared also 
literally " to all the people." Now, does he mean to all the 
people in Jerusalem? or in Judea ? or in all the world ? 
But suppose he means the former only, all the people 
in Jerusalem : how was this to be effected ? When and 
where were they to be collected ; by what authority, and 
by what means was the immense multitude to be gather- 
ed together? A thousand other difficulties might be sug- 
gested, with respect to carrying into effect the measure pro- 
posed by these profound philosophers. But suppose all 
that has been required by Celsus and his unbelieving 
brethren had been done — that Christ had appeared to the 
priests, the pharisees, and sanhedrim — how do they know 
this would have removed the deep-rooted prejudice, and 
led them to believe that Jesus was risen indeed ? May we 
not rather adopt the manner of reasoning of our father 
Abraham ? " If they believe not Moses and the prophets, 
neither would they believe if one rose from the dead." Did 
not some of the watch come into the city and show unto 
the chief priests all that was done? and did they believe 
their testimony? Or when they had assembled with the 
elders and taken counsel, did they appoint a committee to 
investigate the matter ? did they express any doubt upon 
the subject ? did they manifest any desire to have any fur- 
ther evidence of the reality of Christ's resurrection ? No 
such thing. But they adopted the foul measure of bribing 
the soldiers to tell a lie, saying, " Say ye, his disciples came 
and stole him away while we slept ; and if this come to the 
governor's ears, we will persuade him, and secure you." 
Now, my dear Benjamin, this awful charge against the 
priests, senate, and rulers, was published by the evange- 
lists at the very time and scene of the transaction ; if it had 



52 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part. 1. 

not been true, why did they not publicly contradict it ? 
Why did they not punish the authors of so heinous a libel, 
if such it had been ? To return to our subject : suppose 
that Christ had appeared to " all the people," how could 
they have been assured that it was the same identical per- 
son that had been crucified ? Must not the faith of most of 
them have rested on the evidence of the priests, sanhedrims, 
and Pharisees ? And is it not more rational to believe 
that these inveterate enemies of Christ, who had rejected 
him merely out of malice, because they " would not have 
this man to reign over them," and who, by now confessing 
him to be the Christ, would have laid themselves open to 
the charge of having crucified the Lord of glory, and 
brought upon themselves the indignation of the people ? I 
say, is it not more rational to believe that such persons, 
under such circumstances, would rather have hardened 
their hearts and shut their eyes against the clearest evi- 
dence^ by adopting the objection of some of our modern in- 
fidels, saying, " This is not the identical Jesus ; the marks 
in his hands, and feet, and sides have been made by his 
disciples to carry on the deception ; or he was not quite 
dead when taken from the cross ; or, if it is the same person, 
and he was really dead, and has actually risen, yet this was 
not effected by the power of Grod, but his disciples wrought 
it by the power of the devil, as he himself performed his mi- 
racles ? Nay, what security have these objectors that the 
malicious priests would not have accused both Christ and his 
apostles of being in league with Beelzebub, the prince of de- 
vils, and therefore tried to crucify him again? But let us again 
suppose, my dear Benjamin, that Christ Jesus had appeared 
to all, as Celsus and the modern infidels demand ; and sup- 
pose they had actually believed the truth of his resurrec- 
tion, how do these objectors know that it would have been 
" better for the propagation of the Gospel in after-ages ?" 
Would succeeding ages have had better and more con- 
vincing evidence than those which we have in the New 



Let. 5.] 

Testament ? How could they Lave known that all Jerusa- 
lem and Judea had known of a surety that Christ had 
risen from the dead, but by some written document, and 
a succession of preachers or believers of the Gospel, or by 
both ; and would that have satisfied our infidel friends ? Of 
would they not probably have objected, " How do we know 
that these documents are authentic, whether they have not 
been corrupted, and so forth ; whether the whole story is not 
'a cunningly devised fable,' a mere production of priest- 
craft?" Besides, my dear Benjamin, let it be w^ell remem- 
bered that the religion of Jesus does not consist merely in 
the one article of the resurrection of Christ from the dead; 
but that all that Jesus Christ did, and taught, and sufl^ered, 
was to be published to the world by eye-witnesses, well 
qualified for the arduous and all-important work. The 
gracious and benevolent design of the Son of God, to be a 
light to lighten the Gentiles, as well as to be the glory of his 
people Israel, could not have been efl^ected in the manner 
proposed by infidels : for neither the priests, the sanhedrim, 
the pharisees, and all the people of Jerusalem together, 
although they had believed the history and fact of the 
resurrection of Christ, were well qualified for the task ; for 
they had neither heard all that Jesus taught from the be- 
ginning, nor seen all the miracles that he had wrought ; 
nor had they the power to confirm what they knew and 
believed by miracle; and above all, they needed the illumi- 
nation and influence of the Holy Spirit. The plan, there- 
fore, adopted by our blessed Jesus, was the best and most 
effectual. 

It was briefly this : " As soon as he commenced his minis- 
try he chose twelve persons, to be almost his constant com- 
panions, in order to be witnesses to the sanctity of his 
life, to the miracles he wrought, and to the instructions he 
gave. And as his resurrection from the dead was one of 
those miraculous events that was intended, among many 
other reasons, to be the evidence of his divine mission ; so 



54 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part 1 

he chose to make his apostles witnesses thereof ; gave them 
a spiritual understanding, to understand the Scriptures ; in- 
structed them for forty days from the time of his resurrec- 
tion till the time of his ascension into heaven, in the 
things pertaining to the kingdom of God ; and on the day 
of Pentecost he sent forth the Holy Spirit, in a more copi- 
ous manner, to qualify them to preach the Gospel in foreign 
languages, which they had never known before ; and to 
confirm their doctrines by miracles. Hence, when the Gos- 
pel was first preached by Peter, in the house of Cornelius, 
he says, in the beginning of his sermon, " The word which 
God sent unto the children of Israel, preaching peace by 
Jesus Christ ; (he is Lord of all ;) that word, I say, ye know, 
which was published throughout all Judea, and began from 
Galilee, after the baptism which John preached ; how God 
anointed Jesus of Nazareth with the Holy Ghost, and with 
power : who went about doing good, and healing all that 
were possessed of the devil, for God was with him. And we 
are witnesses of all things which he did, both in the land 
of the Jews, and in Jerusalem; him they slew, and hanged 
upon a tree ; him God raised up the third day, and showed 
him openly ; not unto all the people, but unto witnesses 
chosen before of God, even to us, who did eat and drink 
with him after he rose from the dead. And he commanded 
us to preach unto the people, and to testify that it is he 
who is ordained of God to be the judge of quick and 
dead." Acts, 10 : 36-42. 

^ 2. I will now endeavor, my beloved Benjamin, to point 
out to you the important truth taught by the resurrection of 
Christ. First — It proves the reality of his being the Son 
of God. The apostle says that Christ, by his resurrection, 
was declared to be the Son of God ; Rom. 1:4; for in 
reading the history of Christ, you will observe that the 
priests and rulers of our people tried, in a variety of ways, 
to find a cause to justify themselves in putting him to death, 
but could not find any ; at last, Jesus being abjured by the 



Let. 5.] 

high, priest, by the living God, to tell whether he was the 
Son of God, and having answered in the affirmative, 
they condemned him for blasphemy, because he had said 
he was the Son of God. " Then the high priest rent his 
clothes, saying, He has spoken blasphemy, what further need 
have we of witnesses ? Behold, now ye have heard his blas- 
phemy. What think ye? They answered and said, He is 
guilty of death." Math. 26: 15, 16. Hence, when Christ 
was hanging on the cross, they derided and mocked him, 
saying, " He trusted in God, let him deliver him now, if he 
will have him; for he said, I am the Son of God." Math. 
27 ; 43. Now, this being the crime which was charged 
upon him, and for which he was crucified and put to death, 
God, by raising him from the dead, gave evidence that he 
was no blasphemer, but the Son of God. Hence, said the 
apostle, he was justified by the spirit. Tim. 3 : 16. The 
Spirit gave testimony to him at his baptism, and by the 
mighty works done by him in his life time ; but he was most 
eminently and remarkably justified by the Holy Spirit, by 
his resurrection from the dead. God hereby bearing him 
witness that he was unjustly condemned, and that he assum- 
ed nothing to himself but what of right did belong to him, 
when he said he was the Son of God. For how could a 
man that was condemned to die for calling himself the Son 
of God, be more remarkably vindicated and more clearly 
proved to be so, than by being raised from the dead by the 
power of God? For it is not conceivable that God should 
put forth an almighty power to raise him, and thereby au- 
thorize his usurpation, if by robbery he had assumed that 
glorious title. It was upon this evidence Thomas adored 
lim as his Lord and God. 

§ 3. In the next place I would observe, that the resurrec- 
tion of Jesus Christ proved to a demonstration that he was 
the promised Messiah. Hence, when the Jews asked of him 
a sign, be referred them to his resurrection. John 2:18, 19. 
Math. 18 : 38, 30. Had Christ been an impostor, the 



56 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN [Part 1 

apostles instead of saying *' it was impossible that he should 
be holden in death," (Acts, 2: 24,) would rather have said, 
it was impossible for him to escape ; for neither could he 
have raised himself nor would God have raised him. Ma- 
homed promised to rise after four days, but his followers 
were obliged to bury him. None of the false Christs, 
though there have been many, have risen again. You re- 
member, my dear Benjamin, I have mentioned in a former 
letter the case of him who called himself Bar Cochar, the 
son of a star, giving himself out to be the Messiah, and pro- 
mised to rise again ; but as he did not perform his promise, 
his followers called him Bar Cosbi, i. e. the son of a lie. In 
like manner, if Jesus had not risen from the dead, I should 
not hesitate to call him an impostor and deceiver. For I 
have already shown that it was typified and predicted that 
the Messiah should not see corruption, but rise again on the 
third day ; and Jesus himself had repeatedly foretold his re- 
surrection. Hence you perceive the great importance of 
this article of our holy religion. Therefore said the apos- 
tle " This is the word of faith w^hich we speak, that if thou 
shalt confess with thy mouth the Lord Jesus, and shall 
believe in thine heart that God has raised him from the dead, 
thou shalt be saved. For he that believeth that Jesus rose 
from the dead, does believe the other articles of religion 
which are well confirmed by this. He that believeth that 
Jesus is risen, does at the same time believe him to be the 
Christ, and consequently, that his precepts are divine, that 
his promises are certain, and his power and authority uncon- 
trollable. 

§ 4. The resurrection of Christ is a satisfactory proof that 
his death was an acceptable sacrifice to God his Father, anc 
regarded by him as a propitiation for the sins of the world. 
It not only shows that Christ finished all he had engaged 
to do, and paid every farthing of debt, but that the Father 
had accepted of it. His law is magnified, justice satisfied, 
and the prisoner released Had Christ not been liberated 



Let. 5.] IMPORTANCE OF CHRIST's RESURRECTION. 57 

from the prison of the grave, we could have had no evi- 
dence that our debt was discharged. But his resurrection 
clearly proved that he had satisfied the demands of law and 
justice, and affords us a ground of assured hope and tri- 
umphant exaltation. Rom. 4 : 20 ; 8 : 34. In his death, 
Christ suffered as a malefactor, and did undertake the guilt 
of our sins; but by his resurrection, he was justified, i. e. 
declared to the world that he had shaken off all that guilt, 
and left it, as it were, in the grave, with his grave-clothes. 
§ 5. Observe again, my dear Benjamin, that the resurrec- 
tion of Christ shows the possibility of a general resurrection ; 
is an assurance to the people of God of the certainty of their 
rising from the dead ; and is the glorious pattern, as well as 
the sure pledge, of what kind their resurrection shall be. 
That God is able to raise the dead, sound reason and phi- 
losophy will not deny. But if it were doubtful, one cer- 
tain and evident instance of it will be sufficient to answer 
all objections ; since facts are irresistible evidences of the 
truth and certainty of things. By the resurrection of Christ, 
therefore, God has in a most satisfactory manner demon- 
strated the possibility of the thing, and given us an assur- 
ance that all believers shall rise too. Hence, saith the apos- 
tle, " Christ has risen from the dead, and become the first 
fiuits of them that slept ; as the first man was of the earth, 
earthy ; so the second man was the Lord from heaven," 
not of an earthly nature, but a heavenly original ; and "as 
the earthy man was, such also are those that are earthy," 
of the same frail materials with him from whom they are 
derived; so also, "as is the heavenly man, such also are 
those which are heavenly," the state of their bodies shall 
be of a heavenly form and constitution like his. " As we 
have the image of the earthy," have been subject to the in- 
firmities of this frail earthly body, " :;o shall we bear also the 
image of the heavenly," be transformed and fashioned in our 
bodies " like unto his glorious body, according to the working 
whereby he is able to subdue all things to himself" 1 Cor. 

VOL II. 3 



58 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN [Part 1. 

15. Phil. 3, 21. As our blessed Lord rose to an immor- 
tal life, and his body was transformed into a very glorious 
state and appearance, to fit him for that heavenly world 
^vhere he now resides ; so ^ve know that " when Christ who 
is our life shall appear, we shall be like him, for we shall 
see him as he is," and be in our bodies transformed into 
" the same image, from glory to glory." Believers know 
and fesl, and may you, my dear Benjamin, know it too, that 
they have passed from death unto life, and are united to thetr 
Savior by a living faith, as really as the members are to 
the body, and the body to the head ; and is it conceivable 
that he should leave any of his saints, the members of his 
body, under the power of death ? If Moses, the deliverer 
of our fathers from the tyranny of Pharaoh, would not suf- 
fer any thing, not an hoof " to remain in the house of bon- 
dage," will our great Redeemer be less perfect in his work ? 
shall our last enemy always retain his spoils, our bodies, in 
the grave ? This would greatly reflect on his love, his pow- 
er, and faithfulness. His promise is, " I live, and ye shal'I 
live also." John, 14 : 19. Oh, my dear brother, how consol- 
ing and supporting is the thought of a risen and a living 
Savior, under all the afflictions and troubles, perils and 
uncertainties of the present life, and in the nearest view and 
approach of death ! Believers in Christ may say, as the sea 
we traverse may have its storms, but he calms them, and 
speaks them into peace. We may sometimes be uncertain 
where to direct our course ; but if that heavenly pilot steer 
our bark, w^e shall not wander wide of the place we aim at. 
Dangers may encompass, but his power can protect us. 
Enemies may distress us, but through him that strengthens 
us, we shall become superior to them. The risen and ex- 
alted Jesus is a compassionate and "merciful High Priest, 
ready to save to the uttermost," and, by office and inclina- 
tion, ready to succor us in every time of need. O, my be- 
loved Benjamin, may you have a ''good hope through 
grace," may Christ be precious" to thy soul, "as he is to 



Let. 5.] IMPORTANCE OF CHRISt's RESURRECTION 59 

all them that believe." Then, whatever are thy burdens and 
afflictions of life, whatever thy cares, anxieties, and sorrows^ 
you need not sink under them. Better things wait for thee. 
The scene here, however uncomfortable, shall soon pass 
away. Death, which is the airse of bad men, shall be thy 
blessing: and what is the commencement of their misery, 
shall be to thee the beginning of endless peace and happi- 
ness. Remember that Jesus, though crucified and slain, 
lives at the right hand of God. May you, my beloved bro- 
ther, be able to join in the doxology of the apostle to the 
circumcision, saying, " Blessed be the God and Father of 
our Lord Jesus Christ, who, according to his abundant 
mercy, has begotten us again unto a lively hope, by the re- 
surrection of Jesus Christ from the dead, to an inheritance 
incorruptible and undefiled, and that fadeth not away, re- 
served in heaven for you who are kept by the power of 
God, through faith unto salvation, ready to be revealed in 
the last time. 1 Pet. 1 ; 3-5. 

§ 6. Having already detained you so long, I will make 
but one observation more, viz. The resurrection of our bless- 
ed Lord is a powerful motive to imitate him in purity of 
heart and universal holiness of conversation, and to walk 
before God in all newness of life. The remembrance of 
this great event should put us in mind of the obligation 
we are under to separate ourselves from the corruption 
of the world; to subdue our sinful passions, and to for- 
sake our former sins; to "yield ourselves to God, as those 
who are alive from the dead ;" to do the things thnt are ac- 
ceptable to him; to live a spiritual and divine life; and 
as "risen with Christ, to seek those things which are 
above, where Christ sitteth at the right hand of God ; and to 
set our affections on things which are above, and not on 
things on the earth ; that when Christ, who is our life, shall 
appear, we may also appear with him in glory." Col. 3: 
1-4. The same direction the apostle gives to the church 
at Rome, saying, " Know ye not that so many of us as were 



60 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part. 1 

baptized into Jesus Christ, were baptized into bis death ? 
Therefore, we are buried with him by baptism into death: 
that like as Christ was raised up from the dead by the glory 
of the Father, even so we also shall walk in newness of 
life. For if we have been planted together in the likeness 
of his death, we shall be also in the likeness of his resur- 
rection." Rom. 6 : 3-6. On this passage the pious and 
learned Dr. John Edwards, a Pedo-baptist, has the follow- 
ing remark : " In the fourth verse vre have a most appro- 
priate and elegant similitude, which is to this effect : The 
immersion or plunging into the water, y:hich was then used 
in baptism, represents to us the death and burial of Christ ; 
and by this symbol is also signified, that those who were 
baptized, and, as it were, buried under the water, undertook 
to die unto sin, and to all carnal inclinations ; for that is to be 
buried with Christ, and to be baptized into his death. And 
then on theother hand, the coming out of the baptismal water 
represents unto us the resurrection of Christ; and also that 
we ought to rise unto righteousness, and a holy and godly 
life. The similitude and analogy are exact, and therefore 
made use of by the apostle in other places. Col. 2 : 12. 
Christ's resurrection is an hieroglyphic of our spiritual 
rising out of the grave of sin ; it is a fit emblem of our ris- 
ing to newness of life." 

Having, at considerable length, shov/n that Christ died 
for our sins, according to the Scriptures, and that he was 
buried, and that he rose again the third day, according to 
the Scriptures, I propose, by divine permission, to show 
next, that Christ hath also ascended up into heaven, accord- 
ing to the Scriptures. 

Farewell 



let. 6.] THE ASCENSION OF THE 5IESSIAH. 61 



£,ETTEK VS. 



THE ASCEKSIOM OF THE MESSIAXw 



My Dear Benjamhi^ 

Having- shown that Messiah was to rise from the dead, 
and that Jesus Christ did rise, according- to the Scriptures^ 
I will now show that the Messiah was to ascend into hea- 
ven, as the second part of his exaltation ; and that Jesus 
Christ has actually entered heaven, which is to be consid- 
ered as an additional proof that he is the true Messiah. By 
the ascension of the Messiah, I mean not a metaphysical or 
figurative, but a real translation of his body and soul, after 
his resurrection from the dead, into heaven, the dwelling- 
place of Jehovah. 

§ I. The ascension of the Messiah, like his resurrection, 
was both typified and predicted. We notice the translation 
of Enoch and Elijah. The one during the patriarchal 
period, before the giving of the law ; the other in the days 
of the prophets, after the giving of the law. Enoch was a 
man that walked with God and held communion with him, 
and he was not on the earth, for God took him from thence 
to heaven, both in body and soul. Elijah went up to hea- 
ven in a whirlwind, in a chariot, on horses of fire, whilst 
he and Elisha were conversing together. G<en. 5: 24 ; 2 
Kings, 2 : n. 

The carrying of the ark from the house of Obed-Edom 
up unto the city of Zion, is another type of the ascen- 
sion of the Messiah into heaven. In the Mosaic ritual, the 
ark was the most striking symbol o{ the Messiah. For, like 
him, it was the seat of Deity, the token of the divine pre- 
sence, the appointed medium of maintaining intercourse with 
Jehovah, of approaching him, and of beholding his glory. 



62 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part 1. 

The removing of this ark by David to the hill of Zion was 
an event of peculiar solemnity, and was celebrated with great 
fervor and devotion. Amongst the various Psalms of thanks- 
giving composed and sung on that occasion, was most pro- 
bably the 24th ; but it rises far above the types, and points 
to the ascension of Messiah. " Lift up your heads, O ye 
gates; and be ye lifted up, ye everlasting doors; and the 
King of glory shall come in. Who is this King of glory ? 
The Lord, strong and mighty ; the Lord, mighty in battle. 
Lift up your heads, O ye gates ; even lift them up, ye ever- 
lasting doors ; and the King of glory shall come in. Who 
is this King of glory ? The Lord of hosts, he is the King 
of glory. Selah." 

The high priest, entering within the veil into the most 
holy place, was a most instructive type of the ascension of 
the Messiah. You know, my dear brother, that our peo- 
ple consider the three different apartments of the taber- 
nacle and the temple to have a typical representation ; the 
first represented this present w^orld ; the second, the firma- 
ment ; and the third, the most holy place, the heaven of 
heavens ; therefore as the high priest, on the day of atone- 
ment, went into the most holy place, w^ith the blood of the 
sin-offering ; so was Messiah to enter heaven, the most 
holy place, with the blood of his own sacrifice. See Joseph, 
L. 5. c. 8. 

§ 2. It was also predicted, as well as typified, that Mes- 
siah should ascend into heaven. We have already shown 
that in Psalm 16 : 10, the resurrection of the Messiah was 
foretold ; and in the next verse, David being a prophet, 
speaks of the ascension of the Messiah, saying, "thou wilt 
show me the path of jife ; in thy presence is fullness of joy, 
and at thy right hand there are pleasures for evermore." 

The 47th Psalm, 5th verse, is another prediction of the 
same fact : " God is gone up with a shout, the Lord with 
the sound of a trumpet." Both Kimchi and Aben Ezra ap- 
ply the passage to the Messiah, and it has been fully fulfill- 
ed in Jesus Christ, as W'ill be shown presently. 



Let. 6.] THE ASCENSION OF THE MESSIAH, 63 

Another prediction of the kind is in Ps, 68 : 18 ; " Thou 
hast ascended on high, thou hast led captivity captive, thou 
hast received gifts for men, yea, for the rebellious also, that 
the Lord God might dwell amongst them." This Psalm was 
occasioned by the removal of the ark into Solomon's temple. 
Jehovah is here described by his magnificent retinue; 
•• even thousands of angels :" by his triumphant ascension 
ittto heaven, and by his being the author of salvation. The 
whole of this description is applicable to the Messiah, and 
to none else, and v/as fulfilled in Jesus Christ, who made 
an end of sin, abolished death, spoiled principalities and 
powers, and made a show of them openly ; and, having done 
so, went up and entered heaven as a triumphant conqueror, 
and sent down the Holy Spirit with all his gifts and powers. 
I would name another Psalm, viz. 1 10 : 1. " The Lord said 
unto my Lord, sit thou at my right hand, until I make thine 
enemies thy footstool." In a former letter, it has been shown 
that our rabbins applied this prophecy to the Messiah, and 
I shall endeavor to show its fulfillment in Jesus Christ. It 
denotes the exaltation of the Messiah, his great power and 
authority, his being crowned as kings and priests are for 
their people, whom they govern, or for whom they intercede. 

Another remarkable prediction, respecting the ascension 
of the Messiah, is Dan. 7:13, 14 ; "I saw in the night vi- 
sions, and behold one lik« the Son of Man came with the 
clouds of heaven, and came to the Ancient of Days ; and 
they brought him near before him, and there were given 
him dominion, and glory, and a kingdom, that all people, 
nations, and languages should serve him ; his dominion is 
an everlasting dominion, which shall not pass away, and 
his kingdom that which shall never be destro3'ed." That 
the Messiah is here intended by the Son of Man, is acknow- 
ledged by many of the rabbins. Zohar. Gen. fo. 35 : 4. 
Yarchi, Saadiah Goan, in loco. R. Joshua in Ezra, in loco. 
Zeror Ham. Sanhed. Medrish Tillim, Ps. 21 : 7. Hence 
anani, which signifies clouds, is one of the names of the 



04 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part 1. 

Messiah. Targum on 1 Chro. 3 : 24. Ber. Rab. Geu. 28 : 10. 

I will name but one prediction more, viz. Micah, 2: 13; 
" The breaker is come up before them, they have broken 
up, and have passed through the gate, and are gone out by 
it, and their King shall pass before them, and the Lord on 
the head of them." Both our ancient and modern rabbins 
apply this passage to the Messiah. Avcoth Rochel, Mos. 
Haddarshan. Gen. 40 : 9. Ber. Rab. Gen. 44 : 18. Gal. de 
Arcam's, c. 5, b. 8, c. 23. 

The Lord Jesus Christ himself frequently spake of his 
ascension into heaven. When our people were offended 
with Christ, because he had said that his flesh was the true 
manna which came down from heaven, Jesus replied, 
" What and if ye shall see the Son of Man ascend up w^here 
he was before ?" John 6 : 62, i. e. will that convince you that 
I did not speak of my body literally? for that is not to be 
eaten, but must ascend on high. Again, he says, " I came 
forth from the Father, and am come into the world : again, 
I leave the world, and go to the Father." John, 16: 28. 
And on the day of his resurrection he said, " Touch me not, 
for I am not yet ascended to my Father, and your Father, 
and to my God, and your God." John, 20 : 17. 

^ 3. I shall now proceed to show, that Jesus Christ did 
ascend into heaven, agreeably to the foregoing types and 
predictions. This is evident from plain Scripture declara- 
tions. The ascension of Jesus is sometimes called going 
away, John, 14: 7; sometimes his being exalted, Acts, 2: 
23 ; sometimes his being made higher than the heavens, 
Heb. 7: 26; and sometimes his entering within the veil, Heb. 
6" 17, 20; all which are but so many synonymous phrases, 
expressing his ascension, in a very pleasant variety. 

The reality of the ascension of Christ is testified by 
credible witnesses. Many of the disciples of Jesus saw him 
ascending. The evangelist Luke says, " And he led them 
out as far as Bethany, and lifted up his hands and blessed 
them ; and it came to pass while he blessed them, he was 



Let. 6.J THE ASCEXSIOX OF THE MESSIAH. 05 

parted from them, and carried up into heaven. And they 
worshiped him, and returned to Jerusalem with great joy." 
Chap. 24 : 50-52. Again, *' When he had spoken these 
things, while they beheld he was taken up, and a cloud 
received him out of their sight. And while they looked 
steadfastly toward heaven, as he went up, behold, two men 
stood by them in v/hite apparel ; which also said. Ye men 
of Galilee, v.hy stand ye gazing up into heaven ? This same 
Jesus which is taken up from you into heaven, shall so come 
in like manner as ye have seen him go into heaven." Acts, 
1 : 9-11. Thus Christ ascended in the presence of his dis- 
ciples. Earthly monarchs display their glory before the 
eyes of as many as possible, and conceal disgrace. Christ, 
on the contrary, made all witnesses of his sufferings and 
ignominious death : but at his transfiguration he took only 
three of his disciples, and forbade to tell the rest. After his 
resurrection he appeared only to his disciples, and poured 
out his Spirit on the day of Pentecost on the disciples only. 
They did not see him Avhen he rose, but they saw him when 
he ascended; because no eye-witness was necessary to the 
act of his resurrection, but it was necessary to the act of his 
tiscension. It was sufficient that Christ showed himself to 
his apostles alive, after his sufferings, for they knew that 
he was dead, and now saw him alive, and therefore were 
sure that he must have risen. But as his silting at the right 
hand of God was not designed to be visible on the earth, 
therefore it was necessary that they should be eye-witnesses 
of the act of his ascension. Whilst Stephen, the proto-martyr, 
was suffering, looking steadfastly to heaven, he saw the 
glory of God, and Jesus standing at the right hand of God ; 
and at the same time declared to the Jews that he saw the 
heavens opened, and the Son of Man standing at the right 
hand of God. Acts, 7 : 55, 56. 

§ 4. We have also the testimony of holy angels, as we have 
just seen from Acts, 1 : 10, 11. The disciples, although they 
saw him ascending, vet could not tell whether he had ac- 



66 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part 1. 

tually entered heaven; therefore, two of the heavenly inha- 
bitants v^rere dispatched to assure them that he actually had 
entered heaven. When God brought his first-born into the 
world, he said, " Let all the angels of God worship him." 
Hence, at his birth, a multitude of angels were praising 
God, saying, " Glory to God in the highest, and on earth 
peace, good will toward men." Luke, 2: 14. And when 
Jesus had finished the work of redemption, he returned 
again to his Father, with no less demonstration of joy 
amongst the blessed angels, agreeably to Ps. 47 : 5. Then 
also was fulfilled Daniel's prediction, when the Son of Man 
was introduced by the shouts of angels to the Ancient of 
Days, who, to express his welcome to Christ, gave him glory 
and a kingdom. 

We have also the testimony of the Holy Spirit, who was 
expressly promised by Christ to be poured out for the pur- 
pose of testifying of him, as will be shown hereafter. 

§ 5. I might further observe, that the destruction of Jerusa- 
lem, and the consequent dispersion of our nation, is a standing 
proof of the ascension of Jesus into heaven ; for, on differ- 
ent occasions, Jesus foretold that this should follow his as- 
cension. John, 7 : 34. '' Then said Jesus unto them, yet a 
little while I am with you, and then I go unto him that sent 
me; ye shall seek me, and shall not find me." Again, ch. 
8:21. But having already written largely on this subject in 
a former letter, page 296, I shall pass on to consider the act 
itself, viz. 

^ 6. The circumstances connected with the ascension of 
Christ. 

With regard to the manner of Christ's ascension, I would 
observe, that it was not in appearance only, but in reality 
and truth, visibly and locally, a real removal of his body 
from earth to heaven, in a sudden, swift, glorious, and tri- 
umphant manner. Enoch was translated, but we have no 
account of the manner. Elijah was taken up in a fiery cha- 
riot, suited to the fiery dispensation under which he lived; 



Lei. 6] THE ASCENSION OF THE MESSIAH. C7 

but Christ was taken up in a bright cloud. A cloud is often 
used in Scripture in display of God's presence and glory. 

§ 7. The time of the ascension is expressly mentioned, 
Acts, 1 : 3, U, 17; "When also he showed himself alive, 
after his passion, by many infallible proofs; being seen of 
them forty days, and speaking of the things pertaining to 
the kingdom of God." It was proper and necessary that he 
should remain some time with his disciples, both to give 
ihem full evidence of his resurrection, and farther particu- 
lars in the things belonging to his kingdom. As Hezekiah 
".'as to set his house in order before he died, so Christ would 
not ascend into heaven till he had set all at rights on earth. 
Christ would have his house well governed after his ascen- 
sion, and therefore staid the required time to give full direc- 
iions. Moses was forty days upon the mount, and his face 
shone; Elijah fasted forty days, and was taken up into hea- 
ven ; and Christ was with his disciples forty days after his 
resurrection, and then ascended into heaven. We notice, 
the place from whence he ascended was mount Olivet, near 
io Bethany. He chose a high and convenient place, to con- 
vince his disciples of the truth and reality of his ascension. 
He had not withdrawn himself secretly, as at other times, 
but in open view. In the garden of Gethsemane, near to 
this mount, his pains and troubles began, and from thence 
he went to the cross, and from the same mount he ascended 
into glory. How often does the Lord make the place that 
has been the scene of sorrow, to be the first step to our rising 
and advancement. 

As on a mount he frequently preached and prayed, Avas 
transfigured and crucified, so at last he ascended from a 
mount. This is the place which he had so often honored, in 
the days of his humiliation ; and it was not unfit, therefore, 
that his exaltation should commence there also. The place 
to which he ascended was the heaven of heavens, the inner- 
most sanctuary of the Divine Majesty. The flight was to 
the house of God, to the seat of bliss and consummate glory. 



68 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part 1, 

See the following passages of Scripture, 1 Tim. 3:16. Heb. 
4: 14. 7:26. 9:8, 9, 24. 10: 19, 20. 

§ 8. Another circumstance connected with the ascension 
of Christ, is his employment at the time, which is described 
by the evangelist Luke in the words just quoted. Whilst 
Jesus was in the very act of blessing his disciples, he was 
parted from them. It is the privilege of the righteous, not 
only to die blessed, but even whilst blessing others. Both 
dying Jacob, and dying Moses, blessed the ten tribes of Is- 
rael ; so Christ, when he left his disciples, blessed them. 
" Having loved his own, he loved them to the end." John, 
13: 1. As the great design of our Savior's coming into the 
world was to be a public blessing to his people, so blessing 
was the last thing he did for them, and that either by con- 
ferring blessedness upon them, as a divine person, or else 
by praying for a blessing for them, as man ; whereby he 
gave them a specimen of the work in which he is engaged 
in heaven, where he ever lives to make intercession for them. 
It is further noticed, that ''he lifted up his hands and bless- 
ed them." The ancient manner of blessing others, was 
sometimes by the laying on of the hands, as Jacob did when 
he blessed the sons of Joseph, Gen. 48 : 1 1 ; at other times, 
when many persons were to be blessed, it was by lifting up 
hands, as Aaron is said "to lift up his hands towards the 
people, and bless them." Lev. 9 : 22. So Christ, the High 
Priest of our profession, blessed his apostles with uplifted 
hands. 

§ 9. I will now proceed, my dear Benjamin, to point 
out the design of Christ's ascension. We may consider it 
as a testimony of his Messiahship and the acceptance of 
his work. We have already seen that it was both typified 
and predicted that Messiah was to ascend into heaven ; 
it was therefore necessary for Jesus Christ to ascend into 
heaven, as well as to have died and risen from the dead, 
according to the Scriptures. It also proved the perfection 
and acceptance of his work; as the discharge of the debtor 



Let. 6 J THE ASCENSION OF THE MESSIAH. 69 

from prison, proves that the creditor is satisfied, so Christ's 
resurrection was a proof that the law of God was perfectly 
satisfied, and God well pleased ; and his ascension gives a 
further degree of assurance. Had Christ been an unfaith- 
ful servant, and not done his work to the perfect satisfaction 
of his Father, the justice of God would not have permitted 
him to be taken out of the grave, much less to be exalted to 
heaven and glory. 

The infinite wisdom of God would never have entrusted 
him with all power in heaven and on earth, to act as the 
Mediator in heaven, if he had not been faithful in the man- 
agement of what had been before committed to him : be- 
cause, if he had been unfaithful in one, there was no ground 
to think that he would be faithful in the other. But it is a 
strong argument that he will be exact in the glorious part 
of his charge in heaven, since he has been exact in the 
ignominious pait of his work on earth. It is because he is 
a faithful Witness, that he is the " Prince of the kings of the 
earth." Rev. 1:5. It is this argument the Spirit uses to 
convince the world of the righteousness of his person, and 
the righteousness of his mediation, that there is a full expia- 
tion of sin, because he is received and entertained by the 
Father. John, 16: 10. 

§ 11. It was expedient that Christ should be rewarded 
for his humiliation. Reason as well as revelation would 
teach us, that Christ, in order to perform the engagements 
and bear the heavy loads appertaining to the work of re- 
demption, would need more than common support. The 
difficultites he had to encounter required a joy to be set be- 
fore him, and a joy which should not be at a remote dis- 
tance, but placed immediately in view ; something which 
should succor him in the day of tribulation,and afford the cer- 
tainty that he should have " beauty for ashes, the oil of joy 
for mourning, and the garment of praise for the spirit of 
heaviness." All this was to be derived from the prospect of 
an immediat<i victory over death, and the full possession ol 



70 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part I. 

life and gl-ory ; he was to receive all power in heaven and 
on earth, and reign as Lord of all. It is evident from the 
Holy Scripture that he derived support from this source. 
David as a prophet having foretold the resurrection of the 
Messiah, continues to speak of his ascension also, saying, 
'"Thou wilt show me the path of life; in thy presence is 
fullness of joy; at thy right hand there are pleasures for 
evermore." Psa. 16 : 11. 

The apostle, in exhorting Christians to run their spiritual 
race, directed them to imitate the example of Christ, say- 
ing, " Looking unto Jesus, the author and finisher of our 
faith ; who, for the joy that was set before him, endured the 
cross, despising the shame, and is set down at the right hand 
of the throne of God." Heb. 12:2. 

§ 12. Another end to be answered by the ascension of 
Christ, was to triumph over his enemies. My dear Ben- 
jamin will remember, that in the prediction contained in 
Psa. 68, it is said that Messiah should lead " captivity cap- 
tive ;" and the apostle assures us this w^as fulfilled at the 
ascension of Jesus : in his epistle to the Ephesians, ch. 4 : 
8, and in writings to the Colossians, he says, "Having 
spoiled principalities and powers, he made a show of them 
openly, triumphing over them in it." Col. 2: 15. In these 
words there is evidently an allusion to the solemn tri- 
umphs of princes : after having obtained some remarkable 
and complete victory, they made a public triumphal show, 
rode through the streets in the greatest state, and had all 
their spoils carried before them, and the kings and nobles 
whom they had taken they tied to their chariots, and led 
them as captives. In like manner, Christ spoiled his ene- 
mies on the cross, conquered them at his resurrection, and 
openly triumphed over them at his ascension. He over- 
came the world, bound the devil, and spoiled hell, weakened 
sin, destroyed death, and triumphed over the grave. 

§ 13. To carry on the w^ork of Mediator, was another 
end of Christ's ascension into heaven, both as it respects 



Let. 6] THE ASCENSION OF THE MESSIAH. 7l 

his priestly and kingly office, for he was to be a " priest 
upon his throne." Zech. 6:13. Respecting his kingly 
office, I shall write to you in a future letter, my present ob- 
servation relates to his priestly office only. I have observed 
in the commencement of this letter, that the Levitical high 
priest, entering the most holy place with the blood of atone- 
ment, sprinkling it on the mercy seat, was typical of Mes- 
siah's entering into heaven with the blood of his own sacri- 
fice ; and this was fulfilled at the ascension of Christ : " For 
Christ is not entered into the holy places made with hands, 
which are the figures of the true ; but into heaven itself, 
now to appear in the presence of God for us." Heb. 9 : 24. 
As the high priest entered on the behalf of the people, with 
the names of the twelve tribes on his breast and shoulders, 
so Christ has entered heaven in behalf of all his people, 
bearing the memorial of every saint on his heart. 

Had Christ remained on earth, he would not have done 
the whole work of a high priest. It was not enough for the le- 
gal high priest to slay and pour out the blood of the sacrifice 
in the outward tabernacle, and ofl^er it upon the altar on the 
day of expiation ; but he was to pass within the veil, to present 
the blood of the victim to the Lord, and sprinkle it towards 
the mercy-seat, and upon his return to publish the atone- 
ment and reconciliation to the people ; so that there would 
have been no analogy between the type and the antitype, if 
our Savior, after his oblation on earth, had not, in the quality 
of a priest, passed into the heavens, as through the veil 
which separated the heavenly sanctuary from the outward 
court. The legal priest was also to burn incense ; by in- 
sence, in Scripture, is frequently meant prayer ; this also 
made it necessary for Christ to ascend up into heaven. In- 
tercession is a great part of his priestly office, as will be 
shown hereafter, and could no more have been performed 
except in heaven, than the oblation, the first part of his 
office, could have been performed any where but on earth. 

^ 14. The descent of the Holy Ghost, with all his gifts and 



72 JOSEPH AND bi:>:ja:,iin. Parti.] 

graces, was another great end and design of Christ's ascen- 
sion into heaven. We have already seen that it was pre- 
dicted that Messiah was to ascend, that he " might receive 
gifts for men, yea, for the rebellious also, that the Lord God 
might dwell amongst them," Psa. 68 ; 18. The same u-as 
foretold by the prophets, Isa. 32: 15; 44: 3. Joel, 2 : 28, 
32. I have also shown, that the Lord Jesus Christ repeat- 
edly told his disciples that it was necessary for nini to re- 
turn to his Father, else the Comforter, the Holy Spirit, would 
not descend ; and after his resurrection he again said to 
them, •' Behold, I send the promise of my Father upon you : 
but tarry ye in the city of Jerusalem, until ye be endued 
with power from on high." Luke, 24 : 49. Accordingly, 
on the day of Pentecost, the Spirit of the Lord descended, in 
a most copious manner, upon the disciples, enduing them 
with miraculous powers, and communicating remarkable 
gifts and graces to the believers in general. The apos- 
tle, speaking on the subject, says, " When he ascended up on 
high he led captivity captive, and gave gifts unto men. 
Now that he ascended, what is it but that he also descend- 
ed first into the lower parts of the earth ? He that descend- 
ed is the same also that ascended up far above all heavens, 
that he might fill all things. And he gave some, apostles ; 
and some, prophets ; and some, evangelists ; and some pas- 
tors and teachers." Eph. 4 ; 8-11. 

The giving of the Spirit depended on the glorification 
of Christ as Jesus, a Savior. " In the last day, that great 
day of the feast, Jesus stood and cried, saying, If any man 
thirst, let him come unto me, and drink. He that believeth 
on me, as the Scripture has said, out of his belly shall 
flow rivers of living water. (But this spake he of the Spirit, 
which they that believed on him should receive: for the 
Holy Ghost was not yet given ; because that Jesus was 
not yet glorified.") John, 7 : 37-39. The Spirit was not 
given in that eminency and fullness of gifts and graces till 
'he glorification of Christ, wherein he absolutely received 
the keys of all the treasures of his Father, as well as the 



Let. 6.] , THE ASCENSION OF THE MESSIAH. 73 

keys of hell and death. God would reserve those gifts for 
the triumphal coronation of his Son, as an evidence of the 
peace which was made by him, by the efTusion of the rich- 
est treasures of God. Thus, when Christ had taken our 
fiesh to heaven, he sent his Spirit, as an earnest of our glory. 
2 Cor. 5 : 5. God never taketh any thing away from his 
children, but he sendeth them a better thing in the room 
of it. 

§ 15. I would further observe, in the words of Jesus him- 
self, that it was expediejit that he should go to the Father, to 
prepare places for his people. Heaven was prepared from 
the foundation of the world, by the decree of the Father, 
Mat. 25 : 34 ; but, because we are to hold heaven not 
only by gift but by purchase, Christ came from heaven to 
procure it, and went to heaven again to prepare it. As our 
head, he went to seize upon it in our right ; as our legal 
head, he possesses heaven in our name, as a guardian 
takes up lands for the heir. And as our mystical head and 
author of grace, he dispenseth the Spirit and maketh us fit 
for that place; and making intercession for us, "Father, I will 
that they also whom thou hast given me be with me Avhere 
I am, that they may behold my glory which thou hast giv- 
en me," John, 17 : 24 ; Christ speaks as if he were not con- 
tent without his people. The apostle, in writing to the He- 
brews, informs them that Christ has entered heaven as our 
" Fore-runner,'' to make way for us — as our harbinger, to 
take up rooms and lodging for us. He is gone to fit all 
things for our entertainment, as Joseph was sent into Egypt 
to prepare for his father Jacob. His ascension is a pledge 
of ours. It is the meritorious, efficient cause and example 
of our ascension into heaven. 

^16. Another end of Christ's ascension was to open a new 
source of encouragement to thepentitent sinner, and of con- 
solation and support to the people of God. What greater en- 
couragement could possibly be given to the poor, trembling, 
penitent sinner, who inquires what to do to be saved, than to 



74 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Paitl. 

(iirect him to Jesus, " whom God has exalted with his right 
hand to be a Prince and a Savior, to give repentance to Is- 
rael, and forgiveness of sins." Acts, 5:31. If, when nailed to 
the accursed tree, he was able to save the penitent thief, how 
much more now, seeing that he ever liveth to make 
intercession for us. " Wherefore," saith the apostle, " he is 
able also to save them to the uttermost that come unto God 
bj' him, seeing he ever liveth to make intercession for them." 
Heb. 7 : 25. The ascension of Christ ought to be the 
great solace of the people of God, in all the distresses of 
the present evil world. It ought to be so to us, because ^ve 
arc encouraged by Christ's example to endure with patience 
whatever is afflictive to us. We have heard of the patience 
and sufferings, the bitter agony and passion of our Lord ; 
and \ve have seen the end of the Lord • we know what 
was the issue and event of those dreadful things which 
he endured. Affliction was his passage to glory. His hu- 
miliation and abasement ushered in his advancement and 
exaltation. From this consideration we may be encoura- 
ged to banish all despair, and not be dejected in the lowest 
condition. Poverty may make way for our promotion, 
sickness and disease for a happy state of body, disgrace 
may be designed to enhance our future felicity, and make 
our crown of glory more massy and weighty • for the apos- 
tle assures us that " our light affliction, which is but for a 
moment, worketh for us a far more exceeding and eternal 
weight of glory." 2 Cor. 4:17. Whilst in this world, and 
surrounded by enemies, how consoling the thought of hav- 
ing a friend and advocate in heaven. Christ is gone to disan- 
nul all Satan's accusations. The sacrifice was slain without, 
but the intercession was made by the high priest in the 
most holy place. ''If any man sin," says the apostle, " we 
have an advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ the right- 
eous." I John, 2:1. Take away the intercession of Christ 
and you starve the hope of the saints. Christ is our friend 
at the court of heaven, on purpose to transact all our affairs, 



Let. 6.J THE ASCENSION OF THE MESSIAH. 75 

and as a surety for the peace between God and us. Having 
detained you already so long, my dear Benjamin, I will no- 
notice but one more end or design of Christ's ascension ; viz. 

^17. To draw the afTections of his people from earth to 
heaven. When Christ was speaking of his death, he said, 
" And I, if I be lifted up from the earth, will draw all men 
unto me." John, 12 : 32. If these words were true of his 
crucifixion, how powerful ought they to be in reference to 
his ascension. When the Lord would take Elijah up into 
heaven, Elisha said unto him, " As the Lord liveth, and as 
thy soul liveth, I will not leave thee." 2 Kings, 2 : 2. 
When Christ is ascended up on high, we must follow him 
with the wings of our meditation and the chariots of our af- 
fections. Hence, says the apostle, " If ye then be risen 
with Christ, seek those things which are above, where 
Christ sitteth at the right hand of God. Set your affections 
on things above, and not on things on earth." Col. 3 : 1, 2. 
Let us no longer grovel upon the earth, but mount upward 
and soar aloft in devout contemplation and fruition of our 
ascended Lord. Where our treasure is ; where our head, 
our bridegroom, our Savior is ; there let our hearts be also. 
We ought to make every place a mount Olivet; every 
where, by pious thoughts and ejaculations, raise up our- 
selves to heaven, and to hold correspondence with the 
glorious Redeemer, and with " the spirits of the just made 
perfect." 

Now, my dear Benjamin, from what has been said re- 
specting the ascension of Christ, you will easily perceive 
the privilege of being united to him by faith, as the mem- 
bers are united to the body, and the body to the head. The 
sure hope of being with Christ at death is sufficient to sup- 
port us under all afflictions. Now, when a child of God 
dieth, he dies but to go to his Father in heaven ; for Christ 
and believers have the same relation. " I ascend to my Fa- 
ther, and your Father ; to my God, and your God." John, 
20; 17. As Christ was the Son of God by nature, they 



76 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part 1. 

are the sons of God by grace ; and when they die they go 
to their heavenly Father, to a sweet rest, to the bosom or 
God. The same entertainment which Christ has, we shall 
have; a joyful entertainment, a sweet welcome, when we 
come to heaven, conducted thither by holy angels. The 
beggar died, and was carried by angels into Abraham's 
bosom. God will take us, as it were, by the hand, saying, 
" Well done, good and faithful servants ; ye have been faith- 
ful over a few things, I will make you rulers over many 
things : enter ye into the joy of your Lord." Matt. 25 : 21. 
May this be our happy lot, and the glory be unto Him who 
"' bore our sins in his own body on the tree," but is now ex- 
alted above all praise, honor and glory. Amen. 

FarewelL 



I.ETTEK VII, 



THE INTERCESSION OF THE MESSIAH. 



Dear Brother Benjamin, 

Permit me to invite your attention to the intercession of 
the Messiah as the third step of his exaltation. 

§ 1. That the Messiah was to make intercession for his 
people was taught emblematically, typically, and propheti- 
cally; Abel's blood speaking after his death, Melchize- 
deck blessing Abraham, Abraham interceding for Sodom, 
Joseph for his brethren, and Moses for Israel, were so many 
emblems of PJessiah interceding for his people. 

The entrance of the high priest into the most holy place 
on the day of atonement, was an eminent type of the Mes- 



Let. 7.] THE INTERCESSION OF THE MESSIAH. 77 

siah's entering into heaven to intercede for his people. As 
the high priest was to kill the sacrifice, then enter the most 
holy place with its blood, and sprinkle it on the mercy-seat^ 
and kindle the incense ; so the Messiah w'as first to offer 
himself a sacrifice, then to enter heaven, to present his pre- 
cious blood and kindle the incense of his prayer, as our in- 
tercessor, and thus complete the atonement. With respect 
to the high priest, thus saith the Lord ; " Then shall he 
kill the goat of the sin-offering that is for the people, and 
bring his blood within the veil, and do with that blood as 
he did with the blood of the bullock, and sprinkle it upon 
the mercy-seat, and before the mercy-seat. And there shall 
be no man in the tabernacle of the congregation when he 
goes in to make an atonement in the holy place, until he 
come out, and have made an atonement for himself, and for 
his household, and for all the congregation." Lev. 16 : 
15, 17. 

It was also taught prophetically ; for thus it is written, 
Psa. 2 : 8, " Ask of me and I will give thee the heathen for 
thine inheritance, and the uttermost parts of the earth for 
thy possession." And Isaiah saith, 53 : 12, " He made inter- 
cession for the transgressors." 

§ 2. That Jesus Christ also made intercession, is declar- 
ed by the apostles in many places. Two or three may suf- 
fice. " Who is he that condemneth? It is Christ that died, 
yea rather, is risen again, who is even at the right hand of 
God, who also maketh intercession for us." Rom. 8 : 34. 
" Wherefore he is able also to save them to the uttermost 
that come unto God by him, seeing he ever liveth to make 
intercession for them." Heb. 7 : 25. " If any man sin, we 
have an advocate with the Father, even Jesus Christ the 
righteous." 1 John, 2: 1. 

§ 3. With respect to the nature of Christ's intercession, 
I would observe, 

1st. That he appears in heaven /or us, Heb. 9 : 24; as 
=1 public person, in his own nature and in ours ; as Media- 



-78 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part 1. 

tor and surety ; as Judah did for Benjamin, and Paul for 
Onesimus. His very presence in heaven as our Head and 
Redeemer, is a strong plea in our behalf. It shows that God 
is fully satisfied with his performance, and therefore has ex- 
alted him to the honor and reward promised in the cove- 
nant of redemption. 

2d. He presents himself before God as Mediator, with body 
and soul which he offered upon the cross ; with the marks 
in his hands, feet, and side. Heb. 12 : 24. Rev. 5 : 6. His 
blood is of constant efficacy, a continual intercession. Our 
fathers were obliged to renew their sacrifices continually, 
to obtain fresh blood to present it to God ; but the blood of 
Christ is ever the same, ever fresh and new, and will never 
lose its value and efficacy. Heb. 9 : 25, 26 ; 10:10-12. 

3d. Christ declares it to be his will that the blessings of 
his purchase shall be conferred on his people. Of this he 
has given us a specimen and pledge in his prayer, record- 
ed John, 17 : 24, " Father, I will that they also whom thou 
hast given me be with me where I am ; that they may be- 
hold my glory which thou hast given me." Christ here 
pleads that his people may be put in full possession of all 
the blessings which were purchased for them by the shed- 
ding of his blood. He reminds his Father, as it were, of 
the mutual covenant agreement — of his having performed 
the condition required on his part ; and claims the perform- 
ance of his Father's promise, as a debt due to his meritori- 
ous obedience even unto death. 

§ 4. The foundation of Christ's intercession is the atone- 
ment which he made for sin. As the high priest went into 
the most holy place with the blood of the sacrifice, so Christ 
first ofl!ered the sacrifice, then pleads it. There could be no 
intercession without a sacrifice going before. The condition 
of his covenant was his death ; by it the blessings were 
procured, and now he pleads that they may be conferred. 
Propitiation is the payment, intercession is the plea ; the 
one by his death, the other by his life : the one on earth, 



Let. 7.] THE INTERCESSION OF THE MESSIAH. 79 

the other in heaven. The connection of the intercession and 
death of Christ, like that of the superstructure and the foun- 
dation, is beautifully described by the apostle Paul: " Where^- 
fore he is able also to save them to the uttermost that come 
unto God by him, seeing he ever liveth to make interces- 
sion for them. For such a high priest became us, who ia 
holy, harmless, undefiled, separate from sinners, and made 
higher than the heavens ; who needeth not daily, as those 
high priests, to offer up sacrifice, first for his own sins, and 
then for the people's ; for this he did once, when he offered 
up himself." Heb. 7 : 25-27. 

§ 5. The objects of Christ's intercession are the same 
for whom he made satisfaction. He intercedes for all his 
people, for all who do now believe in him, and love him, 
and all that shall believe in him hereafter. John, 17 : 9, 20; 
" I pray for them ; I pray not for the world, but for them 
which thou hast given me. Neither pray I for these alone, 
but for them also which shall believe on me through their 
word." 

§ 6. The blessings for which Christ intercedes, are the 
same that he has procured by his obedience and sufferings 
even unto death, that their persons and services might be 
accepted ; Eph. 1 : 6, "accepted in the beloved ;" Gen. 4 : 4, 
" God had respect unto Abel." To be justified freely, i. e. 
to be treated as if they had never sinned, and therefore not 
punished; and as if they had kept the whole law, and 
therefore receive eternal life as the "free gift of God, through 
our Lord Jesus Christ." Jer. 23 : 6 ; Rom. 6:31; 8 : 33, 
34 ; 2 Cor. 5:21. As if Christ had said, " Lord, these arc 
the persons for whom I lived and died, deal with them as 
if they had not sinned, but obeyed." He also intercedes that 
their services may be accepted, and their prayers heard. 
While the high priest was offering incense, the people 
prayed without. Luke, 1:10. This was typical of Christ's 
intercession. His pleading gives efficacy to his people's 
prayers. John, 16 : 26, 27 ; 1 Pet. 2 • 5 : Rev. 8 : 3. Thos$ 



80 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part 1, 

who made their addresses to king Admetus, brought the 
prince with them in their arms. As Joseph charged his 
brethren that they should not see his face unless they 
brought Benjamin their brother with them, so we cannot 
see God's face unless we bring Jesus, our elder brother, 
with us. When Herod was displeased with the men of 
Tyre, they made Blastus, the king's chamberlain, their 
friend. Acts, 12 : 20. My dear Benjamin, J wish 1 could 
make you feel the importance of this particular. Prayer is 
to the soul what food is to the body. Christ's intercession 
is our greatest encouragement to come to a throne of grace. 
Heb. 4 : 14-16. Christ not only presents his own prayer, 
but as it were prays over our prayers. Rev. 8 : 3, "Another 
angel came, having a golden censer," &c. This angel was 
Christ. He takes the golden censer of his merits and puts 
our prayers into it, and with incense of his intercession 
makes our prayers ascend into heaven, as a sweet perfume. 
It is said, Lev. 16: 16, "Aaron shall make atonement for 
the holy place." This was typical, to show that our holy 
duties need an atonement. Our best services, as they come 
from us, are mixed with corruption, as wine that tastes of 
the cask. Isa, 64 : 6. But Christ purifies and sv.^eetens them, 
mixing the sweet odor of his intercession with them, and 
thus God accepts and crowns them. As the fan winnows 
the chaff from the wheat, so Christ's intercession separates 
the chaff that mixes with our prayers. As the mother that 
takes from her child the nosegay designed for the father, 
and separates the nettles from the flowers, so Christ sepa- 
rates the imperfections from our prayers and services. 
Another part of Christ's intercession is, 

§ 7. That all necessary blessings may be bestowed, such 
as pardon and peace. John, 14: 13. We often think it too 
much boldness to approach God. What ! such sinners as 
we to come for pardon ! we shall be denied. This is a sin- 
ful modesty. Did we come in our own name, it would in- 
deed be presumption ; but Christ intercedes for us in the 



Let. 7.] THE INTERCESSION OF THE MESSIAH. 81 

force and efficacy of his own blood ; therefore, now to be 
afraid to come to God in prayer, would be a dishonor to 
Christ's intercession. Heb. 4; 14-16. 

He also intercedes for our sanctification. His language 
in heaven is like his prayer while on earth; "Sanctify 
them through thy truth; thy word is truth." John, 17 : 17. 
This is the work and fruit of the Spirit, and therefore Christ 
promised to send him as soon as he should have ascended 
to the Father; and this unspeakable gift he bestows on all 
his children. Hence, saith the apostle, "ye have an unction 
from the Holy One." 1 John, 2: 20. By this unction they 
are made partakers of the divine nature. 2 Pet. 1 : 4. What 
is said falsely of the philosopher's stone, that the metal it 
touches is changed into gold, is perfectly true of this unction. 
Every soul it touches is changed, and made partaker of the 
divine nature ; becomes holy, and resembles God. " If any 
man be in Christ, he is a new creature : old things are 
passed away; behold, all things are become new." 2 Cor. 
5:17. 

Comfort and support under affliction are other purchased 
blessings he pleads for. 

The Spirit was not promised as a sanctifier only, but also 
as a comforter. John, 14: 16. O how refreshing the conso- 
lations of the Spirit ! — sweeter than honey that drops from 
the comb ! It is the manna in the golden pot. A drop of this 
heavenly comfort is enough to sweeten a sea of worldly 
sorrow. It is called " the earnest of the Spirit." 2 Cor. 1 : 22 ; 
an earnest to assure us of the whole sum. A taste of hea- 
venly joy and peace is an assurance of the full fruition in 
glory. Christ further intercedes, 

§ 8. That their accuser may be silenced, their enemies 

overcome, and they themselves kept from evil. Christ pleads 

for the saints, as queen Esther did for her people, the Jews, 

when Haman had determined on their destruction. " Let 

my people," said she, " be given me at my request." Esther, 

" ; 3. When Satan shows the blackness of their sins, Christ 
VOL rr. 4 



82 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part 1. 

shows the redness of his wounds. Many charges are 
brought against believers by their enemies, but Christ an- 
swers all their accusations. If true, he pleads his own me- 
rits, that they may obtain remission of sin ; if false, he vin- 
dicates them. Zech. 3 : 1,5; Rom. 8 : 33, 34. Christ inter- 
cedes for every sin. Under the law, there were some sins 
for which the high priest was neither allowed to offer sacri- 
fice nor to intercede. Hence, said David, " Thou desirest 
not sacrifice, else would I give it ; thou delightest not in 
burnt-offerings." Ps. 51: 16. But Christ, by his interces- 
sion, procures the pardon of every sin. Hence, saith the 
apostle, " The blood of Jesus Christ his Son cleanseth us 
from all sin." 1 John, 1 : 7. 

§ 9. Christ also intercedes for his people, that they may 
be enabled to persevere unto the end. We can no more keep 
ourselves in the spiritual life, than we can in the natural. 
It is God that must keep us alive, both naturally and spi- 
ritually, although we must use the means in both, as if all 
were dependent on us, 1 Pet. 1:5, " who are kept by the 
power of God, through faith, unto salvation." Our perse- 
verance is in answer to Christ's intercession. John, 17 : 24, 
The prayer of Christ for Peter is a copy of his intercession 
in heaven for every individual in his flock; " I have prayed 
for thee, that thy faith fail not." Luke, 22 : 32. The saints 
persevere in believing, because Christ perseveres in inter- 
ceding. Christ will never cease to intercede till all his 
chosen people are brought to glory. The immediate end of 
Christ's death was our reconciliation, and the immediate 
end of his intercession our glorification. John, 17:24; 
Rom. 5:10. 

§ 10. Properties of Christ's intercession. 

Christ pleads the cause of his people with infinite skill 
and wisdom. He knows every person's case, and all his 
wants. He knows what blessings they need, and how they 
are to be conveyed. He is perfectly acquainted with the 
laws and constitution of heaven, and is perfectly familiar 
with the best arguments to be used. 



Let. 7.] THE INTERCESSION OF THE MESSIAH. 83 

§ 11. He also pleads with great tenderness and compas- 
sion. Aaron had the names of the twelve tribes on the 
breastplate when he went into the most holy place to plead 
for the people. Exod. 28 : 29. But Christ has the name of 
every individual of his people engraven upon his heart. 
Hence, saith the apostle, " In all things it behoved him to 
be made like unto his brethren, that he might be a merciful 
and faithful High Priest in things pertaining to God, to 
make reconciliation for the sins of the people. For in that 
he himself has suffered, being tempted, he is able to succor 
them that are tempted." Heb. 2: 17, 18. 

Christ pleads feelingly. Not like an ordinary lawyer 
or advocate, who is not influenced so much by feelings of 
sympathy and affection as by self-interest. But Christ pleads 
his own cause and interest. He has shed his own blood to 
purchase life and salvation for his people, and if they should 
not be saved, he would lose his purchase. As a tender- 
hearted mother would plead with the judge for her son 
ready to be condemned, so Christ intercedes with the strong- 
est feelings of sympathy and compassion. Christ had com- 
passion on Israel in their temporal bondage, and therefore 
delivered them. Isa. 63 : 9. And his compassion was not 
lessened by his assumption of our nature. He became a 
man of sorrows, that he might be a man of compassion. 
By a reflection upon his own condition in the world, he is 
able to move our cause with such a tender feeling of it as 
if he had the smart of it present in his own heart and bow- 
els. The greatest pity must reside in him, since he endured 
the greatest misery in our nature. Heb. 4: 15-17. With 
what affection and compassion did he intercede for his dis- 
ciples whilst here on earth, and the glory of heaven has 
made no change in his judgment and affections. As the 
glory which he had with the Father, before the foundation 
of the world, did not prevent him from pitying our condi- 
tion in dying in our stead, so the glory which he has re- 
ceived will not prevent him from being a compassionate 
.ntercessor, 



84 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part 1, 

§ 12, Christ is a righteous and faithful advocate. I John^ 
2: 1. His intercession is founded upon truth and justice. 
He is righteous in his person and in his cause. As he could 
not have been a priest or sacrifice if there had been any 
unrighteousness in his person or life, so there could be no 
efficacy in his intercession if there were unrighteousnesB 
in his cause. He is also true and faithful. He never betrays 
the cause of his clients, either by sloth or negligence. When 
Stephen the martyr needed aid, he saw Jesus standing at 
the right hand of God. Acts, 7 : 55. 

§ 13. Christ intercedes with power and authority. It 
differs from that of one friend for another. It is his office, 
to which he was appointed ; he has a commission for it, and 
a command to discharge it. He is as much bound to inter- 
cede as he was to sacrifice ; for the one belongs as much 
to his priestly office as the other does. Ps. 2:8; 89 : 26 ; 
Heb. 5 : 5. Christ is " a priest upon his throne." He has a 
right to demand. As he taught as one having authority, so 
he intercedes as one having authority. His intercession in 
heaven is not properly a begging, but pursuing a right, by 
arguments drawn from justice and equality. In this sense 
he is called an advocate, which differs from an orator. An 
orator uses rhetoric, to persuade and entreat the judge to 
show mercy to another ; but an advocate produces the law. 
Thus, when justice demands the life of the sinner, Christ 
opens the book of the law which he fulfilled. When divine 
justice, the holy law, Satan, or our own conscience accuses 
us, Christ shows the merits of his death, or the marks of 
his crucifixion on his human nature. 

§ 14. Christ pleads with great zeal and fervency. The 
burning coals which the high priest carried into the most 
holy place, denoted the affection and fervor of the interces- 
sion of our great High Priest and Advocate. The names 
of the twelve tribes of Israel were not only to be on the 
shoulders of the high priest, but also on the breastplate. 
Christ has engaged his heart to approach unto God. Jer, 



Let. 7.] THE INTERCESSION OF THE MESSIAH. 85 

30 : 21. His language is, " O Lord, how long ! " Zech. 1:12. 
When Christ prayed for himself, he said, " Father, if it be 
thy willj" but for his people he saith, *' Father, I will;" 
more as a judge than an advocate. Christ was not more 
desirous to suffer, than he is to obtain the fruits of his suf- 
ferings. No man is more solicitous to increase the honors 
and grandeur of his family, than Christ is to secure the 
happiness of his people^ Our prayers for ourselves, when 
presented with the greatest affection, cannot be so fervent 
as his pleas for our souls are at the right hand of his Father. 

We further observe that, 

§ 15. Christ's intercession is most prevalent and success- 
ful. This may be argued from his dignity and nearness to 
God, and the perfection of his work If Jacob, as a prince, 
had power with God, how much more Christ, the Son of 
God. Christ never lost any cause he pleaded ; he was never 
non-suited. If the prayer of the righteous avail much with 
God, how much more must that of God's own Son ! When 
Moses prayed for Israel, God said, " Let me alone," as if 
his prayer had bound God's hand. By prayer, Elijah had 
power to open and shut heaven. God has commanded us 
to hear Jesus, because he is the Son of God, with whom the 
Father is well pleased, and for the same reason God will 
hear him too. If it were possible for God to forget the 
priestly office of Christ, yet he would not forget the relation 
in which he stands to him as his Son, " the brightness of 
his glory and the express image of his person." Besides, 
Christ's will in asking, is one and the same as the Father's 
in giving. Our sanctification is the will of the Father; and 
Christ prays, " Holy Father, sanctify them.'^ Nor does 
Christ ask for any thing but what he has purchased — what 
the Father has actually put into his hands — "all power in 
heaven and on earth," 

§ 16. Christ's intercession is constant and perpetual. As 
soon as Christ entered heaven, his intercession commenced 
an all its glory, and will continue for ever, Heb. 7:17. 24. 



86 JOSEPH AND DENJA3UN. [Part 1. 

Christ is never out of the way when the cause should be 
heard. He always sits at the right hand of the Father, who 
is the Judge of the world, and is never out of his presence. 
Acts, 7: 55; Heb. 4:16. The people of God, whilst here 
below, need a constant advocate in heaven ; not only be- 
cause Satan, the accuser of the brethren, is constantly en- 
gaged, but because they give constant occasion for their 
heavenly Father to be offended with them : this brings guilt 
upon their conscience, disturbs their peace, darkens their evi- 
dences, and lays them open to fatherly chastisement. Under 
such circumstances our only consolation is, " If any man 
sin, we have an advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ the 
righteous." 1 John, 2: 1. When the wrath of God began 
to break out upon Israel, Aaron presently steps in with his 
censer and offers incense ; and so the plague was stayed. 
Num. 16: 46. In like manner, when a child of God offends, 
and he is angry, Christ immediately steps in and intercedes ; 
" Father, it is my child that has offended ; though he has 
forgotten his duty, thou hast not lost thy compassion. O pity 
him, and let thine anger be turned away from him." 

§ 17. In closing this part of the subject, I would observe, 
that Christ is the one only mediator and intercessor. 

As he trod the wine-press alone, and none of the people 
were with him, so he alone intercedes in heaven. As he 
alone is the propitiation for our sins, so he alone intercedes 
with the Father. 1 Tim. 2 : 8. Guilt prevents us from plead- 
ing our own cause, nor can one intercede for another, for 
all have sinned and are condemned, and none can make 
atonement. As neither saints nor angels could make satis- 
faction for us, therefore they cannot intercede for us. 

^ 18. With respect to the reason or designs of Christ's 
intercession, I would merely observe, that it is not to inform 
God the Father, for he knows all our wants ; nor to make 
him willing to do us all the good we need, for the Father 
himself loveth us. Though there may be many reasons we 
are ignorant of, yet God never does or appoints any thing 



Let. 7.] THE INTERCESSION OF THE MESSIAH. 87 

without reasons perfectly known to himself, and perfectly- 
consistent with his nature and government. Thus much we 
know, that it is exceedingly useful and instructive to us. 
I will point out a few of these instructions. 

§ 19. The intercession of Christ teaches, 

The majesty, holiness, and justice of God. Plato says 
that God has no immediate intercourse with men but by 
means of demons or angels. When Israel was round Sinai, 
a boundary was fixed, and Moses alone drew near, to show 
his awful majesty; but, by Christ's intercession we are 
taught that we are utterly unfit to draw near to God, to speak 
to him, but only through Christ as intercessor. The atone- 
ment of Christ was but a transient display of God's holiness 
and j stice; but the intercession of Christ is a lasting and 
consto It manifestation of it. 

§ 2 K A most aflfecting view of the evil of sin is another 
impor ant lesson taught by the intercession of Christ. Here- 
by Gcd declares that sin is so hateful that the sinner is not 
allowed to come near to him but by Christ. Our prayers 
are not received, or our persons accepted, till hallowed by 
him. The tears of a penitent will not prevail with God 
without an intercessor. When God was angry with Job's 
friends, he would not hear them, but Job must intercede for 
them. Job, 42 : 8. 

§ 21. The intercession of Christ displays his dignity and 
love. 

The same love which led him to bear our sins in his own 
body on the tree, leads him to intercede for us in heaven. 
O how constant the love of Christ ! He is the same yester- 
day, to-day, and for ever. Heb. 13:8. The same love which 
led him to groan and sigh, to weep and pray, to bleed and 
die, while on earth, constrains him to intercede in heaven. 
When Christ ceased from suffering and dying, he did not 
cease loving; and he will never cease praying till his 
prayer is perfectly answered — " Father, I will that they also 



88 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part 1. 

whom thou hast given me be with me where I am." John, 
17:24. 

^ 22. The penitent sinner is greatly encouraged by the 
intercession of Christ to come to God. 

God is seated on a throne of grace, and at his right hand 
is Christ our advocate. We cannot with much hope ap- 
proach an offended and highly incensed friend. In such a 
case we naturally fly to the intercession of others. Christ 
is an all-powerful intercessor. However loud the cry of 
our sins is, the cry of his blood and intercession is still 
louder, and will prevail. Will not God hear his own dear 
Son ? The spirit of bondage, under the Old Testament, w£is 
partly owing to the want of an intercessor ; but now we may 
come with boldness to a throne of grace. Read carefully, 
my dear Benjamin, the following encouraging portions of 
the word of God. " Whatsoever ye shall ask in my name, 
that will I do, that the Father may be glorified in the Son. 
If ye shall ask any thing in my name, I will do it." John, 
14: 13, 14. *' In whom we have boldness and access with 
confidence by the faith of him." Eph. 3 : 12. Seeing, then, 
we have a great High Priest that is passed into the heavens, 
Jesus the Son of God, let us hold fast our profession. For 
we have not an high priest which cannot be touched with 
the feelings of our infirmities ; but was in all points tempted 
like as we are, yet without sin. Let us therefore come boldly 
unto the throne of grace, that we may obtain mercy, and find 
grace to help in time of need." Heb. 4: 14-16. "Having 
therefore, brethren, boldness to enter into the holiest by the 
blood of Jesus, by a new and living way, which he has con- 
secrated for us, through the veil, that is to say, his flesh." 
Heb. 10. 19,20. 



L«t 8] THE Messiah's kingly office, 89 



LiETTER Till. 



THE MESSIAH'S KINGLY OFFICE. 



My Dear Brother Benjamin, 

You have doubtless observed that the Messiah was pro- 
mised under a great variety of characters. We have al- 
ready considered him as a Prophet like unto Moses, and as 
a Priest superior unto Aaron and all his sacrifices ; a Priest 
after the order of Melchizedeck. We now propose to con- 
sider him as a King invested with universal authority and 
fowei. This was taught, 

^ 1. Typically. Melchizedeck, that wonderful man, who 
was both king of peace and righteousness, was an emi- 
nent type of the Messiah. David and Solomon, the great- 
est and best kings our nation ever had, were but types of 
the Messiah, who was far superior to both. Many things 
which are primarily applied to them, have their complete 
and final accomplishment in him alone. 

^ 2. The prophets also predicted and characterized Mes- 
siah as a King. 

I will notice chiefly those predictions which our Rab- 
bins applied to the Messiah, as mentioned in the first 
volume. 

Memorable are the words of Balaam. '♦ There shall come 
a star out of Jacob, and a sceptre shall arise out of Israel — - 
out of Jacob shall come He that shall have dominion." Num. 
24 : 17, 19. (See page 259.) Hence you know, dear Ben- 
jamin, that our Rabbins frequently spake of a star that should 
announce the birth of Messiah. Take the following : " The 
King Messiah shall be revealed ir the land of Galilee ; and 
4* 



^0 JOSEPH AND BENJAMII^. [Part 1. 

lo, a star in the east shall swallow up seven stars of the 
north, and a flame of red fire shall be in the firmament six 
days." Again, " when the Messiah shall be revealed there 
shall rise up in the east a certain star flaming with six 
sorts of colors." Once more it is affirmed, as a tradition, 
that the holy and blessed God has determined to build Je- 
rusalem, and to make a certain star appear sparkling with 
seven blazing tails shining upon it in the midst of the firma- 
ment, and then shall the King Messiah be revealed to all 
the world. Zohar. Gen. f. 74 : 3. Exod. f 3 : 34. Num. 
fol. 85, 86 : 1. Hence at the birth of Jesus an unusual star 
appeared, Avhich led the Magi or wise men from the east 
to Jerusalem, inquiring " where is he that is born King of 
the Jews ?" Matt. 2 : 2. An eastern writer relates the fol- 
lowing speech as spoken by the wise men unto Herod : — 
•' A certain person," said they, " of great note with us, in a 
book which he composed, warned us in it, mentioning these 
things : a child that shall descend from heaven will be born 
in Palestine, whom the greatest part of the world shall 
serve ; and the sign of his appearance shall be this : ye 
shall see a strange star, which shall direct you where 
he is : when ye shall see this, take gold, myrrh, and frank- 
incense, and go and offer them to him and worship him, and 
then return, lest a greater calamity befall you. Now, the star 
has appeared unto us, and we are come to perform what 
was commanded us." Abulphrag, Hist. Dynast, p. 54. 70. 
Chaludius, a Platonic philosopher and not a Christian, 
says : " There is also a more venerable and sacred history, 
which speaks of the rising of a certain unusual star; not 
foretelling diseases and death, but the descent of a venera- 
ble God, born for the sake of human conversation and the 
affairs of mortals; which star truly, when the wise men of 
the Chaldeans saw in their journey by night, and being very 
expert in their considerations of celestial things, are said to 
inquire after the birth of the new Deity, and having found 
the infant majesty, to vvorship him and pay their vows, wor- 



Let. 8.] THE Messiah's kingly office. 91 

thy of such a God." Fabricie Bibliothee. Latin, p. 142-146. 
Now the knowledge of a star, predicted by Balaam, may 
have been obtained either from the translation of the Old 
Testament into Greek, called the Septuagint, or from Zer- 
dusk or Zoroastes, the author of the sect of the Jewish Magi, 
who is said to have been a Jew by birth, and well acquaint- 
ed with the Old Testament. Thus, my dear Benjamin, 
you perceive that Balaam prophesied of the Messiah to be a 
King. In the book of Psalms we have several predictions 
concerning Messiah's kingdom. In the second Psalm, the 
whole of which our Rabbins applied to the Messiah, (p. 57,) 
Jehovah himself declares, "Yet have I set my King upon 
my holy hill of Zion." Psa. 2 : 6. The hill of Zion was 
the favored spot where the Lord God fixed the throne of 
David in spite of all his malignant enemies ; and it prefi- 
gured the kingdom over which the Messiah was to reign, 
the more honorable place in heaven, where the throne of his 
majesty is erected, to the joy of his people and the confusion 
of all them that hate him. 

To the same promised Messiah our Rabbins ascribe the 
seventy-second Psalm, (p. 157,) in which his kingly office 
was thus foretold : " He shall come down like rain upon 
the mown grass ; as showers that water the earth. In his 
days shall the righteous flourish ; and abundance of peace 
so long as the moon endureth. He shall have dominion 
from sea to sea, and from the river unto the ends of the 
earth. They that dwell in the wilderness shall bow before 
him, and his enemies shall lick the dust. The kings of 
Tarshish and of the isles shall bring presents; the kings of 
Sheba and Seba shall ofTer gifts. Yea, all kings shall fall 
down before him, all nations shall serve him." Psa. 72 : 
6-1 1. Under the same glorious character he was predicted 
in the 1 10th Psa. (p. 308,) " The Lord said unto my Lord, 
Sit thou at my right hand until I make thine enemies thy 
footstool. The Lord shall send the rod of thy strength out 
of Zion : rule thou in the midst of thine enemies. Thy peo- 



92 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN, [Part 1. 

pie shall be willing in the day of thy power, in the beauties 
of holiness from the womb of the morning: thou hast the 
dew of thy youth." Psa. 110: 1-3. 

The princely and evangelic Isaiah is often transported 
with the anticipation of this illustrious King. "For unto 
us a child is born, unto us a son is given, and the govern- 
ment shall be upon his shoulder ; and his name shall be 
called Wonderful, Counsellor, the Mighty God, the Ever- 
lasting Father, the Prince of Peace. Of the increase of his 
government and peace there shall be no end, upon the throne 
of David, and upon his kingdom, to order and to establish 
it with judgment and justice, from henceforth even for ever. 
The zeal of the Lord of hosts will perform this." Isa. 9: 
6, 7. See also Isa. II : 1-7. Both these predictions are ap- 
plied by our Rabbins to the Messiah, (p. 122, 233.) 

In like manner the prophet Jeremiah spoke of the Mes- 
siah as a King. 

"Behold, the days come, saith the Lord, that I will raise 
unto David a righteous Branch, and a King shall reign and 
prosper, and shall execute judgment and justice in the earth." 
Jer. 23 : 5. This prediction is repeated in chap. 33 : 15. and 
applied by the Rabbins to the Messiah, (p. 126.) 

Neither is the royal character of Messiah omitted by the 
Prophet Ezekiel. " I the Lord will be their God, and my 
servant David a prince among them : I the Lord have spo- 
ken it," Ezek. 34 : 24. Again : " I will make them one na- 
tion in the land upon the mountains of Israel ; and one king 
shall be king to them all. David my servant shall be king 
over them." Ezek. 37 : 22-24, (p. 236.) 

The Messiah's kingdom was represented to Nebuchad- 
nezzar in his dream, as a stone which was cut out without 
hands, which smote the image upon its feet that were of 
iron and clay and brake them to pieces — and the stone which 
smote the image became a great mountain, and filled the 
whole earth. Dan. 2 : 34, 35. Daniel, in expounding this 
dream, having described the Babylonian, the Persian, the 



Let. 8.] THE Messiah's kingly office. 93 

Grecian, and Roman empires, subjoins, " In the days of 
these kings shall the God of heaven set up a kingdom 
which shall never be destroyed ; and the kingdom shall 
not be left to other people, but it shall break in pieces and 
consume all these kingdoms, and it shall stand for ever." 
Ver. 44. Again, the samepiophet, in describing the vision 
he himself had, says, '' I saw in the night vision, and be- 
hold, one like the Son of man came with the clouds of hea- 
ven, and came to the Ancient of days, and they brought him 
near before him. And there was given him dominion, and 
glory, and a kingdom, that all people, nations, and langua- 
ges, should serve him ; his dominion is an everlasting do- 
minion, which shall not pass away, and his kingdom that 
which shall not be destroyed." Chap. 7:13, 14. (p. 264, 
308.) 

Micah the prophet, predicting the birth-place of Messiah, 
describes him as a king, saying, " But thou, Bethlehem 
Ephratah, though thou be little amongst the thousands of 
Judah, yet out of thee shall he come forth unto me that is 
to be Ruler in Israel ; whose goings forth have been from oi 
old, from everlasting." Micah, 5 : 2. (p. 257.) Hence, 
when the wise men of the east inquired for the new-born 
King of the Jews, the high priest directed them to Beth- 
lehem. 

The prophet Zechariah, in prospect of Messiah's tri- 
umphant entrance into Jerusalem, exclaims, " Rejoice 
greatly, O daughter of Zion ; shout, O daughter of Jerusa- 
lem. Behold, thy King cometh unto thee. He is just, and 
having salvation ; lowly, and riding upon an ass, and upon a 
colt, the foal of an ass." Zech. 9 : 9. (p. 263.) 

§ 3. The prophets further ascribe to the Messiah all the 
ensigns of royalty ; a sceptre, a crown, a throne, and a 
sword ; subjects over whom he was to rule, even all the 
creatures in heaven and on earth ; yea, all the angels in hea- 
ven were to take the oath of allegiance to him. See. Psa. 



94 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Parti. 

2:9. 45. 103: 19. It is further evident that the Messiah 
was to be a king. 

^ 4. From the expectation of the people, both heathen and 
our own people, you perceive, my dear Benjamin, that all the 
prophets conspired to describe him as a glorious King. No 
wonder, therefore, that at the birth of Jesus there was a 
general expectation amongst the Gentiles, as well as 
amongst our people, that a king should reign, as has been 
shown at large, (p. 147.) Besides, you know, my dear Ben- 
jamin, that nothing is more common in the writings of our 
ancient and modern rabbins, than the word " Melech Mes- 
hiach,^^ i. e. King Messiah. Whilst Jesus was on the earth, 
the people in general, and his disciples in particular, ex- 
pected that he would set up a kingdom. Hence the Phari- 
sees inquired when the kingdom of God was to come. 
Luke, 17 : 20. And when Jesus made his public entrance 
into Jerusalem, the people cried, " Hosanna, blessed is the 
King of Israel, that cometh in the name of the Lord." 
John, 12 : 13. After the resurrection of Jesus his disciples 
said, *' Lord, wilt thou at this time restore again the king- 
dom to Israel ?" Acts, 1 : 6. 

§ 5. Jesus Christ is Messiah the King. 

He is a King invested with all regal power and princejy 
authority; " King of kings and Lord of lords; the Prince 
of the kings of the earth." This name he has written on 
his vesture and on his thigh. Rev. 19 : 16. The angel that 
announced his birth, declared him to be a King. " And the 
angel said unto her, fear not, Mary, for thou hast found fa- 
vor with God ; and behold, thou shalt conceive in thy womb, 
and bring forth a son, and shalt call his name Jesus ; and 
he shall be great, and shall be called the Son of the High- 
est ; and the Lord God shall give unto him, the throne of 
his father David, and he shall reign over the house of Ja- 
cob for ever, and of his kingdom there shall be no end." 
Luke, 1 : 30-33. 

Jesus Christ asserted it. Even when he conversed among 



JLet. 8.J THE Messiah's kingly office, 95 

men, in the humble form of a servant, he assumed the 
royal character. " All power is given unto me in heaven 
and in earth." Matt. 28 : 18. Again : " As thou hast given 
him power over all flesh." John, 17 : 2. Again he said 
to his disciples, " I appoint unto you a kingdom, as my 
Father has appointed unto me." Luke, 22 : 29. And when 
accused before Pilate of being guilty of high treason for 
having assumed the title of king, he confessed, and denied 
not that he was a king." John, 18 : 33-37. This passage 
will be considered more particularly hereafter. It is worthy 
of notice, my dear Benjamin, that even Pilate the heathen 
was overruled to give a kind of accidental testimony of 
this truth, and to publish it to different nations by the in- 
scription upon the cross in three languages then most in 
use, viz. the Latin, Greek, and Hebrew, " This is the 
King of the Jews," and all the remonstrances of the Jews 
could not prevail with him to alter it. Luke, 23 : 38. John, 
19 : 19-22. 

The apostles confirmed it. On the day of Pentecost, Pe- 
ter boldly tells the very murderers of Christ, saying, " Let 
all the house of Israel know assuredly, that God has made 
that same Jesus, whom ye have crucified, both Lord and 
Christ." Acts, 2 : 36. And again Peter and all the apos- 
tles when forbidden to speak any more in the name of Je- 
sus, "answered and said, we ought to obey God rather 
than men. The God of our fathers raised up Jesus, whom 
ye slew and hanged on a tree. Him has God exalted with 
his right hand to be a Prince and a Savior." Acts, 5 : 29-31. 

The apostle Paul frequently represents Christ as ad 
vanced "far above all principalities, and power, and might, 
and dominion, and every name that is named, not only in 
this world, but also in that which is to come ; and has put 
all things under his feet, and gave him to be the head over 
all things to the church." Eph. 1 : 21-22. Phil. 2 : 9-1 1. 
The saints and angels in heaven celebrate the honors of 
King Jtsus. Take the following as a specimen ; and O 



96 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Parti. 

my dear Benjamin, may we be prepared to join the new 
song in heaven. " And they sung a new song, saying. 
Thou art worthy to take the book, and to open the seals 
thereof; for thou wast slain, and hast redeemed us to God 
by thy blood, out of every kindred, and tongue, and people, 
and nation ; and hast made us unto our God kings and 
priests : and we shall reign on the earth. And I beheld, 
and I heard the voice of many angels round the throne, and 
the beasts, and the elders ; and the number of them was 
ten thousand times ten thousand, and thousands of thou- 
sands ; saying with a loud voice. Worthy is the Lamb that 
was slain to receive power, and riches, and wisdom, and 
strength, and honor, and glory, and blessing. And every 
creature which is in heaven, and on the earth, and under 
the earth, and such as are in the sea, and all that are in them 
heard I saying, Blessing, and honor, and glory, and power, 
be unto him that sitteth upon the throne, and unto the Lamb, 
for ever and ever. And the four beasts said, Amen. And 
the four-and-twenty elders fell down and worshiped him that 
liveth for ever and ever." Rev. 5 : 9-14. 

^ 6. I proceed now to show that Jesus Christ was per- 
fectly qualified to be a king. 

His wisdom was infinite. A king should be wise as an 
angel of God, to know all things appertaining to civil 
government, as the woman of Tekoah said David was, 
even to know and to be able to penetrate into the designs ot 
his enemies, to guard against them, to provide for the safety 
and welfare of his subjects ; and such is David's Son and 
antitype, the Messiah ; on whom rests the spirit of wisdom 
and understanding, of counsel and of knowledge ; and who 
has all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge ; and all that 
wisdom by which kings reign and princes decree judgment, 
is from him. Isa. 11 : 1, 2. 

He was just and righteous. King David with his last 
words declared that '' he that ruleth over men inust be 
just, ruling in the fear of God." 2 Samuel, 23 : 3. This was 



Let. 8.] THE Messiah's kingly office. 97 

evidently the case with his Son and Lord, the Messiah. 
•'Justice and judgment are the habitation of his throne, 
mercy and truth go continually before him." His sceptre 
is a sceptre of righteousness. " Render unto Caesar the 
things which are Caesar's, and unto God the things which 
are God's." Matt. 22 : 21. Though he permits, limits, or- 
ders, and overrules many unholy persons and actions, yet 
he still works like himself, most holy and righteous. " The 
Lord is righteous in all his ways, and holy in all his works." 
Psa. 145 : 17. It is easier to separate light from a sun- 
beam, than holiness from the works of God. The best of 
men cannot escape sin in their most holy actions, but no sin 
cleaveth to God, whatever he has to do with it. He also 
possesses almighty power. "Though a child born, yet he is 
the •' Mighty God." Isa. 9 : 6. Besides his essential, native 
power and dominion over all, which belong to him as God, 
there is a mediatory, dispensed authority, which is pecu- 
liar to him as Mediator, as the reward and fruit of his suf- 
ferings. Phil. 2 : 8. This authority extends over the whole 
creation. " Thou hast given him power overall flesh." John, 
17:2. All creatures, rational and irrational, animate and 
inanimate, ans^els devils, men, winds, and seas must all 
obey him. 

All power was promised to the Messiah : " I will give 
thee the heathen for thine inheritance." Ps. 2 : 8. This 
was fulfilled. " All power is given me." Matt. 28 : 18. His 
resurrection had not attained its full end and perfection, had 
he not been exalted to a glorious government. It was for 
this end that he died, that he rose again, and revived, that 
he might be Lord both of the dead and the living. Rom. 
14 : 9. He died to purchase it, he rose to possess it, and 
lives for ever to manage it. He was exalted for the honor 
of God and the happiness of believers ; as Joseph, the 
type, was advanced to manage affairs for the interest of the 
crown and the good of the people. 

Love stronger than death is another qualification pecu- 



^8 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part 1. 

liar to Christ. He " loved the church, and gave himself for 
her." Eph. 5 : 2. 

He is a King full of mercy and clemency : as he has a 
sceptre in his hand, so an olive branch of peace in his 
mouth. Though he be the Lion of the tribe of Judah in 
majesty, yet he is the Lamb of God in meekness. He 
sheds abroad his love into the heart of his subjects; he rules 
them with promises as well as precepts. This makes all 
his subjects volunteers, they are willing to pay their alle- 
giance to him. Psa. 110 : 3. 

How exactly did he answer the prophetic description 
with respect to humility and meekness. Zech. 9 : 9. Isa. 
42 : 2, 3. None could ever say with such propriety as he 
could, " Take my yoke upon you, and learn of me ; for I 
am meek and lowly in heart." Matt. 11 : 29. 

The meek Moses could not bear the provocations of the 
people; Numb. 11: 12; but Christ bears them all, •' He 
carries the lambs in his bosom, and gently leads those that 
be with young." Isa. 40 : 11. He is one that can have com- 
passion upon the ignorant, and them that are out of the way. 
" A bruised reed he shall not break, and the smoking flax 
he shall not quench." Isa. 42 : 2, 3. 

Well might he be styled the " Prince of Peace." Isa. 
9: 6. 

When his disciples asked for permission to call fire from 
heaven to consume his enemies, he rebuked them, saying, 
" The Son of man is not come to destroy men's lives, but 
to save them." Luke, 9 : 56. 

Another qualification peculiar to Jesus, is that he lives 
for ever. " They shall perish, but thou shalt endure ; yea, 
all of them shall wax old like a garment ; as a vesture 
shalt thou change them, and they shall be changed : but 
thou art the same, and thy years shall have no end." Psa. 
102:26, 27. 

§ 7. We will now proceed to state the nature of Mes- 
siah's kingdom. 



Let. 8] THE Messiah's kingly office. 99 

Messiah has a twofold kingdom — his essential, and his 
mediatorial kingdom. The former belongs to him by nature, 
as he is the eternal Son of God, equal with his Father in all 
things. The mediatorial kingdom is that kingdom which 
belongs to him as Mediator, and is the reward of his obedi- 
ence and sufferings unto death. The former consists in his 
right to possession of, and power over all things in the 
universe ; the latter consists of all those whom the Father 
has given unto him, and whom he has purchased with his 
blood, and whom he now lives to see brought to glory. 

The mediatorial work of Christ consists of two parts ; 
the one to be perfected while he was here on earth, and the 
other to be carried on* by his life in heaven. The former 
consists in his state of humiliation, his incarnation, suf- 
ferings, death, and burial. The latter consists in his resur- 
rection, ascension, and sitting at the right hand of God, till 
all his enemies are made his footstool. Whilst engaged in 
accomplishing the former, he laid aside the manifestation and 
exercise of his essential glory and power ; but having finish- 
ed it, he prayed his Father to restore to him that essential 
glory and power, to be manifested and exercised in the ac- 
complishment of the second part of his mediatorial work, viz. 
to bring his people to the eternal possession and enjoyment 
of the heavenly felicity he had procured for them. Hence, 
at the close of his state of humiliation, the dear Redeemer 
said in his last prayer, '' I have glorified thee on the earth : 
I have finished the work which thou gavest me to do. And 
now, O Father, glorify thou me with thine own self with 
the glory which I had with thee before the world was." 
John, 17 : 4, 5. Hence saith the apostle, " Let this mind be 
in you, which was also in Christ Jesus : who being in the 
form of God, thought it not robbery to be equal with God : 
but made himself of no reputation, and took upon him the 
form of a servant, and was made in the likeness of men : 
and being found in fashion as a man, he humbled himself, 
and became obedient unto death, even the death of the cross. 



.^00 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Parti. 

Wherefore God hath also highly exalted him, and given him 
a name which is above every name : that at the name of 
Jesus every knee shall bow, of things in heaven, and things 
in earth, and things under the earth ; and that every tongue 
should confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of 
God the Father." Phil. 2: 5-11. 

With respect to his essential kingdom, the apostle calls 
him "the blessed and only Potentate, the King of kings and 
Lord of lords; who only hath immortality, dwelling in 
the light which no man can approach unto ; whom no man 
hath " seen or can see : to whom be honor and power ever- 
lasting. Amen." 1 Tim. 6: 15, 16. 

With respect to his mediatorial kingdom the Father 
says " Yet have I set my King upon my holy hill of Zion." 
Psa. 2 : 6. And king David, by the Spirit, speaks, in this 
wise, " The Lord said unto my Lord, sit thou at my right 
hand, until 1 make thine enemies thy footstool." Psa. 110: 
1. Thus you will perceive, my dear Benjamin, that by the 
mediatorial kingdom, is meant an empire of grace, an ad- 
ministration of mercy over our guilty world. It is the dis- 
pensation intended for the salvation of fallen sinners of our 
race by the Gospel ; and on this account the Gospel is often 
called the kingdom of heaven, because its happy conse- 
quences are not confined to the earth, but shall be realized 
in heaven in the highest perfection, and shall last throusrh 
all eternity. 

§ 8. Although what has been said might be sufficient 
to show the nature of Messiah's kingdom and of his sub- 
jects, yet as the erroneous conceptions of our nation on this 
subject were the cause of their rejection of Jesus as the 
promised Messiah, (as I have stated before, see p. 45.) and as 
our beloved nation are still under the same influence, per- 
mit me to detain you a little longer. It is very evident, that 
whilst the prophets foretold that Messiah's kingdom should 
exceed all other kingdoms in glory, extent, and duration, 
yet they also describe him as a king who, like David, was 



Let. 8.J THE MESSIAH'S KINGLY OFFICE. 101 

to wade through an ocean of sufferings to the possession 
of his kingdom. And it is still more evident that his king- 
dom was to be spiritual and not temporal. Hence the Sa- 
vior himself openly and positively declared, " My kingdom 
is not of this world." 

My dear Benjamin, you will doubtless remember that I 
have already shown that the chief cause why our people 
rejected Jesus of Nazareth, was the meanness and poverty 
of his appearance, or not answering their expectations of a 
worldly kingdom. Neither is it to be wondered at that they 
should conceive such ideas, when the prophets ascribed to 
the Messiah all the ensigns, splendor and conquests of a 
king. But it is evident that the prophecies must be under- 
stood in a spiritual sense. 

I have already noticed, in section 5, that when Christ was 
arraigned before Pontius Pilate, and charged with being 
guilty of high treason in making himself a king, " he wit- 
nessed a good confession," although it exposed him to death. 
But although he confessed himself to be a king, he describ- 
ed the nature of his kingdom to differ from the kingdoms 
of this world, and therefore it was not treason against Caesar. 
As if Christ had said, 1 do not deny that I claim a kingdom, 
but it is of such a nature that it need give no alarm to the 
kings of the earth. Their kingdoms are of this world, but 
mine is spiritual and divine, and therefore cannot interfere 
with theirs. If my kingdom were of this world, like theirs, 
I would use the same methods as they do to obtain and se- 
cure it ; my servants would fight for me, that I should not 
be delivered to the Jews ; but now ye see I use no such 
means for my defence, or to raise me to my kingdom ; and 
therefore ye may be assured my kingdom is not from hence, 
and can give the Roman emperor no reason for suspicion or 
uneasiness. Pilate asked again. Art thou a king then? 
Jesus answered, " Thou sayest I am a king ;" i. e. thou hast 
struck upon the truth. I am indeed a king in a certain 
sense, and nothing shall constrain me to renounce the title. 



102 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Pixrl 1. 

" To this end was I born, and for this came I into the world, 
that I should bear witness to the truth." This is that good 
confession which St. Paul says our Lord witnessed before 
Pontius Pilate. Neither the hopes of deliverance, nor the 
terrors of death, could cause him to retract or renounce his 
claim. 

In my next letter I will endeavor to show in what res- 
pects Messiah's kingdom differs from the kingdoms of this 
world. In the meanwhile I bid you Farewell. 



Letter IX. 

THE NATURE OF MESSIAH's KINGDOM. 

Dear Benjamin^ 

Agreeably to promise, I will now show you in what 
respects the kingdom of Messiah differs from the kingdoms 
of this world. 

§ 1. It differs with respect to the foundation on which it 
rests. Jesus Christ is a King ; not by usurpation, but le- 
gally; by immediate tenure from heaven. God the Father 
has decreed him to be a King, and has sealed him to his 
royal office. Psa. 2 : 6, 7 ; John, 6 : 27. Christ has a right 
to his kingdom, both by his Father's gift and his own pur- 
chase; "He has purchased the church with his blood." 
Acts, 20 : 28 ; 1 Peter, 1:19. The kingdoms of this world 
are often founded in blood, and many lives lost on both sides 
in acquiring them : the kingdom of Christ, too, was founded 
in blood, but it was the blood of his own heart ; life was 
lost in the conflict, but it was his own — his own life laid 
down to purchase life for his people. The kings of this 



Let. 9.] THE NATURE OF MESSIAh's KINGDOM. 103 

world often sacrifice the lives of their subjects, whilst they 
keep themselves out of danger, living in the pleasures and 
luxuries of a court; but Jesus engaged in the conflict with 
death and hell alone. How worthy, my dear Benjamin, is 
such a General to be Commander in Chief of the hosts of 
God, and to lead the armies of heaven and earth ! 

§ 2. Christ's kingdom was not of this world, as it regards 
his subjects. They are such as are "born, not of blood, nor 
of the will of the flesh, but of God." John, 1 : 13. They 
are such, and such only, as have experienced the inward 
operations of the Spirit. The seat of this operation is in the 
faculties of the soul and the understanding, will, and afl^ec- 
tions, the free and unforced inclination and actings of the 
mind. These subjects publicly own and acknowledge his 
authority, make an open profession of faith in him, and sub- 
mit to his laws and regulations. Hence they are said '* to 
be delivered from the power of darkness, and translated into 
the kingdom of his dear Son." Col. I : 13. Hence "the 
kingdom of God and his righteousness " are joined together. 
Matt. 6 : 33. It is that kingdom of God which consists, "not 
in word, but in power." 1 Cor. 4 : 20. " Not in meat and 
drink, but righteousness and peace, and joy in the Holy 
Ghost." Rom. 14 : 17. These operations of the Spirit pro- 
duce real holiness and purity of heart and life, inward peace 
and serenity of conscience, in a joyful and cheerful dis- 
charge of our duty towards God and man. With respect to 
these subjects, Christ is called the King of saints. Rev. 15 : 
3. Further, it is not of this world, with respect to 

^ 2. The laws by which it is governed. 

The laws of human governments are often defective and 
unrighteous, but the laws of Christ's kingdom are perfectly 
holy, just, and good. The sanction of human laws, both 
with respect to their rewards and punishments, can only 
affect our mortal bodies ; but the sanctions of Christ's king- 
dom are eternal. Everlasting happiness is the reward, and 
everlasting misery the punishment which Jesus, the immor 



104 JOSEPH AND ee.\ja:>iI-V. [Parti. 

tal King, distributes amongst his immortal subjects. Hu- 
man laws can extend to outward actions only, but the laws 
of Christ's kingdom search the heart and the principles and 
actions within. Not a secret thought, not a motion of the 
soul is exempted from them. 

^ 4. The ministers and officers of Christ's kingdom dif- 
fer from those of the kingdoms of this world. All the 
angels in heaven are "ministering spirits, sent forth to 
minister for them who shall be heirs of salvation." Heb. 1 : 
14. Apostles, prophets, evangelists, pastors and teachers, 
are the ambassadors and ministers of Christ. They are in- 
trusted with the glorious ministry of reconciliation, to be- 
seech men, in his stead, to be reconciled to God : to preach 
his word, to administer his ordinances, and to manage the 
affairs of his kingdom, is their arduous but noble work. 
They are not adorned, like the ministers of earthly courts, 
with trappings of gold and silver, but with the beauties of 
holiness, the ornament of a meek and a quiet, zealous and 
faithful spirit, and a life becoming the Gospel of Christ, 
who was himself poor, humble, meek and lowly. 

^ 5. Christ's kingdom was not of this world, as it respects 
his soldiers. 

All of his subjects are soldiers ; their life is a constant 
ivarfare ; they have ever to watch against temptations from 
without, and insurrections of sin from within ; but they 
wrestle not with flesh and blood only. They are indeed 
poor and weak in themselves, yet they overcome through 
the blood of the Lamb, and he makes them conquerors, yea, 
more than conquerors. They are most successful when upon 
their knees. This is their most advantageous posture, which 
brings down strength from heaven in the hour of difficulty. 

As their enemies are spiritual, so are their arms and am- 
munition. "Our weapons are not carnal," &c. Hence the 
apostle, like a general at the head of his army, addresses 
the Ephesian soldiers in the military style, " Be strong in 
the Lord, and in the power of his might. Put on the whole 



Lei. 9.] THE NATURE OF MESSIAh's KINGDOM. 105 

armor of God, that ye may be able to stand against the wiles 
of the devil. For we wrestle not against flesh and blood, 
but against principalities, against powers, against the rulers 
of the darkness of this world, against spiritual wickedness 
in high places. Wherefore take unto you the whole armor 
of God, that ye may be able to withstand in the evil day, 
and having done all, to stand. Stand therefore, having your 
loins girt about with truth, and having on the breastplate 
of righteousness ; and having your feet shod with the pre- 
paration of the Gospel of peace ; above all, taking the shield 
of faith, wherewith ye shall be able to quench all the fiery 
darts of the wicked. And take the helmet of salvation, and 
the sword of the Spirit, which is the word of God : praying 
always with all prayer and supplication." Eph. 6: 10-18. 

Another regiment of soldiers, which are not of this world, 
are the angels in heaven. They are volunteers under the 
Captain of salvation. Hence, said the Savior, " I could pray 
to my Father, and he would send me more than twelve le- 
gions of angels." Matt. 26 : 53. Permit me, my dear Ben- 
jamin, to recommend to you the following all-glorious de- 
scription of King Messiah and his soldiers. "And I saw 
heaven opened, and behold a white horse ; and he that sat 
upon him was called Faithful and True; and in righteous- 
ness he doth judge and make war. His eyes were as a flame 
of fire, and on his head were many crowns; and he had a 
name written that no man knew but he himself: and he 
was clothed with a vesture dipped in blood : and his name 
is called The Word of God. And the armies which were 
in heaven followed him upon white horses, clothed in fine 
linen, white and clean. And out of his mouth goeth a sharp 
sword, that with it he should smite the nations ; and he shall 
rule them with a rod of iron: and he treadeth the wine- 
press of the fierceness and wrath of Almighty God. And 
he hath on his vesture and on his thigh a name written, 
King of kings, and Lord of lords." Rev. 19: 11-16. 

§ 6. The kingdom of Christ is not of this world, as it 

respects the arms and weapons he uses. 
VOL n c 



lOG JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part 1. 

He do€S not employ such artillery as the kings of the 
earth do, to reduce whole cities to ashes. His exploits are 
neither the forcing of entrenchments, nor the coloring of 
rivers with blood, nor the covering of whole countries with 
carcasses, nor the filling^ of the world with carnage, and 
terror, and death; but to disarm divine justice, to dissipate 
prejudice by demonstration, to calm the troubled conscience, 
and to conquer death and the grave. The weapons he uses 
are his cross, his word, his example, and his Spirit. 

By his word and Spirit his subjects become effectually 
convinced of their sin in rebellion, and reduced to subjec- 
tion to him. The word is the word of his power, by which 
he has subdued nations to himself. It was by this word 
that in the primitive time he overturned the empire of the 
tlevil, silenced the heathen oracles, and demolished the 
pagan idolatrous worship. 

§ 7. Christ's kingdom is not of this world, with respect 
to ensigns and equipage. 

King Jesus did not appear in warldly pomp and grandeur,, 
attended with a splendid equipage, surrounded with armed 
guards, and attended by a brilliant and magnificent court; 
but he came in spiritual splendor, agreeable to the predic- 
tion of Zechariah, " Behold, thy King cometh unto thee : 
he is just, and having salvation ; lowly, and riding upon an 
ass, and upon a colt^ the foal of an ass." Chap, 9 : 9. 

His throne is in :heav-en, not on earth. Psa. 110: 1. His 
sceptre is a spiritual one, the word of God which he wields 
for the good of his people: it is the rod of his strength, 
which he sends out of Zion, by which he makes his people 
willing in the day of his power. Psa. 110; 3. 

§ 8. Christ's kingdom is not of this world with respect 
to his exploits and heroic actions. The founders of earthly 
kingdoms are famous for having braved the dangers of the 
seas and land, routed powerful enemies, and subjugated na- 
tions to their will. They have shed rivers of blood, laid ci- 
ties in ruins, and countries in desolation. How different the 



Let. 9.] THE NATURE OF MESSIAH's KINGDOM. 107 

exploits of Jesus ! How gracious, how beneficient in their 
kind ! His conquests were deliverances, his victories sal- 
vation. He subdued in order to set free, and made cap- 
tives to deliver them from slavery. He conquered the le- 
gions of hell, and rescued wretched creatures by his al- 
mighty command. He subdued the most inveterate diseases, 
and restored health and vigor with the word of his mouth. 
He vanquished stubborn souls with the power of his love, 
and made them his willing people. He triumphed over 
death, the king of terrors, by " dying for our offences, and 
rising again for our justification." Consider, my dear Ben- 
jamin, how glorious the exploits and how amiable the cha- 
racter of our blessed Jesus, King Messiah. How much more 
lovely the Savior of sinners, the deliverer of souls, than the 
enslavers and destroyers of mankind ! Who has ever per- 
formed such truly heroic and brave actions as this Almighty 
Conqueror ? 

^ 9. His kingdom is different from the kingdoms of this 
world with respect to extent. 

All kings and monarchs have certain bounds and limits 
by which their empire is terminated, but God has set Christ 
higher than the kings of the earth. He is the true Cath- 
olic King ; his government is unlimited. " Also I will 
make him my first-born, higher than the kings of the 
earth." Psa. 89 : 27. "All power is given unto me both 
in heaven and on earth." Matt. 28 : 18. " There was given 
him dominion, and glory, and a kingdom, that all people, 
nations, and languages, should serve him : his dominion is 
an everlasting dominion, which shall not pass away, and his 
kingdom that which shall not be destroyed." Dan. 7 : 14. 

The kingdom of grace is boundless: not as to its power 
over individuals, but as to their place or dwelling on this 
habitable globe. " Ask of me, and I shall give thee the hea- 
then for thine inheritance, and the uttermost parts of the 
earth for thy possession." Psa. 2:8. " This Gospel shall 
be preached in all the world, for a witne"ss unto all nations. 



108 JOSETH AND BENJAMIN. [Part 1. 

and then tliail the end come." Matt. 24 ; 14. ''And said, 
By myself have I sworn, saith the Lord ; for because thou 
hast done this thing, and hast not withheld thy son, thine 
only son ; that in blessing I will bless thee, and in multi- 
plying I will multiply thy seed as the stars of the heaven, 
and as the sand which is upon the sea shore : and thy seed 
shall possess the gate of his enemies : and in thy seed shall 
all the nations of the earth be blessed ; because thou hast 
obeyed my voice." Gen. 22 ; 16 — 18. It has already been 
shown that the Gentiles as well as the Jews were to be 
blessed in the Messiah, (p. 172.) 

Christ's kingdom differs with respect to design. 

^10. The great design of his coming into the world was 
" to seek and save them that are lost ;"' to rescue enslaved 
souls from the tyranny of sin and Satan, and to recover them 
again into a state of liberty and loyalty. " To turn them 
from darkness to light, and from the power of Satan unto 
God, that they may receive forgiveness of sins and inheri- 
tance among them which are sanctified by faith that is in 
me." Acts, 26 : 18. 

The design of his reign. The end of the kingdoms of 
this world is frequently to wallow in sensuality, to display 
pomp or vain-glory, or to conquer the whole world. But 
even the best and most laudable designs of the kingdoms 
of this world are not to be compared with the ends of the 
reign of King Messiah. Suppose that the sincere design 
of a sovereign's reign was to make a state respectable, to 
make trade flourishing, to establish peace, to conquer in a 
just war, to procure a life of quiet and tranquillity for his 
subjects : could this make them really happy ? Could this 
quiet a guilty conscience, make death, the king of terrors, a 
welcome messenger? How much nobler the design of the 
Messiah's kingdom. "Represent to yourselves," says the 
eloquent Mr. Saurin, "the divine Savior in the bosom of 
God, himself the blessed God. He cast his eyes down on 
this earth. He saw prejudices blinding the miserable sons. 



Let. 9j THE XATURC OF MESSIAIl's KIXGDOM. 100 

of Adam, passions t^'rannizing over them, conscierice con- 
demning them, divine vengeance pursuing them, death seiz- 
ing and devouring them, the gulnhof hell yawning to swal- 
low them up. Forth he came, to make prejudice yield to 
demonstration, darkness to light, passion to reason. He 
came to calm conscience, to disarm the vengeace of heaven, 
to swallow up death in victory, I Cor. 15 : 54, and to 
close the mouth of the infernal abyss. These are the de- 
signs of the King Messiah, designs too noble, too sublime 
for earthly kings. " My kingdom is not of the world." 

§ 11. Further it is evident that Christ's kingdom was not 
of this world, for it is eternal. 

Though enemies rage and roar, and leave no means un- 
tried to hinder the erection and establishment thereof; yet 
all their plots shall be unsuccessful, and all their delibera- 
tions shall come to naught. The kingdom of Christ is 
fixed upon a firm basis which cannot be subverted. The 
decree, the covenant, and the oath of the unchangeable Je- 
hovah secure it. 

The kingdoms of this w^orld have their rise, their pro- 
gress, perfection, declension and ruin : but the kingdom of 
Christ, although it began very small, yet has gradually in- 
creased, and never declined, and will increase until all tlic 
elect of God are brought to glory. Our Lord himself com 
pares this kingdom to a mustard-seed — to leaven — and in 
Daniel's vision it is a stone cut out without hands, and shall 
outlive all other kingdoms. Jehovah himself has declared the 
perpetuity of this kingdom, Heb. 1:8; "but unto the Son 
he says, thy throne, O God, is for ever and ever." Hi.s 
throne is established for ever, and he is unalterably fixei 
upon it. It cannot be shaken or undermined. He cannot 
be displaced or dethroned by all the povrcrs of earth and 
hell. For thus saith the Lord : " Why do the heathen rage, 
and the people imagine a vain thing? The kings of the 
earth set themselves, and the rulers take counsel together, 
against the Lord, and ocainst hi? anointed, saving, let us 



110 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN [Part 1. 

break their bands asunder, and cast away their cords from 
us. He that sitteth in the heavens shall laugh : the Lord 
shall have them in derision. Then shall he speak unto 
them in his wrath, and vex them in his sore displeasure. 
For I have set my King upon my holy hill of Zion." Psa. 
2: 1-6. 

Having, at considerable length, explained the nature of 
Messiah's kingdom, I will now notice his administration 
of the kingdom. No kingdom can be without government. 
And as Christ Jesus is " a God of order and not of confu- 
sion, it was prophesied that he should rule and govern. 
IMica, 5 : 2. Matt. 2 : 6. He rules and governs his king- 
dom by himself as the supreme Head and Monarch. This 
government extends both to hisVilling subjects, and to his 
determined enemies. 

In my next letter I will be more particular. 

Farewell. 



Letter X. 



ADMINISTRATION OF MESSIAHS KINGDOM 



My beloved Benjamin, 

Let me invite your further attention to the things belong- 
ing to the kingdom of Christ. 1 am now to describe to you 
the administration of this kingdom. 

I will commence with his administration amongst his 
willing subjects. 

^1. They are made willing. Christ's subjects, by nature 
and practice, are his enemies. Though ihey are his, both 



Let. 10.] ADMINISTRATION OF MESSIAIi's KINGDOM. Ill 

by donation and purchase, yet until their conversion they 
are in the hand of their enemies. As the land of Canaan 
was Abraham's by promise, yet his seed had to obtain it by 
conquest; so Christ also obtains his people by conquest. 
They possessed by nature, in common with others, a prin 
ciple of opposition and enmity to Christ. They have sworn 
allegiance to the prince of darkness, and live in actual re 
bellion against Christ, and will never yield to him till they 
be overcome by his mighty power. In this respect there is 
no difference between the Jew and the Gentile. " We our- 
selves also," saith the apostle, who was a Hebrew of the 
Hebrews, " were sometimes foolish, disobedient, deceived, 
serving divers lusts and pleasures, living in malice and 
envy, hated, and hating one another," Titus, 3:3; but by" 
the word of his power and the operations of his Spirit he 
overcomes their enmity, makes them willingly submit to 
him, renounce obedience to the devil, the world, and their 
own base lusts, and causes them cheerfully to bow to his 
sceptre, to take upon them the yoke of obedience, and say, 
" O Lord our God, other lords besides thee have had domi- 
nion over us ; but by thee only will we make mention of 
thy name," Isa. 26: 13; and with Paul, "Lord, what wilt 
thou have me to do ?" Acts, 9 : 6. To effect this great, won- 
derful, and glorious change, Christ acts very differently 
from the kings of the world, as has already been observed. 
They have their arms, their swords, their cannon, and 
other instruments of destruction, by which they acquire and 
extend their dominions; but Jesus Christ has appointed the 
preaching of the Gospel, which is "the power of God unto 
salvation to every one that believeth; to the .Few first, and 
also to the Greek." Rom. 1 : 16. Hence the Gospel is call- 
ed the kingdom of God and of heaven. When Christ sent 
out his seventy disciples, he directed them to say, "The 
kingdom of God is come nigh unto you." Luke, 10:9; 
Matt. 21 : 43; Mark, 1:14; Col. 4:11. Thus you perceive, 
my dear Benjamin, that, agreeably to the prediction (Psa. 



-12 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN, [Parti 

110: 1-3) that Messiah, after his ascension, should send 
forth the rod of his truth to make his people willing, so 
Christ Jesus, after his resurrection, commissioned his apos- 
tles to go and preach the Gospel in all the world, &c. ; 
having been with them fbr forty days, and spoken of the 
things pertaining to his kingdom, he commanded them to 
wait at Jerusalem until they should receive the Holy Ghost ; 
and O how great, wonderful, and glorious were the effects ! 
Three thousand of Messiah's enemies, who, with wicked 
hands, had nailed him to the accursed tree, became now the 
willing subjects of King Jesus. 

In the same manner Christ continues to extend his glo- 
rious kingdom. The preaching of the same Gospel, though 
feeble in itself, yet is the rod of his strength, which does 
wondrous things. No other word, no other system possesses 
any efficacy in comparison with this. Hereby the stoutest 
and most obdurate sinners are awakened and subdued ; the 
rebellious are subdued to a state of cheerful obedience; the 
very dead are quickened and raised to newness of life. 

I would, however, here observe, my dear Benjamin, that 
the mere outward means are not sufficient of themselves to 
make his people willing, till Christ is pleased to incline and 
enable them, by the operations of the Spirit, to submit to him. 
He must conquer them before they will obey. By the Spi- 
rit's internal work upon the heart every thing that hinder- 
ed their compliance is removed, and they are drawn by his 
power, without which none can come unto him. John, 6 : 44. 

^ 2. He rules them by his laws; they are administered 
both externally and internally. He has given them laws, 
both with respect to God and man. These laws are written 
in the Bible, and are a transcript of his perfections, and de- 
rive all their authority and vigor from him alone ; and none 
have power to add to or diminish from the laws of this great 
King. Isa. 32 : 22. He has given them the law of faith, 
" Believe on the Lord Jesus Christ;" and the law o[ sanctity, 
•'Be ye holy in all manner of conversation." To make 



Let. 10] ADMINISTRATION OF Messiah's KINGDOM. 113 

known these laws, and to see that they are regularly and 
impartially observed, and to exercise proper discipline, he 
has appointed proper officers. Matt. 18: 17,18; 1 Cor. 12: 
28. These law^s he also administers to his people internally. 
Christ our King is Immanuel, God as well as man, and he 
makes his laws to reach the inner man as well as the out- 
ward ear. He sets up his kingdom where no other can 
reach. He rules the will and affections ; his power binds 
the conscience, and he subdues men's lusts. Micah, 7 : 19. 
He wTites his law in their hearts, and powerfully inclines 
and overrules them, by his Spirit, unto obedience. Isa. 30 : 
21; Heb. 8: 10. 

This law of the Spirit of life which is in Christ Jesus, 
makes them free from the law of sin and death. Rom. 8 : 2. 
Here is much strictness, but no bondage : for the law is not 
only written in Christ's statute-book, the Bible, but copied 
out by his Spirit upon the hearts of his subjects in corres- 
pondent principles ; which makes obedience a pleasure, and 
self-denial easy. Christ's yoke is lined with love, so that it 
never galls the necks of his people. 1 John, 5 : 3. His com- 
mandments are not grievous. 

§ 3. He gives them necessary support and help under 
all their sufferings, troubles, and temptations. " In all their 
afflictions he was afflicted, and the angel of his presence 
saved them : in his love and in his pity he redeemed them ; 
and he bare them, and carried them all the days of old." 
Isa. 63 : 9. He can employ all creatures, all elements, for 
the good of his people. Hence " the earth helped the woman ; 
and the earth opened her mouth, and swallowed up the flood 
which the dragon cast out of his mouth." Rev. 12: 16. 
And of the angels he says, " Are they not all ministering 
spirits, sent. forth to minister for them who shall be heirs of 
salvation?" Heb. 1 : 14. 

There are many temptations Satan uses to draw Christ's 
subjects from their allegiance to himself Believers, there- 
fore, need to be preserved and supported under them, that 



114 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part I 

they may not prove their ruin. Thus Christ, their King, 
manages the affairs of his kingdom for their advantage, and 
they frequently realize the truth of the apostle's declaration, 
" There hath no temptation taken you but such as is com- 
mon to man : but God is faithful, who will not suffer you 
to be tempted above that ye are able; but will with the 
temptation also make a way to escape, that ye may be able 
to bear it." 1 Cor. 10: 13. 

^ 4. Christ corrects his people for their sins. 

Though afflictions, absolutely considered, are not to be 
desired, nevertheless, since they are sometimes needful, 
1 Pet. 1 : 6, and conducive to our spiritual advantage, they 
are included in the blessings of the covenant of graca 
How much soever nature dreads them, yet Christ's subjects 
consider them as designed for their good, and therefore not 
only submit to them, but conclude that herein he deals well 
with them. Hence, when he visits their transgressions with 
the rod, and their iniquities with stripes, they reckon that 
he deals with them as a merciful and gracious sovereign, 
and not as an enemy; since his design is to heal their 
backslidings and prevent a worse evil. 

He withdraws peace and takes away joy from the spirits 
of his people. The hidings of his face are sore rebukes. 
However, all is for emendation, and not for destruction. 
And it is not the least privilege of Christ's subjects to have 
a seasonable and sanctified rod to reduce them from the 
ways of sin. Psa. 23 : 3. " Thy rod and thy staff they com- 
fort me." Others are suffered to go on stubbornly in the 
way of their own hearts ; Christ will not spend a rod upon 
them for their good, will not call them to account for any 
of their transgressions, but will reckon with them for ail 
together in hell. 

§ 5. He defends and preserves them from their enemies. 

As he has a sceptre to rule them with, so also a 
shield to defend them. " Thou, O Lord, art a shield for 
me." Psa 3 : 3. The kingdom of Christ always had, and 



Let. 10.] ADMINISTRATION OF MESSIAH's HIXGDOJI. 115 

ever will have many enemies; such as the devil, the flesh, 
and the world ; but he preserves his people, notwithstanding 
all their cunning and furious attempts. He preserves his 
kingdom as a spark in the ocean, as a flock of sheep 
amongst wolves. He shuts the mouths of lions, and re- 
strains the fiery ftirnace', as the bush, though it burned, 
would not consume. " I the Lord keep it ; I will water 
It every moment ; lest any hurt it, I will keep it night and 
day." Isa. 27:3. Zech. 2:5. Yea, he defends and pre- 
serves every particular believer. It was the Messiah that 
appeared unto Moses in the flaming bush, and preserved it 
from being consumed. The bush signified our people in 
Egypt ; the fire flaming in it, the exquisite sufferings they 
endured ; the safety of the bush amidst the flames, the Lord's 
wonderful care and protection over that suffering people. 
This was a striking emblem of Messiah's conduct to his 
subjects, and is confirmed by promise ; " I give unto them 
eternal life ; and they shall never perish, neither shall any 
man pluck them out of my hand." John, 10: 26. 

They are kept by the mighty power of God, through 
faith, unto salvation. 1 Pet. 1 : 5. Kept as in a garrison, 
according to the import of that word. None are better de- 
fended, none more safe, than the people of God. They are 
preserved in Christ Jesus. Jude, 1. It is not their own 
grace that secures them, but Christ's care and continual 
watchfulness. Our own graees, left to themselves, would 
quickly prove but weights sinking us to our own ruin, as 
one speaks. This is his covenant, Jer. 32 : 40 ; "I will put 
my fear in their hearts, that they shall not depart from me." 

^ 6. Christ bestows many privileges upon his people, and 
rewards them for their services. 

There is nothing lost in serving him. He always gives 
them inward peace and joy, and sometimes riches and ho- 
nor, even in this life; and, in the world to come, "an eter- 
nal weight of glory," 2 Cor. 4: 17, and a crown of life. 
" Godliness is p^ofitoble Mnto all things, having promise of 



116 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Parti. 

the life that now is, and of that which is to come.*- I Tim. 
4: 8. Though all they do for Christ be duty, yet he has 
united their comfort with their duty ; " This I had, because 
I kept thy precepts." Psa. 1 19 : 56. He is a bountiful " re- 
warder of them that diligently seek him." Heb. 11:6. 

^ 7. He receives, at death, all and every one of his sub- 
jects unto glory. 

He who guides them now by his counsel, will afterward 
receive them to glory. The kingdom of grace trains up 
children for the kingdom of glory ; it is the kingdom of 
heaven begun here below; the difference betwixt them is 
not in kind, but only in degree. The King is the same, and 
the subjects the same ; the subjects of the kingdom of grace, 
at death, inherit the kingdom of glory. 
-- I proceed now to consider Christ's administration with 
respect to his enemies. 

§ 8. He has them entirely under his control. 

He possesses all power in heaven and on earth. Devils 
cannot stir without his permission ; they could not enter the 
herd of swine till he gave them leave. Well might the apos- 
tle say, '• If God be for us, who can be against us?" Rom. 
8:31. 

§ 9. He uses them for the good of his people. Rom. 8: 
28. Herein much of his wisdom as well as of his kindness 
is manifested. 

Nothing displays more remarkably the admirable coun- 
sel of heaven, than snaring the wicked in the work of their 
own hands. History abounds with examples of those who 
were ministers of Providence in accomplishing purposes 
directly contrary to those they had in view. Instance the 
cruelty of the sons of Jacob. Thus the wrath of Pharaoh 
against the Israelites, and his unjust attempts to detain them 
in bondage, proved the occasion of bringing them forth from 
the land of slavery. Thus the inhuman plot which Haman 
had formed for the ruin of Mordecai, and extirpating the 
whole of the Jewish nation, proved the way for Mordecai's 
high promotion. Job, 5: 12, 13. 



Let. lO.J ADMINISTRATION OF MESSIAH's KINGDOM. Il7 

Sometimes, indeed, we cannot see from the beginning cf 
an afflictive providence the end thereof, or what advantage 
he designs thereby : but the words of Christ to Peter are 
applicable to all his subjects ; "What I do thou knowest 
not now; but thou shalt know hereafter." John, 13:7. 
Hereafter we shall see how every step which Christ has 
taken in the management of his government has had a sub- 
serviency to promote our spiritual advantage here, and our 
everlasting salvation hereafter. 

^10. He frequently restrains their enemies. Though 
they are permitted to annoy his people, yet hs sets bounds 
to their power, as he does to the raging waves of the sea, 
over which they cannot pass. Job, 1 : 10; Psa. 76: 10. 

" Fear none of those things which thou shalt suffer : be- 
hold, the devil shall cast some of you into prison, that ye 
may be tried; and ye shall have tribulation ten days." Rev. 
2:10. They would have cast them into their graves, but it 
should only be into prison ; they would have stretched out 
their hands upon them all, but only some of them shall be 
exposed ; and they would have kept them there perpetually, 
but it must be for ten days only. Similar are the words of 
Jehovah by the prophet Ezekiel ; ''Behold, the princes of 
Israel, every one were in thee to their power to shed blood." 
Ezek. 22 : 6 ; they went as far as they had power to go, but 
not as far as they had inclinalion. Again, four hundred 
and thirty years were determined upon our fathers in Egypt, 
and then, even in the very night, God brought them forth, 
for then the time of the promise was come. Acts, 7 : 17. 

§ 11. Christ will ultimately destroy them, and completely 
triumph over them. As he has a golden sceptre to rule his 
people in love, so also he has an iron rod to break his ene- 
mies in wrath. Psa. 2 ; Rev. 17 : 12, 14. His enemies may 
set up their standard, but Christ \vould set up his trophies. 
Rev. 14: 18, 19. They shall be his footstool. Psa. 110: 1. 
As Joshua put his feet upon the necks of the conquered 
kings, so will Christ put his feet upon the necks of all his 



H8 JOSEPH AND eenja.tIIn-. [Part 1. 

enemies. The stone cut out of the moraitain without hands, 
which smote the image, (Dan. 2: 34,) was an emblem of 
Christ's monarchical power, conquering and triumphing 
over all his and his people's enemies. 

At the final judgment day, when Christ shall gather in 
all his subjects in one glorious company, and transport 
tliem into their mansions of bliss which he has prepared for 
them, then their enemies will be utterly destroyed from the 
presence of God and the glory of his power. " For he must 
reign, till he hath put all enemies under his feet." 1 Cor. 
15 : 25. Then death and hell will be cast into the lake of fire. 
Rev. 20: 14. This will be the most signal display of the 
conquests of King Jesus. After this Messiah will deliver 
up his kingdom to the Father. 

Christ's essential glory is eternal, without beginning and 
without end; but his mediatory had a beginning after his 
death and resurrection, and shall have an end. When all 
the seed are brought in and perfected, all enemies subdued 
and conquered, Christ shall resign his commission and his 
people, for whose sake he w^as commissioned and deputed 
to the government, unto his Father. 1 Cor. 15 : 24. When 
he shall reign with his Father in the glory of the Deity, 
the Father lays aside his immediate government, that 
Christ maybe all in all; at last Christ shall resign the 
government to the Father, that God may be all in all, and 
delight immediately in his people when they shall be fully 
perfected and free from sin. The power, in regard to these 
particular ends for which it was conferred on Christ, ceases 
when these ends cease ; but what belongs of right to him 
as God, or what w^as given him by covenant as a reward 
for his obedience, will endure as long as the humanity re- 
mains united to the divinity. 

§ 12. Now, my dear Benjamin, I fear I shall exhaust 
your patience, although the subject is most glorious. I shall 
only add a (ew words respecting the history of Messiah's 
kingdom. I am lully aware, that to do any justice to this 



Let. 10.] ADMINISTRATION OF MESSIAH^S KINGDOM. 119 

part of the subject would fill volumes. The learned and 
pious Jonathan Edwards, in his History of Redemption, has 
furnished us with a judicious abridgment of the Messiah's 
kingdom. But I shall, for the present, refer you to the 
shortest but most comprehensive description given of it by 
the Lord Jesus Christ himself. His words are these : " The 
kingdom of heaven is like to a grain of mustard-seed, which 
a man took and sowed in his field : which indeed is the 
least of all seeds ; but when it is grown, it is the greatest 
among herbs, and becometh a tree, so that the birds of the 
air come and lodge in the branches thereof Another para- 
ble spake he unto them : The kingdom of heaven is like 
unto leaven, which a woman took and hid in three measures 
of meal, till the whole was leavened." Matt. 13:31-33. 
At first the kingdom of Christ was invisible ; exceedingly 
small and unpromising. From the fall of the first Adam 
until the exaltation of the second Adam, the real subjects of 
Messiah's kingdom, the possessors of divine grace, were 
but few, and mixed with the mere professors of a belief in 
the Messiah. Still there was a sec*ret working like leaven, 
and a gradual increase, until the time appointed by the Fa- 
ther for the exaltation and coronation of Messiah was come. 
Now, to make his kingdom visible, the anointed King sent 
forth ''the rod of his strength out of Zion," accompanied 
with the effusion of his Spirit, and immediately three thou- 
sand of his enemies became the willing subjects of his king- 
dom, and daily many were added thereunto. That Christ 
has had, ever since that memorable day, a willing people to 
serve him wherever the Gospel has been preached, none 
can deny ; and that this kingdom shall, like the leaven, 
leaven the w^hole lump ; and, like the stone that filled the 
whole earth, spread and extend till all nations shall be 
blessed in the Messiah, and all men shall call him blessed, 
is evident from the predictions with which we commenced 
this subject, and from many others contained in the sacred 
volume, and which we shall, God willing, have occasion to 
consider under the second advent of the Messiah. 



120 JOSEPH AiND BENJAMIN. [Part I. 

^ 13. From what has been said, my dear Benjamin, on 
the kingly office of the Messiah, we see how glorious a 
person Jesus Christ is. He who in the days of his flesh 
was reviled, reproached, persecuted, crucified for our sakes, 
that same Jesus is now exalted and made a Prince and a 
Savior, having " a name given him above every name ; that 
at the name of Jesus every knee should bov.% of things in 
heaven, and things on earth, and things under the earth; 
and that every tongue should confess Jesus Christ is Lord, 
to the glory of God the Father." Phil. 2 : 10, 11. How 
great the honor to serve such a King ! His servants are 
called vessels of honor, 2 Peter, 2 : 21 ; and a royal priest- 
hood, 1 Peter, 2:9. It is a greater honor to serve Christ 
than to have kings serve us. 

§ 14. It is also a great privilege to have such a King to 
go to when our enemies threaten to destroy us. Christ 
can give us power to resist and overcome our corruptions, 
the snares and temptations of this world, and the fiery darts 
of the wicked one. 

§ 15. This subject encourages missionary efforts. 

Is the Gospel to extend to all parts of the earth ? then 
the Gospel must be sent as far. Hence Christ gave the com- 
mission. How daring and vain to oppose missionary efforts ! 
To attempt to stop the angel's flying through the midst of 
heaven with the everlasting Gospel in his hand, is as vain 
and unsuccessful as to attempt to arrest the motion of the 
sun in the firmament. 

§ 16. How important to submit to Christ's sceptre before 
it be too late ! Psa. 2 : 12. " Lest he be angry." It is not 
good to stir a lion. Take heed lest ye stir up Christ the 
Lion of Judah against you. Submit to him willingly and 
cheerfully. All the devils in hell submit to Christ, but it is 
against their will, and they are his slaves, not his subjects. 
Submit to him as a King as well as a Savior, obey his com- 
mands. Every one belongs to some king. All will be 
ruled by Christ, whether enemies or friends. None of his 



Let. lO.J ADMINISTRATION OF MESSIAIl's KINGDOM. 121 

enemies can escape. In my next I shall call your attention 
to the most interesting and the most important subject in the 
Bible, namely, the Divinity of the Messiah. 

Farewell. 



All-hail, the pow'r of Jesus' name 

Let angels prostrate fall ; 
Bring forth the royal diadem. 

And crown him Lord of all. 

Ye chosen seed of Isr'el's race, 
A remnant Aveak and small ! 

Hail him, who saved you by his grace, 
And crown him Lord of all. 

Ye Gentile sinners, ne'er forget 
The wormwood and the gall ; 

Go — spread your trophies at his feet, 
And crown him Lord of all. 

Let ev'ry kindred, ev'ry tribe, 

On this terrestrial ball. 
To him all majesty ascribe, 

And crown him Lord of all. 



O that, with yonder sacred throng, 

We at his feet may fall ; 
We'll join the everlasting song, 

And crov/n him Lord of alL 



PART ZZ. 



THE DIVINITY OF THE MESSIAH. 



E<etter I. 



A PLURALITY IN UNITY. 



My D-ear Benjamin, 

§ 1. Having in my former letters shown that all the 
prophesies in the Old Testament, concerning Messiah's state 
of humiliation and exaltation, have been fulfilled in Jesus 
of Nazareth, (adored be his name,) from which it is evident 
that he is the Christ the promised Messiah ; I intend nov/, 
by the help of God, to prove that this Jesus Christ, is truly 
God. This you know, my dear brother, is a subject of the 
utmost importance. It was for this, and this only, that the 
high priest and council considered themselves warranted to 
condemn Jesus unto death as a blasphemer. They had fre- 
quently tried to convict him by bringing forward false wit- 
nesses, but could not succeed until the high priest adjured 
him upon oath, to tell whether he was "the Christ, the Son 
of God, or the Blessed." Jesus having answered in the 
affirmative, the high priest rent his garment, as a token of 
mourning, and said, " What need we any further witnesses ? 
Ye have heard the blasphemy." Matt. 26 : 62-G5. This 
charge of blasphemy continues to be the stumbling-block 
of our people to the present day, and the reason why they 
consider every Christian to be an idolater. But I shall 



Let. 1.] THE DIVINITY OF THE MCSSIAir. 1-23 

hereafter show more fully the importance of this subject to 
Christians as well as to our people. To present the subject 
to jrour view in a clear and convincing manner, it will be 
necessary to divide it into several parts, and I hope you will 
])eruse them with patience and fervent prayer to God for 
the aid of the Ruach. Hackodetk, i. e. the Holy Spirit. 

§ 2. Before I proceed to prove the doctrine proposed, 
viz. the Divinity of the Messiah, I wish you to understand 
that I consider him to be really and truly God by nature, 
and not God either in an inferior sense or by constitution. 
I am far from the opinion of those who say that Christ is 
a mere creature by nature, but, by the will of the Father, 
advanced to the dignity of a God ; and, being so advanced, 
he is Deus verus, i. e. a true God. Wherein, my dear Ben- 
jamin, does this differ from the old heathenish practice of 
turning creatures into gods, acknowledging one superior 
and many inferior gods ? If such a distinction be consistent 
with truth, then Baal, or Ashtaroth, or any of the gods of 
the nations, might be looked upon as inferior deities, and 
be served with the subordinate worship. Solomon might 
sacrifice to Ashtaroth and Milcom, or Chemosh, or Moloch, 
provided he did serve the God of Israel with sovereign wor- 
ship, acknowledging him supreme. Why was it consid- 
ered a crime in the Samaritans to fear the Lord and serve 
their own gods? 2 Kings, 17: 33-41. Blessed be God 
that our people have been kept, for a long time past, from 
idolatry, and, without exception, do consider such worship 
idolatry; and hence it follows that if Christ be no more 
than a nominal God, inferior to the Father, all worship of 
him, and reliance upon him, would be idolatry as mu^h 
as the worship of angels or men, or of the gods of the hea- 
then world. 

How just is the sentiment of St. Augustine, addressed to 
Maximin, an Arian Bishop, who considered Christ as in- 
ferior to God; " Repeat it ever so often, that the Father is 
greater, the Son less, we shall answer you as often, that the 



124 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part 2l 

greater and the less make two ; and it is not said, thy 
greater Lord God is one Lord, but the words are, ' the Lord 
thy God is one Lord.' Nor is it said, there is none equal 
to me ; but the words are, ' there is none other besides me.' 
Either, therefore, acknowledge that the Father and the Son 
are one Lord God, or in plain terms deny that Christ is 
Lord God at all." Aug. L. 2. c. 23. p. 727. 

It is equally against reason and Scripture to say that 
Christ was constituted God by the pleasure of the Father. 
How could the giver and disposer of all graces receive any 
thing as a matter of gift or favor ? How could he be said 
to have obtained the privilege of being adored, who had 
long before been adored both by men and angels ? He who 
is God from the beginning, who had glory with the Father 
before the world was, who is himself the Lord of glory and 
Creator and Preserver of all things, was infinitely too high, 
too great, and too divine to receive any accession to his 
dignity, or any real increase either of perfection or of glory. 
When the Scriptures speak of his exaltation, it refers to 
him as Mediator, as has been shown before. 

^ 3. You will further keep in mind, dear Benjamin, that 
when I speak in the following pages of a plurality or trinity 
in unity, you must conceive of distinct persons in the one 
Jehovah; i. e. there is one only God or Jehovah, the Father, 
the Son, and the Holy Ghost, and these three distinct per- 
sons are but one Jehovah. I shall show hereafter that dis- 
tinct personal properties are applied to the Father, Son, and 
Holy Ghost. But these persons are not three characters 
or relations only, in the same substance, mind, or spirit ; but 
something more, because the Scripture plainly makes a 
greater difference between them ; nor, on the other hand, are 
they three distinct substances, minds, or spirits, because 
they would then be three gods. 

I employ the word person, because language does not 
admit of a fitter term to express this great article of our 
faith. The word person has not always been in use, yet God 



Let. 1.] THE DIVINITY or the biessiah. 125 

was always believed to be Father, Son, and Spirit, as will 
be shown hereafter. It was first adopted to impress more 
clearly on the minds of Christians the doctrine of the Lord 
Jesus Christ, in order to strengthen them against the errors 
of those who said that Father, Son, and Holy Ghost are 
only three different names of the same object ; as if Christ, 
the eternal wisdom, would have used terms for the institu- 
tion of baptism (Matt. 28: 19) which convey such different 
ideas to the mind, without designing us to make some sort 
of distinction, and without intending to show us that there 
really is some distinction, yet at the same time without ex- 
posing us to multiply the Godhead, and thus mislead us 
from that great truth which he alwnys inculcated, viz. that 
there is but one God, and that it is impossible there can be 
Liiore than one. The word of God is full of expressions 
drawn from natujal objects familiar to us, and the Holy 
Spirit employs them for the purpose of giving us clearer 
conceptions of what God is in comparison with man. 
Hence these expressions, " God repents, he is angry, he 
has eyes," &c. &c. and similar figures, which are merely 
designed to exhibit to us spiritual and invisible things by 
means of objects which are familiar to our senses. In this 
sense, the word person ought to be understood in reference 
to the Deity. 

§ 4. 1 beseech you, my dear Benjamin, to guard against 
the common objection that this sacred doctrine is " absurd 
and contradictory, and therefore cannot be true ; or incom- 
prehensible, and therefore ought not to be believed." With 
respect to the former, viz. that it is absurd and contradic- 
tory, that three should be one, and one three. This may 
either be true or false. If I were to assert that my five fin- 
gers are one finger, or one finger to be five fingers, that 
would be absurd, contradictor^^ and impossible. But if I 
were to say my five fingers are one hand, and my one hand 
five fingers, this is neither absurd, contradictory, nor false. 
In like manner, to say that Jehovah is three persons, and 



126 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part 2. 

three persons one Jehovah, is neither absurd, contradictory, 
nor impossible. I freely acknowledge that this, or any other 
similitude, is infinitely below the dignity of the subject ; but 
as it has proved a blessing to my soul, I fervently pray that 
it may prove so to yours also. 

I cannot deny myself the pleasure of transcribing the fol- 
lowing lines from the learned Dr. Grotius, on Matt. 28 : 19. 

" Why is one God set forth in persons three 1 

** In holy writ thus known is he. 

*' That three are one what reason can ut teach 1 

" God is above all human reach. 

" Can it by no similitude be shown '? 

" The 4un, light ^ heat, are three, yet one." 

Again he says — 

" May we not some such thing in mankind see 1 
'* Life, reason, will, in one are three. 
" Are Father, Son, and Spirit equal 1 they 
"With equal might one sceptre sway." 

§ 5. As it regards the second objection, viz. that the doc- 
trine is incomprehensible, and therefore ought not to be be- 
lieved ; I admit the fact, but deny the conclusion. We be- 
lieve the real existence of many things whose nature and 
operation exceed our comprehension. " It is an old and true 
distinction," says Dean Swift, "that things may be above 
our reason without being contrary to it. Of this kind are 
the power, the nature, and the universal presence of God, 
with innumerable other points. How little do those who 
quarrel with mysteries, know of the commonest actions of 
nature. The growth of an animal, of a plant, or of the 
smallest seed, is a mystery among men. If an ignorant per- 
son were told that a loadstone would draw iron at a dis- 
tance, he might say that it was a thing contrary to his rea- 
son, and he could not believe it before he saw it with hl.s 
eyes. The matter whereby the soul and body are united, 
and how they are distinguished, is wholly unaccountable 
to us. We see but one part, and yet we know we consist of 



Lei. 1.] THE nvIMTY OF THE MLSSIA:!. 127 

two; and this is a mystery we cannot comprehend any more 
than that of the Trinity." Ser. p. 24. Since, then, almost 
every thing in nature is so mysterious and above our com- 
prehension, why should it be thought strange that the doc- 
trine of the blessed Trinity should be mysterious and in- 
comprehensible ? Dr. Priestly himself, the great opponent 
to this truth, has acknowledged "that we can know nothing 
about the essence or nature of God." Simpson's Deity of 
Christ, page 20. The great reasoner Mr. Fletcher says, 
* It is one of the loudest dictates of reason, that as we can- 
not grasp the universe with our hands, so we cannot com- 
prehend the Maker of the universe with our thoughts." 

^ 6. Our people, you know, my dear Benjamin, acknow- 
ledge that they are bound to believe certain truths respect- 
ing God, although they exceed their comprehension. For 
the third article of their creed runs thus : " 1 believe with 
a perfect faith, that the Creator, blessed be his name, is not 
corporeal, nor to be comprehended by an understanding ca- 
pable of understanding what is corporeal, and that there is 
nothing like him in the universe." The doctrine of the 
resurrection is attended whh intricacies and difficulties 
above the comprehension of human reason, and yet it is one 
of the fundamental articles of our people, as will be shown 
hereafter. I freely acknowledge, my dear brother, that the 
subject is mysterious and incomprehensible as it respects 
the mode of existence, but as the reality of it is revealed in 
the Bible, it becomes an article of our holy faith, as well as 
that of the creation of the world, although it infinitely ex- 
ceeds our comprehension how a universe could spring into 
being out of nothing. 

Dr. Isaac Barrow, one of the first Christians and schol- 
ars, says "that there is one Divine nature or essence com- 
mon unto three persons incomprehensibly united by pecu- 
liar idioms and relations, all equally infinite in every divine 
perfection, each different from the other in order and man- 
ner of subsistence ; that there is a mutual existence of one 



128 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part 2 

in all, and all in one. These are notions which may well 
puzzle our reason in conceiving how they agree, but should 
not stagger our faith in asserting that they are true ; upon 
which we should meditate, not with hope to comprehend, but 
with dispositions to admire, veiling our faces in the presence 
and prostrating our reason at the feet of wisdom far tran- 
scending us." 

^ 7. No one ought to reject a doctrine which is plainly 
revealed in the Scriptures, under the pretence that it 
is incomprehensible. This is to wish to be wiser than 
God ; for what he has revealed without explanation, he 
wills us to receive simply upon his Avord, without compre- 
hending it. If there were any reasons for rejecting what is 
revealed because we do not understand it, we should, on this 
principle, renounce the doctrine of the creation of the world ; 
for who can comprehend how something could be made out 
of nothing ? Who can understand the union of soul and 
body? Yet who is there that can reason at all, but admits 
the existence of both ? It is enough to know that God re- 
veals anything, how far soever it may be above our under- 
standing, in order to admit of it as a truth. — we are bound 
to believe it, though it be incomprehensible by finite reason, 
yet there is something in it which is clear, viz. its discovery. 
Reason itself determines that there is more propriety in be- 
lieving a revelation of God, although we cannot understand 
it, than in rejecting what is manifestly revealed, merely be- 
cause it is incomprehensible. Reason embraces the truth 
without understanding the manner of it; it receives it, be- 
cause it comprehends that it is a revelation. In this way wc 
believe God ; we trust his veracity, his infallibility, and his 
word, and rest solely on the authority of his testimony. 
Faith is not an empty sound. We do understand what we 
believe, when we understand that it is God who proposes 
the matter of our faith ; and we understand that he proposes 
it, when the doctrine, how far soever it be above the reach 
of our weak conceptions, has no absurdity in it; nothing 



Let. l.J THE DIVINITY OF THE MESSIAH. 129 

unworthy of God ; nothing contradictory, and nothing re- 
volting against reason. 

I shall, therefore, appeal to the law and the prophets, and 
proceed to show 

That there is but one true and living God. 

§ 8. God is one in essence without mixture or composi- 
tion, and one exclusively without any other. The sun is 
one, but the same God could make many suns; God is so 
one in essence, that it is impossible there could be any other. 
This, however, does not exclude three distinct persons, as 
will be shown nereafter. 

That God is one, is a fundamental truth in religion. It 
has the concurring suffrage of reason and revelation to sup- 
port it. To say there is more than one God, is as great folly 
as to say there is no God. Ps. 14 : 1. The just and proper 
idea of Deity is, that he is self-existent, independent, prior 
to all other beings, and the cause of them. Now, the exists 
ence of two or more such beings is no less repugnant to 
sound reason than it is to the sacred oracles. It implies a 
contradiction ; and what implies a contradiction, or is in it- 
self absurd, is irrational no less than anti-scriptural. Hence 
the wiser heathens acknowledged a Supreme Being. The 
inscription on the Athenian altar, " To the unknown God," 
Acts, 17 : 28, carries in it an intimation that they had some 
faint notion of one supreme God superior to all other gods • 
but the Bible puts it beyond all reasonable controvers3% 
The unity of God is taught in the Law, in the Prophets, 
and in the Book of Psalms, by Jesus Christ, and by his 
apostles, as is evident from the following passages : Exodus, 
20 : 3, " Thou shalt have no other gods before me." Deut. 
6:4," Hear, O Israel, the Lord our God is one Lord." 
Deut. 32 : 39, " See now I, even I, am he, and there is no 
God with me." Isa. 43 : 10, 11, " Ye are my witnesses, 
saith the Lord, and my servant whom I have chosen ; that 
ye may know and believe me, and understand that I am 
he ; before me there was no God formed, reither shall there 

VOL II. 6 



ISO JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Parti 

be after me. I, even I, am the Lord ; and beside me there is 
no Savior." Isa, 44 : 6, " Thus saith the Lord the King 
of Israel, and his Redeemer the Lord of hosts ; lam the 
first, and I am the last ; and beside me there is no God." 
Isa. 45 : 6, •' That they may know from the rising of the 
sun, and from the west, that there is none beside me : I am 
the Lord, and there is none else." Ps. 86 : 9, 10, " All na* 
lions w^hom thou hast made shall come and worship before 
thee, O Lord ; and shall glorify thy name. For thou art great, 
and doest wondrous things; thou art God alone." Mark, 
12 : 29, 32. " And Jesus answered him, the first of all the 
commandments is. Hear, O Israel, the Lord our God is one 
Lord. And the scribes said unto him, Well, Master, thou 
hast said the truth ; for there is one God, and there is none 
other but he." 1 Cor. 8 : 4-6, " We know that an idol i^ 
nothing in the world, and that there is none other God but 
one. Far though there be that are called gods, whether in 
heaven or in earth, (as there be gods many and lords many,) 
but to us there is but one God, the Father, of whom are all 
things, and we in him ; and one Lord Jesus Christ, by whom 
are all things, and we by him." 

Besides, dear Benjamin, you know that this truth is not 
Genied by any of our people ; for it is made the second ar- 
ticle of their creed, which reads thus : '' I believe with a 
perfect faith, that the Creator, blessed be his name, is only 
one in unity, to which there is no resemblance; and that he 
alone has been, is, and will be our God." Neidier would I 
have dwelt so long on this part of the subject, were it not 
to convince my dear Benjamin that I believe but in one Je- 
hovah, the true and living God, as I did before I embraced 
the Christian religion, although I now most sincerely believe 

That there is a plurality of persons in the self-same Jeho- 
vah, to which I shall now call your attention. 

§ 9. That there Is a plurality in unity will appear from 
the language of Scripture. 

The word Elohim, which we translate God, is plural. 



Let. 1 1 THE DIVINITY OF THE MESSIAH. 131 

and is used more than sixty times in the short history of the 
creation, and more than five hundred times more in the Pen- 
tateuch. Now, whilst I would freely acknowledge, that, if 
we had no other proofs in favor of a plurality, I should not 
lay much stress on this ; yet I do not feel myself at liberty 
to pass it by unnoticed. Seeing that the Hebrew language 
is one of the most ancient, if not the original language of 
mankind, how came it to pass that the plural word should 
be the most common term used to signify the Deity ? How 
came Moses, an inspired writer, to choose out this word, 
when another singular name (viz. Ail and Eloah, which 
he uses on other occasions) might have been employed to 
describe the creation of the world and the supreme God 1 
Is it not extraordinary that he should use such a word, 
which at least was calculated to lead our brethren to a be- 
lief of a plurality, unless he himself knew and believed in 
a plurality in the unity of Jehovah ? 

§ 10. The word Elohim is frequently joined with a verb, 
participle, or adjective in the plural number, which leads to 
the same conclusion. For example, Gen. 1 : 26, " Let us 
make man in our image, and in our likeness." R. Juda, in 
his comment on Sepker Yeizira, says, " Who is it God did 
speak to in the creation ? He spake to his word (Memra or 
Messiah.) If you would know of them who is the spirit of 
whom we read in Gen. 1 : 2, " that he moved on the face 
of the waters," Moses Botril will inform you that it is the 
Holy Spirit. If you would learn of them who it was that 
God spake to in Gen. 1 : 26, saying, " Let us make man," 
Moses Botril tells us that these words are directed to the 
wisdom of God. If you would know what spirit it is that is 
spoken of in Job, 28 : 12, again Moses Botril will tell it is 
the Holy Spirit. If you would know to whom that is to be 
referred which we read of in Isa. 40 : 14, R. A. Ben David 
will tell you to the three Sephiroth^ It has been objected 
that God speaks here after the manner of kings, who, in 
their edicts, &c. use the plural number to express their do- 



132 JOSEPH AND FENJAMIW. [Part 'Z. 

minion, honor, and majesty. To this it may be answered, 
that the reason of their speaking in the plural is because 
their edicts, &c. are the effect of consultation with their mi- 
nisters or privy council, but Jehovah takes no counsel with 
any of his creatures. Besides, this courtly way of speaking 
was not known in the days of Moses : and to suppose that 
Moses alludes to a custom that would be in use in future, is 
as extravagant as the supposition of the German divine, 
who, in his comment on Gen, 2 : 7, says the expression, 
" he breathed into his nostrils the breath of life," is not inele- 
gantly by some observed that this is a metaphor drawn from 
glassmakers, who by their breath make their cups and 
glasses into their several forms. "■ That divine," says Bp, 
Kidder, " should have been sure that this art of blowing 
glasses had been as old as that expression of Moses, before 
he had commented on a metaphor which he fancies might 
be drawn from thence." Again, Gen. 3 : 22, " Man is be- 
come as one of us :"* and again, 11:7," Let us go down :" 
further, 19 : 24, " Jehovah rained upon Sodom and upon 
Gomorrah brimstone and fire from Jehovah out of heaven." 
Mtnassa Ben Israel '' confesses this place too hard for him, 
unless by Jehovah who is on earth, you understand the an- 
gel Gabriel, who, as God's ambassador, bears the name of 
God." You perceive, dear brother, that he acknowledges 
two distinct persons each called Jehovah ; but he is mistaken 
in saying that the one was the angel Gabriel, and received 
the name Jehovah because he was God's ambassador ; for I 
shall make it abundantly evident that this is an incommuni- 
cable name. Further, Gen. 20 : 13, '* God caused me to 
wander." Original Hithoo Othi Rlohim, the verbis plural 
as well as the noun Elohim. Again, 35 : 7, " God ap- 

* Or rather, " Behold the man Hayah was as one of us ;" i. e. he 
was made in our image, and after our likeness ; but he has sinned, 
and come short of his former glory ; he has defaced this image ; he 
is not like the man he was ; and now, lest he put forth his hand, &e- 
Abarbinel in Michlol Yophi, Pagninus. Schmidt. Montanusr 



Let. 1.] THE DIVINITY OF THE MESSIAH. 133 

peared unto him." Heb. Nigloo Ailav Haelohim, i. e. the 
gods appeared unto him ; the verb is plural as well as the 
noun. Again, Deut. 4 : 7, Elohim Kerovim, " God so 
nigh^" again, 5 : 26, Elohim Chayim, " Living God ;" in 
both these places the participle is plural. Onc« more, EccL 
12:1, Sechor Borecha, " Remember thy Cr-eators," the 
noun is plural. R. Bechai, discoursing on the word Elo- 
him, says, *• According to the cabalistical way, this name 
(Elohim) is two words, viz. El Hem, i. e. they are God ; 
but the explanation of the yood (which is wanting in the 
second word) must be fetched from Eccl. 12 : 1, • Remem- 
ber thy Creators.' He that is prudent will understand it." 
In Lege, f. 4. c. 1. 

§ 11. I need not tell you, dear Benjamin, that our Rab- 
bins ar€ greatly perplexed about the interpretation of these 
passages. R. Bechai, on the words, " Let us make," says 
^' that when Moses wrote the law, he gave an account of the 
several works of creation day by day ; but when he came to 
write the words. Gen. 1 : 26, God questioned him about it, 
why he, after that manner, gave occasion to the heretics to 
open their mouths ?" B. Rab. fo. 9. c. 2, The same au- 
thor tries to persuade us that God took counsel with some 
creatures ; his words are these, " With whom did he advise ?•" 
R. Joshua, in the name of R. Levi, says, " With his works 
of heaven and earth, like a king that has two counsellors, 
and would do nothing without them." R. Samuel, the son 
of Nachman, says " that he advised with every day's work ;" 
another Rabbi says, " with his ministering angels," ibid. 
fol. 10. c. L But this opinion is rejected with scorn by Abar- 
banel in Pent. fol. 19, o. 4 ; besides, man is said to be made 
in the image and likeness of him or them with whom God 
consulted ; but that man was not made in the image or like- 
ness of angels, &c. but in the likeness of God, is expressly 
declared by Moses, Gen. 1 : 27, and by our Rabbins ; and 
the prophet declares that God never took counsel with any 
of his creatures. Isa. 40: 13. R Hunasays, "If this kind 



134 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part 2. 

of language had not been written, it would not have been 
lawful to say, Bara Elohim, i. e. " the Elohim has created." 
Martini pugio fidei, p. 388. 

§ 12. Hence our Rabbins acknowledge that there are 
secrets and mysteries contained in these expressions which 
must not be revealed to the common people. I will just 
bring to your recollection what our most renowned Rabbi, 
Maimonides, says on this subject : " All things which are 
mentioned in the history of the creation are not to be un- 
derstood according to the letter, as the vulgar imagine; 
for otherwise our wise men would not have commanded 
the concealment of these things, nor would they have exer- 
cised such care in hiding and involving them in parables : 
nor would they have even so studiously prohibited the 
mention of such things in the presence of the ignorant rab- 
ble ; for the literal senses of these things either beget wick- 
ed thoughts, imaginations, and opinions concerning the na- 
ture of God, or certainly subvert the foundations of the 
law, and introduce some heresy. Whoever has any skill 
in these subjects, ought to be on his guard that he do not 
divulge them ; as we have many times given warning in 
our commentary on the Mischna. Hence, also, our Rab- 
bins plainly say that it is for the glory of God to conceal 
these things that are written from the beginning of the 
book to this place, (i. e. Gen. 1 : 26.) But they have said 
this after what is written concerning the works of the sixth 
day. Hence the truth of what we have observed in evi- 
dence is evident. But because he who has acquired any 
perfection is bound to communicate it to others, it will 
unavoidably follow that those who have apprehended any 
of these secrets, whether by their own diligence or by the 
help of a master, will, at times, utter a iew of them. But 
this must not be done openly and plainly, but under cover, 
and only by signs and symbols, such as are to be found, 
scattered and blended with other things, in the sayings of 
our more celebrated and excellent Rabbins. Therefore, I 



Let. 2.3 PLURALITY RESTRICTED TO A TRINITY. 135 

also, as you may observe in these mysteries, only mention 
one word or expression as the hinge of the whole. But I 
leave the rest to others, to whom it is to be left." More Ne- 
vochim, Par. 2, c. 29, p. 273, 274. On these words it has 
justly been remarked, '' What reason can the learned Jews 
have for speaking of secrets and mysteries ; for commanding 
the concealment of these from the common people ; the use 
of parables, of single words or phrase, blended with extra- 
neous matter; and for giving frequent warnings to this 
purpose, if they really believe the interpretations which they 
give openly ? When this intelligent writer says that the 
literal sense of the Scriptural language concerning creation 
introduces heresy, he undoubtedly refers to the support that it 
gives to the Christian doctrine, which they distinguish by 
this name ; and especially to that of the Trinity." Having 
now, in as brief a manner as possible, proved that Scripture 
language leads us to the idea of a plurality in unity, 1 will, 
in my next letter, show that this plurality is restricted to a 
Trinity of persons in the unity of Jehovah. 

Farewell 



Lietter II. 

PLURALITY RESTRICTED TO A TRINITY. 

My dear Brother, 

Agreeably to my promise, I will now endeavor to show 
that the plurality in Jehovah is restricted to a Trinity of 
persons. 

§ 1. This appears from many passages oi Scripture, 
The manner in which the high priest was to bless the 



136 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part 8 

people is thus described : •• The Lord bless thee, and keep 
thee ; the Lord make his face shine upon thee, and be gra- 
cious unto thee ; the Lord lift up his countenance upon thee, 
and give thee peace." Num. 6 : 24-26. On this passage R. 
Bechai says : " The name Jehovah is repeated three times 
with respect to the three periods of time, the present, the 
past, and the future, which the Divine Being has power 
over ; of him it may be said, that he is, and was, and is to 
come, or will for ever be." Pent. fo. 169. c. 2. Again it is 
said in the ancient and celebrated book Bachir, "that the 
repeating Jehovah three times in this place teaches us that 
these names of the blessed God are three powers, and every 
distinct power is like to each other, and has the same name 
with it; i. e. every one is, and is called Jehovah." Ibid. R. 
M. Markanti, Leg. f. 173, c. 1, and c. 3. 

* The same author adds, that in the words of the Psalm- 
ist where it is said, the Lord reigneth, that the words bear 
witness of the three, Hawiyoth, (i. e. existencies or subsis- 
tencies,) which are in the blessed Creator. And what is 
said that all is closed with Jehovah, the peculiar name of 
God, intimates that he is the fountain of all, and from him 
are the emanations of all." He adds, *' that it is said in the 
book Zohar, that in those words, the Lord reigns, there is a 
great mystery." How striking the agreement in the manner 
in which the high priest blessed the people of Israel, and the 
form of baptism, and the apostolic benedictions. Believers 
are to be baptized in the name of the Father, and of the 
Son, and of the Holy Ghost, Matt. 28 : 19 ; and the apos- 
tle implores on the churches, grace, mercy, and peace, from 
God the Father, the Son, and Holy Ghost." 2 Cor. 13 : 
14. Rev. 1: 4. 

, § 2. The next passage I shall notice is Deut. 6 : 4. 

♦ Hear, O Israel, the Lord thy God is one Lord." You 
"inow, dear Benjamin, that our people repeat this passage 
more than once every day, and consider it of such impor- 

ance, that they believe that whoever repeats these words 



Let. 2] PLURALITY RESTRICTED TO A TRINITY. 137 

with his dying breath, is sure to go to heaven. Now, 
whilst in this passage the unity of the Divine essence is 
taught, a plurality or trinity of persons is clearly intimated. 
For the words in the original are, Jehoivah Elohenoo Je 
howah Echad^ and may be rendered Jehovah our God is one 
Jehovah. This perfectly agrees with the preceding quota- 
tion from Sepher Bachir ; and another of our Rabbins 
says, " Jehovah, &c. Jehovah is the head or beginning of all 
things in splendor, antiquity, and holiness, and he is called 
the Father, the Elohenoo, i. e. our God is the profundity of 
rivers and springs which go forth and flow unto all things. 
And again, Jehovah, that is the tree, the cabalistical tree, 
one of the sephirvth, called Binah orTevoonah, by which the 
world was made, and all is one, one is knit to the other, and 
there is not found any separation, but all are one." Mar- 
kanti in Lege. fo. 194, c. 3. 

§ 3, The next passage to be considered is Ps. 50 : I. 
" The mighty God, even the Lord hath spoken," Heb. £/-, 
Elohim, Jehowah, here are three names of the Deity. 
Hence the author of Midresh Tehillim in Loco asks, " Why 
does he mention the name of the blessed God three times ? 
It is to teach thee that the blessed God created his world by 
these three names, which answer to the three Middoth, (or 
properties, or as they are called elsewhere, the Hawiyoth, 
Panim, Havpe7ii?iim, i. e. Hypostases or persons. See 
Sepher Shaar Zedeck, and in Sepher Yetzira, in Jos. Voi- 
sin, in Pag. Fid. p. 406,) by which the world was created, 
and they are these — wisdom, knowledge, and understand- 
ing. Wisdom, as it is said, the Lord by wisdom has found- 
ed the earth; understanding, as it is said, by understanding 
he has established the heavens ; knowledge, as it is said, by 
his knowledge the depths were broken up. And this is it 
that is said Exod. 20 : 5, I am the Lord thy God, a jeal- 
ous God, (Heb. Jehoicah, Elohim, Ail,) answering to the 
three by which the world was made. And thus the chil- 
dren of Gad and the children of Reuben say Ail Elohim 
6* 



138 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part 2. 

Jehowah, Ail Elohim Jehowah, he knows. Joshua, 22 : 
22. And why are these mentioned twice ? because by them 
the world was made." 

§ 4. I proceed to notice the remarkable languag^e used 
by the seraphims and cherubims, and repeated daily by our 
people with apparent great solemnity, " Holy, holy, holy 
is the Lord of hosts, the whole earth is full of his glory." 
Isa. 6 : 3. Permit me, my dear Benjamin, to bring to your 
recollection what two of our famous Rabbins, of blessed 
memory, have said on this passage. R. Simeon, the son of 
R. Yarchi, says, " Kadosh se Av. Kadosh se Bain. Ka- 
dosh se Ruach Ilackodishj i. e. " Holy that is the Father, 
Holy that is the Son, Holy that is the Holy Spirit." Jona- 
than Ben Uziel repeats the same in Chaldaic. Peter Ga- 
latin de Arcanis, Cath. Verit. lib. 2. c. 1 ; see also Good- 
win, Moses and Aaron, L. 4. c. 8. Ant. Univ. History, vol. 
3. p. 11. Another of our Rabbins says, " There are three 
degrees or excellencies in God, and every one is called 
cavod, 1. e. glory, ov panim, i. e. faces or persons ; the first is 
called supreme glory, the second, middle glory, and the 
third is called latter glory ; this is the mystery, &c." Be- 
chai in Lege. fo. 124. 

^ 5. The importance of the subject will, I hope, my dear 
Benjamin, be a sufficient apology for adding a few more 
testimonies from our most ancient Rabbins, to show the an- 
tiquity of this most holy and glorious doctrine. R. Men- 
achen relates that it is the doctrine of iheYezirak, and of the 
Zohar, that the wisdom is called beginning, although she 
is but the second, Sephirahheing unknown to all creatures. 
They also maintain that it is the Shexhinah, or wisdom, 
which rules the world, according to Proverbs, 8. fo. 1. c. 3, 
and fo. 35, 1. 

The author of Zohar on Leviticus, fo. 116, teaches three 
degrees in the Godhead. " Come," says he, "and seethe 
mystery in the word Elohim ; viz. there are three degrees, 
and every degree is distinct by himself; and notwithstanding 



Let. 2] PLURALITY RESTRICTED TO A TRINITY. 139 

they are all one, and yied in one, and one is not separated 
from the other." Again, Exod. fol. 75, upon the words 
Deut. 6 : 4, he observes, " Thou must know that those 
three, (viz. Jthowah, Elohamao, Jehowah,) are one, unum. ; 
but it contains three modes ; viz. the fire, the air, and the 
water; now these three are one, and the mystery of the 
voice and these are but one, 7mum ; Jehowah, Elohim, Je- 
howah, are one, unum." The same author renders Deut. 
6; 4. in this manner, " The Lord, or Jehovah, and our God, 
and Jehovah are one. He is the beginning of all things, 
the ancient of ancients, the garden of roots, and the perfec- 
tion of all saints ; and he is called the Father. The other 
Elohainoo, our God, is the depth and fountain of sciences, 
who proceeds from the Father, and is called the Son. The 
next, or Jehovah, he is the Holy Ghost, who proceeds from 
them both, and is called the measure of the voice. He is 
one, so that one concludes with the oth^r, and unites them 
together. And therefore he says, hear, O Israel, i. e. join 
together the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost, and 
make him one essence and one substance. For whatsoever 
is the one, is in the other. He has been the whole, he is the 
whole, and he will be the whole." 

On the same place he adds, " This is the mystery of him 
who was before the rocks, and is united with the head and 
stem and the way. By Jehovah (the first) is meant the high 
or first beginning ; by Elohainoo, the stem, is meant the 
stem spoken of Isa. 11, the stem of Jesse, (the Messiah;) 
by Jehovah (last) is meant the way." 

^ 6. R. Menachem, in Sepher Yezira, says, " In the ca- 
balistic tree are ten sephiroth or members. The first is call- 
ed the chief crown and the first glory, whose essence no 
creature can comprehend : the second is called wisdom, and 
the intelligence illuminating the crown of the creation, the 
brightness of equal unity, who is exalted above every head, 
and the second glor}' ; and the third is called the sanctify- 
ing understanding, the worker and parent of faith. These 



140 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Pari 2. 

three first numbers are intellectual, and not like the other 
seven properties or attributes." On the same subject it is 
said, *' between him who produces, and those who are pro- 
duced, there is no difference. He and they are all one and 
the same essence, in which, in three points or modes, are 
formed the crown, wisdom, and understanding, and in these 
are comprehended all the rest of the Sephiroth or numer- 
ations." 

The learned Philo says, " God attended with his two su- 
preme powers, principality and goodness, being himself 
but one in the middle of these two, makes three appear- 
ances to the seeing soul." De. Sacrif ab. et cain. p. 108, B. 
Again he says, " In the middle is the Father of all things ; 
on each side of him are the two powers, the eldest and the 
nearest to Jehovah, whereof one is the creative power, the 
other is the royal power ; the creative power is called God, 
the royal power is called Lord." De Abrahame, p. 287. E. 

R. Hay Hagaon says, " There are three lights in God, 
the ancient light, or Kadmon, the pure light, or Tzach, the 
purified light, or Metzuchtzach ; and that these three make 
but one God, and that there is neither plurality nor poly- 
theism in this." The same idea is taught by R. Shem Tov, 
in his book Emunoth, p. 4, c, 8, p. 32, c. 2. 

The cabalists frequently distinguish the three persons by 
the three Hebrew personal pronouns ; Ani (I) the first per- 
son, called Ensoph, or infinite, the Father; Athtah (thou) 
the second person, called Chochmah, or wisdom ; Hoo (he) 
called Binah, understanding, or Ruach Hackodesh, the 
Holy Spirit, by whom the prophets were inspired. 

§ 7. From the preceding statement I hope my dear 
Benjamin will be convinced that both the sacred Scriptures 
and our ancient Rabbins taught a trinity of persons in the 
unity of the Divine essence ; and I should now proceed to 
point out the importance of this doctrine, but as I shall 
have occasion to speak of it hereafter, I will now say but a 
few words. Christians, as well as our people, believe that 



Let. 2.] PLURALITY RESTRICTED TO A DIVINITY. 141 

the first and fundamental principle of religion is, that there 
is a God ; secondly, that there is but one living and truje 
God ; and lastly, that religious worship and divine honors 
are to be paid to this one living and true God alone. Ei- 
ther, therefore, the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost are this 
one living and true God, or else we transgress these funda- 
mental laws of nature and of God every time we pray and 
ascribe glory to either the Son or the Holy Ghost. The 
doctrine of the blessed Trinity, therefore, is by no means a 
speculative and insignificant thing as some would persuade 
us it is. 

'* The faith of the Holy Trinity," says the learned Dr. 
Sherlock, " is so fundamental to the Christian religion, that 
if Christianity be worth contending for, that is. For if God 
has not an eternal Son and an eternal Spirit, the whole 
mystery of our redemption by Christ, and of our sanctifica- 
tion by the Spirit, which, in its consequences, is the whole 
of the Gospel, and distinguishes it from all other religions, is 
utterly lost, and we are reduced again to a mere system of 
moral philosophy." Simpson's Deity of Christ, p. 14. 

Farewell. 



When shall I see him face to face ; 
When to my dear Redeemer fly ; 
When shall I meet his kind embrace, 
And find his "welcome rest on high ! 

Come, dearest Savior, quickly come ; 
Life without thee is life forlorn : 
O take thy longing pilgrim home— 
My soul for earth was never born! 



142 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part 2, 



Letter III. 



DISTINGUISHING MARKS OF DEITY. 



Dear Benjamin, 

Having, in the preceding letter, shown that there is a 
plurality of persons in the divine essence, I will now pro- 
ceed to show that Jesus, the promised Messiah, is truly 
God. 

^ 1. This will appear, if we consider that there are cer- 
tain criteria by which the Creator is distinguished from 
the creature. If the peculiar marks of the human nature 
were to be found in brute animals, this would bring ever- 
lasting confusion into the affairs of life. Much more ne- 
cessary is it, therefore, that there should be the most evident 
marks of distinction between God and the creature, lest we 
should bring the same confusion into all our religion and 
worship, by mistaking the creature for God, and God for 
the creature. 

§ 2. It is generally acknowledged that it was the great 
object of the religion given to our fathers, to preserve in 
the world the worship of the true God, notwithstanding the 
universal tendency to idolatry among all nations. One 
great source of idolatry, (i. e. giving the glory to the crea- 
ture which belongs to the Creator,) especially to the most 
ignorant part of mankind, has been the mistaking the crea- 
ture for the Creator. It must, therefore, be supposed that 
if God has ever employed mere creatures as instruments 
in delivering his will, he has used the most effectual means 
to prevent men from apprehending that the speaker was 
God. We can suppose no means so obvious, nor one that 



Let. 3] DISTINGUISHING MARKS OF DEITY. 143 

would so directly tend to prevent this mistake, as that of 
prohibiting- those whom he employed from personating 
their great employer, using any of his names as if they 
might occasionally be given to them, or expressing them- 
selves in such terms as might lead the hearers to imagine 
that God himself was the immediate speaker. If, on the 
contrary, this necessary caution has been neglected ; if God 
has permitted a creature to say to his fellow, I am Jeho- 
vah, 1 am that I am ; so far was he from using those 
means that were most consistent with infinite wisdom for 
the prevention of idolatry, that we cannot conceive that he 
could have taken more direct or effectual methods for estab- 
lishing it, although this had been his avowed design in the 
whole of that revelation contained in the Old Testament. 

Now, it is very evident from the sacred Scripture, that 
Jehovah is very jealous that no creature shall share in his 
incommunicable characteristics. Thus says Jehovah, " Thou 
shalt have no other gods before me, for I the Lord thy God 
am a jealous God." Exod. 20 : 3-5. " Take heed unlo 
yourselves, lest ye forget the covenant of the Lord your God 
which he made with you, and make you a graven image, 
or the likeness of any thing which the Lord thy God hath 
forbidden thee; for the Lord thy God is a consuming fire, 
even a jealous God." Deut. 4 : 23, 24. See also Deut. 6 : 
13-15 ; 32 c. 16:21; Joshua, 24 : 19. 

§ 3. It is agreed on all hands, that there can be no cri- 
teria more descriptive and distinctive of the true and living 
God than those of names, titles, attributes, works, and wor- 
ship. The peculiar divine names are chiefly these two ; 
viz. the name Jehovah, and the name God ; with some addi- 
tional word of honor, as the true God, the great God, the 
mighty God, the only wise God, God and none else, and 
God blessed for ever. The peculiar divine titles are, the 
God of Abraham, the Lord of hosts, King of kings, and 
Lord of lords, the First and the Last. The peculiar divine 
•attributes are, omniscience, omnipresence, omnipotence, eter- 



144 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part 2. 

nity, and immutability. Tlie peculiar divine works are, 
the creation and conservation of all things, the changing 
of the heart, and raising the dead. These are the distin- 
guishing characters by which God was pleased to make 
himself known under the Old Testament, and it is upon 
these accounts that he, in opposition to other gods, claims 
to be received and honored as God. This is abundantly 
evident from the following passages of Scripture, which I 
v;ould recommend to my dear Benjamin to read and medi- 
tate on. Gen. 21 : 33. Deut. 3 : 24. 4:7. 7 : 19. 10 : 17. 
32 : 39. 33 : 32. 2 Kings, 19 : 15. 1 Chro. 29 : 11. Job, 
9:4. 12 : 16, 26. 37 : 16. 42 : 2. Psa. 8 : 4. 93 : 2. 13 : 
7. Isa. 26: 4. 42 : 5. 45 : 7,' 18. 57 : 15. Jer. 10 : 12. 
22 : 23, 24. Dan. 2 : 20. Mai. 3 : 6. 

§ 4. It may, however, not be improper, my dear Benjamin, 
to show more particularly that these criteria are incommu- 
nicable. With respect to the names and titles, I shall no- 
tice at present only the name Jehovah. 

This is the grand, the peculiar and incommunicable 
name of God. It is not applied to any created being 
throughout the sacred Scriptures. This is evident, 

1, From its peculiar structure and signification. It is 
composed of the three essential parts of the Hebrew verb 
to be, viz. the preter tense Hay ah, he was ; present partici- 
ple Hou^e, he is ; and the future tense Yihye, he shall be. 
Hence it imports the necessary, independent, unchangeable, 
and eternal existence of the Most High, whose name is " I 
am that I am." Exod. 3:14. If this name, therefore, be 
applied to any living being, it constitutes an irrefragable 
proof of his divinity from an infallible evidence. 

It is much to be regretted that this sublime and awful 
name has not been retained in the sacred volume. There 
is nothing in the word Lord expressive of the grand 
and comprehensive ideas included in the word Jehovah. 
Besides, there are gods many and lords manj% but to us 
there is but one Jehovah. True, the translators have 



Let. 3.] DISTINGUISHING MARKS OF DEITY. 145 

distinguished it from the common word Lord, which sig- 
nifies mere dominion or authority, by putting it in large or 
capital letters ; but the generality of readers neither know 
the reason nor are apt to take notice of the distinction. 

2. It is further evident from the express declaration of 
Jehovah himself The attentive reader of the Scriptures 
must have observed how the one true God insists upon his 
being Jehovah in opposition to all other gods, glorying in 
a manner and triumphing in it, as the distinguishing cha- 
racter by which he will be known to be infinitely superior 
to all the gods of the nations. How expressive the lan- 
guage, "I am that I am !" Exod. 3 : 14. By the prophet 
Isaiah he speaks thus : " I am Jehovah, that is my name, 
and my glory I will not give to another." Isa. 42 : 8. 
Again, " I am Jehovah, and there is no God beside me." 
Isa. 45 : 5. How striking the words of the Psalmist : 
" That men may know that thou whose name alone is Je- 
hovah, art the most high over all the earth." Psa. 83 : 18. 
See also 135 : 13. Deut. 28 : 58. Hosea, 12 : 5. Mai. 3 : 6. 
From these, and many other passages, it is evident that the 
Lord made himself known to his people by the name Je- 
hovah, to express his peculiar nature, and to distinguish 
himself from all those whom he called gods, or who were 
so called by others ; and when therefore this name was in 
composition imposed on a place, as Jehovah Shamah, Jeho- 
vah Nisi, or Jehovah Shalem, there could be no danger of 
its being mistaken by them for God, or of being supposed 
to be possessed of a divine nature : but as the idolatry of the 
Avorld in general consisted in deifying intelligent creatures, 
had he permitted this name to be given to any such, he 
would have defeated his own design in the use of it, and 
would himself have signally contributed to idolatry. 

§ 5. The only place in the whole Bible, urged as an objec- 
tion, is Jer. 33 : 16, where Jerusalem, or the church, is 
said to be called Jehovah ; but a little attention will show 
that it is not Jerusalem, or the church, but the Messiah, 



146 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part 2. 

which is called in that place Jehovah our Righteousness. 
You will observe that the prediction delivered by the pro- 
phet in this chapter, v. 15, 16, is literally the same as that 
in chap. 23 : 5, 6, with no other difference except the last 
clause of the 16th verse, now under consideration. In 
chap. 23 it reads thus, " And this is his name whereby he 
shall be called, the Lord our Righteousness ;" and in chap. 
33 it is translated, " And this is the name wherewith she 
shall be called, the Lord our Righteousness." Now you 
will please to take notice, 

1st. That in chap. 33 : 16, the words " is the name " are 
in italics, to show that they are not in the original text. 

2d. That if it were the church that is called Jehovah, the 
word lah, translated she, ought to be the accusative, othah, 
her, and not the dative, lah, to htr, 

3dly. That several manuscript copies have the clause in 
chap. 33 the same as in chap. 23. 

4th. That the Targum also translates both passages 
alike, viz. " This is the name wherewith they shall call 
him, the Lord our Righteousness." 

5th. That the words in the original in chap. 33: 16, 
are these, loeseh Asher yikra lah, literally, '* and this that 
shall call to her." 

Now, you know, dear Benjamin, that the word Kara, to 
call, means frequently to produce, effect, accomplish. Thus 
Jehovah says, " I will call for the corn, and will increase 
it." Ezek. 36 : 29 ; the Hebrew word is Wekarathi, I will 
call, i. e. I will effect it, I will cause the earth to bring forth 
plentifully. Again, "Shall I call a nurse?" Exod. 2:7; 
i. e. shall I go and bring one ? In the same sense the apos- 
tle Paul uses the word to call, when he says, " Whom he 
did predestinate, them he also called ;" i. e. wrought a 
change in them, and brought them out of darkness into his 
marvelous light. Rom. 8 : 30. Again he says, " God, who 
quickens the dead, and calls those things which be not, as 
though they Avere ;" i. e. he causes, by a powerful word, 



Let. 3.] DISTINGUISHING MARKS OF DEITT. 147 

those things to exist which had no being before. He said, 
let there be light, and there was light. You will then easily 
perceive, my dear Benjamin, that the plain meaning of the 
passage is, " this is he who shall call to her," i. e. that 
shall accomplish it for her. Substitute the word effect or 
accomplish in the place of call, and it contains an answer 
to the supposed question. Who shall cause Jerusalem to 
dwell in safety ? Answer, Jehovah our Righteousness shall 
accomplish it for her. I am pleased to find, after much 
research, that this sense of the passage is sanctioned by R. 
Joseph Kimchi, who reads it thus : " And he who calls her 
is Jehovah, our righteousness." Pagninus, Montanus 
Vatabulus, translate it in the same manner. 

In referring to the Jewish Expositor of 1819, page 20, I 
find the following criticism, which will remove all difficul- 
ties. " I shall confine my critical remarks," says he, " to 
the latter part of the 16th verse; and this is the name 
whereby she shall be called, the Lord our Righteousness. 
In these few words there appears to be no less than three 
errors, which the collated readings enable us to correct. 
First, the omission of the word Shemo, Name, which our 
translators have very properly inserted in italics, as neces- 
sary to complete the verse. This word is preserved in 
three manuscripts collated by Kennecott, and was the origi- 
nal reading of two collated by De Rossi. It is also con- 
firmed by the Chald. Vulg. Syr. Ar. (Waltoni Bib. Poly.) 

" Secondly, for yickra, i. e. he shall call, two of De Rossi's 
manuscripts read yikreoo, i. e. they shall call, and it was 
the original reading of another manuscript (Doederlein.) 
This reading is confirmed by the Chaldaic Vulg. Ar. 
(Wah. Bib. Poly.) as well as by the parallel passage, Jer. 
23 . 6, and by the Chald. Vulg. Syr. and Arab, versions of 
that passage 

" The third error is the substitution of Lah, her, for Lo, 
him. But Lo is happily preserved in one of Kennicott's 
manuscripts, and in another Hay is an erasure. Lo is also 



148 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part 2. 

in the margin of one of De Rossi's, (Doederlein,) and in the 
reading of Vulg. Arab, and perhaps Syr. Thus the two 
passages (Jer. 23. 6, and 33: 16) read exactly alike, viz. 
' And this is his name which they shall call him, Jehovah 
our Righteousness.' " 

§ 7. It is needless, however, to multiply testimonies on 
a subject on which our people are unanimous. I therefore 
proceed to the incommunicable attributes. 

But before we consider these attributes singly, I 
would beg your attention, my dear Benjamin, to one gene- 
ral remark, viz. that he must be God, to whom God's es- 
sential attributes and perfections belong ; for such attributes 
cannot be separated from the essence of God, or belong to 
any inferior being : for example, to be absolutely eternal, 
omniscient, omnipresent, omnipotent, uncreated, are attri- 
butes of God, which belong to his nature and being, and 
cannot belong to any creature ; for how, then, could the dis- 
tinction and difference between God and the creature be 
preserved ? 

For the same being to be created and uncreated, to have 
a being and to have no being, to be in all places, and yet 
limited to a certain place, carries in it an inconsistency and 
contradiction; the affirming of the one is the denial of the 
contrary. These opposite attributes cannot then belong to 
one and the same nature ; for that must suppose it to be and 
not to be at the same time, and to be what it really is not. 

To be a creature, is to be made in time ; and therefore 
cannot be affirmed of that being which is not made, and 
never had a beginning : to be a creature, is to be limited in 
power, place and knowledge; for a finite nature cannot 
receive infinite perfections. That being, therefore, which 
is unlimited in power, place, and knowledge, cannot be a 
creature, and consequently must be God, to whom it is 
peculiar to be without beginning, to be infinite in power 
and knowledge, and to be immense, filling heaven and 
earth, but not to be limited or circumscribed by them. 



Let. 3.] DISTINGI/ISHING MARKS OF DEITY, 149 

A created and uncreated nature may be united in the 
same person, as in Christ ; but to be infinite and finite, 
eternal and temporary ; to know all things, and to know 
only some things : to be every where, and yet confined to 
one certain place, cannot belong to the same nature ; for 
then that nature would be a contradiction to itself. 

If God's essential properties could be communicated to a 
creature, then the essence of God must be communicated 
to the creature ; for the essence and essential properties 
cannot be separated ; for then God must be separated from 
himself, and both be and not be at the same time. And fur- 
ther, if God's essence could be communicated to a creature, 
then the creature would that moment become God ; but God 
cannot become a creature, nor can a creature become God ; 
therefore God's essential attributes cannot be communicated 
to a creature. 

Such perfections as require an infinite, independent, un- 
changeable being for their subject, are what may be called 
God's essential attributes ; that is, they are such as belong 
to God, and can belong to no other being; such are 
immensity, omnipotency, omniscience, eternity, and immu- 
tability. A creature may bear some resemblance to God, 
in a lower degree, as to wisdom, goodness, holiness ; ^^et 
even these, in creatures, are limited, both as to measure and 
duration ; whereas in God they are eternal and infinite, as 
his essence is ; but no creature can be every where present, 
be without beginning and without end, know all thinf^s, 
and be able to do all things. To return then to our subject. 

Omniscience, or the knowledge of all things, and particu- 
larly of the heart of man and his secret thoughts, is a pro- 
perty which Jehovah claims as peculiarly his. "For thou, 
even thou, only knowest the hearts of all the children of 
men." 1 Kings, 8 : 39. *' Let them bring them forth and 
show us what shall happen, let them show the former 
things what they be, that we may consider them, and know 
the latter end of them : or declare us things to come, show 



150 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part 2. 

the things that are to come hereafter, that we may know 
that ye are gods. Isa. 41: 22, 23. "The heart is de- 
ceitful above all things, and desperately wicked ; who can 
know it ? I, the Lord, search the heart ; I try the reins, 
even to give to every man according to his ways." Jer. 17: 
9, 10. See also Amos, 4:13. 

Omnipresence is a distinguishing perfection of God, 
which implies his immediate presence in all places, taking 
cognizance of, and managing all the affairs of his univer- 
sal kingdom. Ps. 139: 1-13. This is the common conso- 
lation which God gives to his people, wheresoever they 
are. " Fear thou not, for I am with thee ; be not dismayed, 
for I am thy God. I will strengthen thee ; yea, I will 
help thee ; yea, I will uphold thee with the right hand of 
my righteousness." Isa. 41 : 10. 

Omnipotence, or almighty power, is another divine in- 
communicable attribute. I need not quote any passages ot 
Scripture on the subject, for it has been justly observed that 
almighty is so peculiar a character of Deity, that God takes 
it for his very title in more than fifty places in the Old 
Testament. 

Eternity, i. e. without beginning or end, is another pecu- 
liar distinguishing perfection of God. " Before the moun- 
tains were brought forth, or even thou hadst formed the 
earth and the world, even from everlasting to everlasting thou 
art God." Ps. 18: 2, " Thus saith the Lord, the King of 
Israel, and his Redeemer, the Lord of hosts — I am the first 
and I am the last, and beside me there is no God." Isa. 
44:6. 

Immutability, or unchangeableness, is the last incommu- 
nicable attribute I shall name. " For I, the Lord, I change 
not." Mai. 3 : 6. 

^ S. I proceed to the next incommunicable criterion of 
Jehovah, which is the work of creation. The Scriptures 
every where appropriate this work to God, and exclude all 
other beings from the glory of it. By this, Jehovah distin- 



Let. 3.] DISTINGUISHING MARKS OF DEITY. 151 

guisiies himself from all other pretended deities : he chal- 
lenges this as his peculiar glory, that he is the Maker of the 
heavens, and all things contained in them. " Thus shall 
ye say unto them, the gods that have not made the heavens 
and the earth, even they shall perish from the earth, and 
from under these heavens : he has made the earth by his 
power, he has established the world by his wisdom, and 
has stretched out the heavens by his discretion." Jer. 10 : 
11, 12. ''And Hezekiah prayed before the Lord, and said, 
O Lord God of Israel, which dwellest between the cheru- 
bims, thou art the God, even thou alone, of all the kingdoms 
of the earth ; thou hast made heaven and earth." 2 Kings, 
19 : 15 ; see also Nehemiah, 9:6; Job, 9 : 8. Jehovah him- 
self declares, " I have made the earth and created man upon 
it; I, even my hands have stretched out the heavens, and 
all their host have I commanded." And again, " Thus 
saith the Lord, thy Redeemer, and he that formed thee from 
the womb ; I am the Lord that maketh all things, that 
stretched forth the heavens alone, that spreadeth abroad the 
earth by myself" Isa. 44: 24; 45: 12. How unaccountable 
and unwarrantable are these expressions, if the great God 
had used another, even a created being, as his minister or 
instrument in the great work of creation ; for none is said 
to do that alone and by himself, which he uses the assist- 
ance and ministry of another in the performance of 

The apostle, in writing to the Hebrews, lays this down 
as an undisputable maxim, that creation is the Avork of 
God; " for every house," says he, "is builded by someman, 
but he that built all things is God." Heb. 3:4. In the 
same manner he reasons in Rom. 1 : 20, " For the invisi- 
ble things of him from the creation of the world are clearly 
seen, being understood by the things which are made, 
even his eternal power and Godhead, so that they are 
without excuse." Now, if a creature might make all these 
things, that had no such eternal power and Godhead at all, 
the force of the apostle's argument would be lost. Creation 



152 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part 2. 

requires almighty power. Almighty power is an incommu- 
nicable attribute of God, whoever has created a world must 
therefore be God ; but the creation is attributed to the Mes- 
siah, as Avill be shown hereafter ; the Messiah, therefore, 
must be God. But supposing, not granting, that some glo- 
rious uncreated spirit might be some way employed in the 
works of God, I demand whether this sublime being' has 
infinite, or only a finite power, communicated to it for this 
end; if an infinite power, this is to deify a creature ; if only 
a finite power, that can never go beyond itself, act where it 
is not, or produce something out of nothing. In perfect 
conformity with what has been said on this subject, is 
the first article of our national creed, which ascribes the 
creation of all things to God alone. 

You perceive then, my dear Benjamin, that it is the fa- 
vorite topic which God is pleased to insist most upon, 
whenever he would either distinguish his own peculiai 
majesty and power above and beyond all the gods of 
the nations, or when he would excite in his people the 
highest idea possible suitable to his transcendent excellen- 
cy and peerless perfections. Nothing higher or greater 
could be said than this, that he had created the universe, 
had laid the foundations of the earth, and that the heavens 
were the works of his hands. Ps. 102: 25, 26. If, there- 
fore, it can be made evident that the Angel Jehovah is set 
forth to us under this same high character, let any man of 
common abilities, that has not his faculties prejudiced, or is 
not steeled against conviction, be left to draw the conclusion. 

^ 9. I proceed now to show that divine worship is an- 
other of the peculiar criteria of Deity. 

Worship, in general, imports the respect we pay to an- 
other on account of his excellency and superiority. Divine 
worship must, therefore, import such respect as belongs to 
a Being of such infinite excellencies and supreme authority 
as the blessed God alone is possessed of. Such worship is 
either internal, consisting in those acts of our mind (such 



Let. 3.] DISTINGUISHING MARKS OF DEITY. 153 

as esteem, reverence, love, trust, subjection, self-dedication) 
whereby we acknowledge such infinite excellencies and 
supreme authority to belong to the being we adore; or 
external worship, which is partly expressed by our words 
and our prayers, praises, «fec. and partly by gestures, as 
merely standing, bowing, &c. 

Now that such worship is due to God alone, is evident, 
§ 10. From reason : for to worship God supposes him to 
be present with us, to understand the homage we pay to 
him; nay, to know not only our particular case and circum- 
stances, but even our very heart, and with what inward in- 
tentions and affections we offer such honor and respect to 
him. It supposes that he can both hear and help us, and 
that he can judge of the sincerity of our devotions. Now, 
such an unlimited knowledge of human affairs, and domin- 
ion over them, especially such a knowledge of the heart of 
man, and such a presence with all worshipers, wherever 
they are, are perfections which belong to no mere creatures, 
but to the blessed God alone. 

§ 1 1. From sacred Scripture: religious worship is so pe- 
culiar a prerogative of God, that he will by no means suf- 
fer any meaner being to share in it. He assumes the cha- 
racter to himself with a divine jealousy, lest any thing be- 
neath God should partake of it. " Thou shalt fear the Lord 
thy God, and serve him, and shalt swear by his name. 
Ye shall not go after other gods, of the gods of the people 
which are round about you ; for the Lord thy God is a jeal- 
ous God among you." Deut. 6: 13-15. This charge is 
repeated in chap. 10 : 20, and doubtless the first command- 
ment includes the same truth : " Thou shalt have no other 
gods before me," i. e. no other objects of worship; and 
this is again repeated, Exod. 34 : 14. Indeed there is scarce 
any command more frequently renewed, or guarded with 
more awful sanctions and more terrible examples of tho 
wrath of God against the breakers of it, than the worship 
of the one true God. 

VOL II. y 



154 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part. 2. 

^12. This truth is further proved by the fifth fundamen- 
tal article of our people's creed, which reads thus : " I be- 
lieve with a perfect faith, that the Creator, blessed be his 
name, is the only object of adoration, and that no other 
being whatever ought to be worshiped." 

And now, my dear Benjamin, having shown at consider- 
able length that there are certain names, titles, attributes, 
works, and worship which are the distinguishing character- 
istics of the true God, and incommunicable to any creature ; 
it follows, therefore, that if it appear that such names, titles, 
&c. are given to any creature in the holy Scriptures, the 
argument from such names, titles, &c. will hold good to 
prove his being the supreme God. And if an angel is re- 
vealed to whom these titles, attributes, &c. belong, we must 
necessarily conclude that he is a divine person, and yet dis- 
tinct from him whose angel he is said to be. I shall there- 
fore endeavor to show, in my next letter. 

That the angel Jehovah who appeared to our fathers un- 
der the Old Testament, possessed all these divine criteria, 
and therefore was a divine person. Farewell. 



To thee alone ourselves we owe ; 

Let heaven and earth due homage pay ; 
All other gods we disavow, 

Deny their claims, renounce their sway. 

Spread thy great name through heathen lands; 

Their idol deities dethrone ; 
Reduce the world to thy commands ; 

And reign, as thou art, God alone. 



Let. 4.] THE ANGEL JEHOVAH. 155 



I^etter IV. 



THE ANGEL JEHOVAH. 



Dear Benjamin, 

Permit me to invite your attention to the various appear- 
ances of the angel Jehovah to our fathers, under the Old 
Testament, who appears to possess all the Divine criteria, 
and therefore was a Divine person. 

§ 1. I am persuaded that my dear Benjamin, being so 
well acquainted with the Hebrew language, will require no 
apology for my calling the Malach Yehwaoh^ the angel Je- 
hovah, without the preposition of between ; and it would 
have tended much to elucidate the doctrine of the blessed 
Trinity, had our translators done the same. Pardon this 
digression. 

To present this subject in a clear, and I hope convincing 
light, I would beg the attention of my dear Benjamin to 
the following propositions, which I shall illustrate and con- 
firm, both by sacred Scripture, and by testimonies from our 
ancient and modern Rabbins. 

But as I shall refer also to the writings of Philo, it will 
be proper to say a few words respecting him. 

§ 2. " Philo was an ancient Greek writer, of a noble fa- 
mily among the Jews, and flourished at Alexandria during 
the reign of Caligula. He was at Rome A. D. 42. There are 
certainly in his works many excellent things. Though he 
is continually allegorizing the Scriptures, he abounds with 
fine sentiments and lessons of morality ; and his morals are 
rather the morals of a Christian than of a Jew. History, to- 
gether with his own writings, give us every reason to be- 
lieve that he was a man of great prudence, constancy and 
virtue." Ency. Brit. 



l56 JOSEPH AND ben'ja:,iiX. [Part 2. 

In all his writings there is no allusion either to the New 
Testament, or to Christ, or any of his apostles. The de- 
sign of his writing was to make our people understand their 
law according to the Medrashim, i. e. explanations, in an al- 
legorical way, and to teach the heathens that their prejudices 
against the law of Moses were unjust, and that they ought 
to acknowledge the divine unity of the law. His writings 
are acknowledged by our Rabbins to be his as a Jew, and 
are frequently quoted as such for authority, by Menassah 
Ben Israel. See his Exposition of Exod. p. 137. It is abun- 
dantly evident that Philo did not derive his opinions from 
Plato ; but rather Plato, by conversing with Jews in Egypt, 
borrowed his best notions from them. See Jameison's Vindi- 
cation of the Deity of Christ, fol. 1. p. 22. Simpson's Deity 
of Christ, p. 415, No. 29. 

§ 3. I will now call your attention to the promised pro- 
positions. 

1st. We read of one called the angel Jehovah, who ap- 
peared under the Old Testament to different persons. 

2d. This angel Jehovah our Rabbins call by different 
names. 

3d. In all these appearances they say it was the self- 
same person. 

4th, This angel Jehovah they believed to have been the 
promised Messiah, who was to become incarnate. 

5th. To this angel Jehovah are ascribed the incommu- 
nicable names, titles, &c. of Jehovah, and therefore he could 
not have been a created angel. 

6th. This angel Jehovah was not the Father, but a dis- 
tinct person from him. 

7th. Hence it is evident that our ancient, and some mo- 
dern Rabbins, believed the Messiah to be Jehovah, the true 
and living God, the second person in the blessed Trinity. 

I proceed to illustrate these propositions, and begin with 
the first. 



Let. 4.] THE ANGEL JEHOVAH. 157 

§ 4. The angel Jehovah appeared to the following per- 
sons: 

To Hagar, Gen. IG: 7-14. 

To Abraham, Gen. 22: 11, 12, 15-18. 

To Jacob, Gen. 28 : 10-22, and 35 : 1, 7— compare 43 : 
15, 16 — see also 32: 24-30— compare Hosea, 12 : 1-5, 

To Moses, Exod, chap. 3. 

To Joshua, Josh. 5 ; 13-15 ; 6 : 2, 

To Gideon, Judges, 6: 11-24. 

To Manoah and his wife. Judges, 13 : 2-13. 

Instead of transcribing at large every one of these ap- 
pearances, which would extend the subject too much, I 
would beg my beloved Benjamin to take his Bible and 
read the places referred to. 

§ 5. This angel our Rabbins call by different names, 
such as the Shechina, Memra, Logos, the Word of the Lord, 
the Angel of the covenant, the Mediator, the Redeemer, the 
Messiah, the Only Begotten, and the Creator. 

With respect to the Shechina, I need only to bring to the 
recollection of my dear Benjamin, that R. Menachem teach- 
es, in the name of the most ancient and renowned Rabbins, 
that it was the Shechina which appeared to Adam, imme- 
diately after he had sinned, and clothed him, fo. 59 : 4 ; 
that he appeared to Abraham, fo. 35: 2; to Jacob, fo. 36: 
2, and 41 : 42 ; to Moses, Exod. 3, fo. 55 : 12 ; to the people 
on Mount Sinai, fo. 56:2; and that it v^as the Shechina 
that gave the law, fo. 57 : 2, 3 ; 58 : 1 ; 84 : 1, 2. 

To the same Shechina they give the name of Adam from 
above, after whose image Adam was created ; and they give 
to him the title of exalted and blessed, which they give to 
the true God only ; and they say also that it was he to 
whom Noah sacrificed; that the temple was built to the 
honor of the Shechina, and that it was to him, and not to 
the ark, that the Levites said, " Arise, O Lord, unto thy 
jest, thou and the ark of thy strength." Psa. 132: 8; and 



168 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part 2. 

we are further told, that by this Shechina is meant the liv- 
ing God, the Angel of the covenant, the God of Jacob, and 
the angel that redeemed him, whom the prophets called the 
angel of his presence. See K. Menachem, fo. 2 : 1 ; 40: 3; 
20:2; 27:1; 34:4; 38:3; 73 : 1, and 83 : 4. 

§ 6. With respect to the Memra, or the word of the Lord, 
our Rabbins teach as follows : In Gen. 3_: 8, it is said they 
heard the word, instead of the voice; in this view, all the 
Targums agree. The Jerusalem Targum begins the next 
verse in this manner : *' And the word of the Lord God 
called unto Adam ;" another says, " They heard the word 
of the Lord God walking." On this passage we have the 
following observation in Sepher Zeror Hammer: "Before 
they sinned, they saw the glory of the blessed God speak- 
ing with him, i. e. with God ; but after their sin, they only 
heard the voice walking." See Ber. Rab. in Loco. 

Ankelos paraphrases Gen. 3 1 : 22, •' And the word from 
before the Lori came to Satan ;" and Exod. 20 : 19, " Let 
not the word from before the Lord speak with us, lest we 
die." 

The Memra is also called the Mediator. 

According to the Jerusalem Targum on Gen. 21: 33, 
" Abraham at Beersheba prayed in the name of the word 
of the Lord, the God of the world." Deut. 4: 7, is thus 
paraphrased by Jonathan : " God is near, and the name of 
the word of the Lord ;" and, Jer. 29 : 14, he says, " I will 
be sought by you and by my word, and 1 will be inquired 
of through you by my word." Again in Hosea, 4:9, " God 
will receive the prayer of Israel by his word, and have 
mercy upon them, and will make them by his word like a 
beautiful fig-tree." This is in perfect conformity with our 
Rabbins, who, when supplicating God, entreated him that 
he would look on the face of his anointed. 

Further, the Memra is also called the Redeemer and the 
Messiah, 



Let. 4.j THE ANGEL JEHOVAH. 159 

In the Jerusalem Targum, the words of dying Jacob, 
Gen. 49 : 18, "I have waited for thy salvation," are thus 
paraphrased : " Our father Jacob said, my soul expects not 
the redemption of Gideon, the son of Joash, which is a 
temporal salvation, nor that of Sampson, which is a transi- 
tory salvation, but the redemption which thou didst promise 
should come through the Memra to thy people." The rea- 
<ler will take notice, that what the Jerusalem Targum calls 
the Memra, Jonathan calls the Messiah ; for says he, " I 
expect the redemption of the Messiah, the Son of David, 
who shall come to gather to himself the people of Israel." 
That by the word, the paraphrasts understood the Messiah, 
is evident from their interpretation of the 110th Psalm, v. J, 
*• The Lord said unto his word," i. e. unto the Messiah, for 
this passage has ever been applied to him, (p. 261, 308.) 
The promise of the seed of the woman, applied by our Rab- 
bins to the Messiah, (p. 150,) is applied by the Targum to 
the angel who says, " And that Adam knew his wife Eve, 
who desired the angel, and she conceived and bare Cain, 
and said, I have obtained a man, the angel of the Lord." 
Now as Jehovah is the word used in the original, we can- 
not conceive that the interpreter would have given this 
paraphrase, had he not known that it was believed by his 
countrymen, that he who was revealed in sacred Scripture 
as the angel of the Lord, was Jehovah or the true God, and 
also that he was to be incarnate as the angel of the cove- 
nant, or Messiah. 

We observe once more, that the Memra is also described 
as the only begotten, the Creator. 

Thus the remarkable verse. Gen. 3 : 22, " The Lord God 
said, behold the man has become as one of us," is in the 
Jerusalem Targum paraphrased in the following striking 
manner : •' The word of the Lord said, behold Adam 
whom I have created, the only begotten in the world, as I 
am the only begotten in the highest heavens/' You will 



160 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part 2- 

notice, my dear Benjamin, how similar the languag-e ol 
our ancient Rabbins is to the language of the New Testa- 
ment. ** In the beginning was the word — all things were 
made by him — we beheld his glory as the glory of the 
only begotten of the Father." John, 1 : 1, 3, 14. 

§ 7. I proceed to consider the next proposition, viz. that 
all these appearances of the angel Jehovah are ascribed to 
the same person. 

R. Moses. Gerundensis, Nechmanni, when explaining 
Joshua, 5:14, where we have an account of the appearance 
of one called the " Captain of the Lord's host," he says, 
" This angel, if we speak exactly, is the Angel Redeemer, 
of whom it is written, my name is in him, that very angel 
who said to Jacob, Gen. 31 : 13, I am the God of Bethel, 
he of whom it is said, and God called to Moses out of the 
bush. Exod. 3 : 4. He is called an angel, because he 
governs the world; for it is written, Deut. 6 : 21, The Lord 
brought you out of Egypt, and Num. 20 : 6, He sent his 
angel and brought you out of Egypt. Besides it is written, 
Isa. 63 : 9, And the angel of his face saved them. He is 
that angel who is the face of God, of whom it is said, 
Exod. 33 : 14, My face shall go with thee, and I will give 
thee rest. In fine, he is that angel of whom the prophet 
Malachi says, c. 3 : 4, ' And the Lord Avhom ye seek shall 
suddenly come to his temple, even the messenger of the 
covenant whom ye delight in.' " Again he says, " Diligently 
attend to the meaning of these words, 'my face shall go 
before thee ;' for Moses and the Israelites always desired 
the chief angel, but who this was they could not truly un- 
derstand- for neither did they learn it from others, nor 
could they sufficiently attain it by prophecy. But the face 
of God signifies God himself, which is acknowledged by 
all our interpreters. But no one could have the least notion 
of these things, unless he be truly instructed in the myste- 
ries of the law." Again he says, " My face shall go before 



Let. 4.] THE ANGEL JEHOVAH. 161 

you, i. e. the angel of the covenant whom ye desire, in 
whom my face shall be seen, of whom it is said, in an ac- 
ceptable time have I heard thee, mj^ name is in him, and I 
will cause thee to rest ; for I will cause that he shall be 
gentle and benign to thee, neither shall he lead thee with 
ligor, but calmly and mercifully." Wolf. Synops. Joshua, 
5 : 14; Owen, Heb. fo. 1. ex. 10, p. 129. 

Concerning this angel, R. Solomon, on Gen. 48 : 16, 
says : " The angel that delivered me, (that is Jacob,) that is 
the angel who was wont to be sent to me in ray affliction, 
as it is said, the angel of the Lord spake to me in a dream, 
-saying, Jacob, I am the God of Bethel, he of whom it is 
said, my name is in him." Again he says on Exod. 3, 
where the appearance of the angel Jehovah is mentioned, 
*' This is he of whom it is said, and God called to Moses 
out of the bush ; he is called angel, because he governs the 
world ; for it is written in one place, Jehovah brought us 
out of Egypt, and again, the angel of his presence saved 
them, i. e. the angel who is the face of God, of whom it is 
said, my face shall go before you." Lastly, 

The angel of whom the prophet Malachi speaks: "And 
the Lord whom ye seek, shall suddenly come to his temple, 
.«ven the Angel of the covenant whom ye desire." At length 
he adds, " The face of God is God himself, as all interpret- 
ers do acknowledge, but no one can rightly understand this 
without being instructed in the law."" 

R. Menachem of Reka on the same passage (Gen. 48: 
16) says, " He (i. e. Jacob) means the Shechina whom he 
speaks of as the redeeming angel." See also R. Bechai, 
fo. 71, c. 4. Menassah Ben Israel, duer. 64. Gen. p. 118, 
and Aben. Sueb. on the same text. 

§ 8. I proceed now to show that all the incommunicable 
names, titles, attributes, &c. are ascribed to this angel Jeho- 
vah, and therefore he could not be a created angel. This 
proposition will appear evident, if we examine the differenj 



162 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part 2. 

appearances of this angel referred to before. The first is 
that to Hagar. Here you will observe, my dear Benjamin, 
that she called him God; and in verse 13 we are assured 
that he was Jehovah, for she called the name Jehovah that 
spake unto her, " Thou Jehovah seest me." This expression 
may be considered as a personal character, signifying, not 
merely that the name Jehovah was given him, but that it 
was in him, (Exod. 23 : 21,) as possessing the same nature 
with the Father. Hagar did not call him God who spake 
by the angel, but she called the name of the Lord that spake 
to her God. Further : she ascribes the attribute of omni- 
science to him, for she called him the God that saw her ; 
he revealed himself, and she believed in him as one to whom 
divine works belong ; ver. 10. She gave this angel divine 
worship, for she addressed him in the language of faith and 
praise, and in the ascription of divine perfection to him, 
ver. 13, " Thou God seest me :" thus, in this single appear- 
ance of this angel, we find all the criteria of divinity ap- 
propriated to him. 

The Chaldee paraphrase translates the 13th verse, "And 
she called on the name of the Lord who spake with her." 
And the Jerusalem Targum says, " '^he 'prayed in the name 
of the Word as of the Lord that was revealed unto her, and 
said. Blessed art thou, O God!" Here is prayer and praise 
ascribed to the angel. Further : the angel promised, " I 
will make of him a great nation," which requires the al- 
mighty power of God to perform. 

§ 9. Now, my dear Benjamin, I wish you well to consider 
that Hagar either believed him to be a mere angel, or a 
Divine being. If the former, then she was a willful blas- 
phemer and idolater. If the latter, but by mistake, (i. e. she 
believed him to be a Divine person, but was mistaken,) then 
she was led into this most fatal mistake by the mode in 
which God communicated his will to her, which we can- 
not believe. Nor would God have accepted such ignorant 



Let. 4.] THE ANGEL JEHOVAH. 163 

and idolatrous worship ] nor would this angel have suffer- 
ed such conduct more than he who said, '* See thou do ii not ; 
I am thy fellow-servant, and of thjr brethren that have the 
testimony of Jesus : worship God." Rev. 19 : 10. You 
will further observe that it could not have been the Father, 
for he is never called an angel, and has never been seen by 
any creature, as has been shown before. And although 
some may tell us, but without proof, that a mere angel of- 
ten assumes the name and claims the attributes of Jehovah, 
yet it is not credible that our fathers, who were so supersti- 
tiously tender of the name Jehovah that they would nei- 
ther pronounce or write it lest they should take it in vain, 
would ever think of conferring it, or imagine that it was 
conferred by God on a created angel ; when, therefore, 
they call this angel the Word, it argues a conviction that 
he was both distinct from the Father and equal to him. 
Now, this angel, called by the paraphrasts the Word, is 
called in the text Jehovah, is the object of prayer, and pro- 
mises lo multiply her seed, and therefore was the true God. 
The remainder of this subject we will consider in the 
next letter. Farewell. 



Yes, there is one of human fiame, 
Jesus, array 'd in flesh and blood, 

Thinks it no robbery to claim 
A full equality with God, 

Their glory shines with equal beams ; 

Their essence is for ever one ; 
Though they are known by different names, 

The Father God, and God the Son. 



164 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. Part 2. 



liCtter V. 



THE SUBJECT CONTINUED. 

Dear Brother, 

I will now invite your attention to the remainder of the 
appearances of the angel Jehovah, and commence with that 
to Abraham our venerable father. 

§ 1. First, that which is recorded in Genesis, chap. 19. 
Here you will observe that the person who appeared to 
Abraham and spake about the destruction of Sodom, is re- 
peatedly called Jehovah, but could not be Jehovah, the Fa- 
ther, for the reasons just mentioned, that he never appearea 
or was seen by any creature ; but of this angel it is said 
that he was on the earth, for " Abraham stood yet before 
the Lord ; and Abraham drew near, and Jehovah went his 
way." It was, therefore, the Memra, the word Jehovah, as 
is acknowledged by the Jerusalem Targum on Gen. 18: 2. 
'• Three angels were sent unto our father Abraham ; and 
these three were sent for three purposes, since it is impossi- 
ble for one of the highest angels to be sent but for one thing. 
The first angel was sent to tell our father Abraham that 
Sarah should bring forth Isaac ; the second Avas sent to de- 
liver Lot out of the midst of the overthrow; the third an- 
gel was sent to destroy Sodom and Gomorrah, Admah and 
Zoboim. Therefore he was the prophetic Memra, word, and 
the Memra, word of the Lord, appeared to him in the valley 
of vision." Philo also, on the same passage, calls him the 
Memra, word of the Lord. 

This Jehovah, or the word of the Lord, who destroyed 
Sodom, was a distinct person from Jehovah who v/as th«^n 
in heaven ; for it is said, Gen. 19 : 24, " Jehovah rained upon 



Let. 5.] THE ANGEL JEHOVAH. 165 

Sodom and Gomorrah brimstone and fire from Jehovah out 
of heaven." He who is called the word of the Lord, our 
Rabbins teach to be the same as he who is called the An- 
gel Jehovah. Now this person assumes unto himself seve- 
ral of the incommunicable criteria. He is not only called 
Jehovah, but Abraham knew that it was Jehovah, for he 
calls him by that name, and also " the Judge of all the 
earth," and directed his supplications in behalf of the cities 
to him. There is, therefore, in this place, an appearance of Je- 
hovah in a human shape, and that oi one distinct person from 
Jehovah in heaven ; and as the Father and the Holy Ghost 
never appeared, as is acknowledged by our Rabbins, it must 
have been the Son of God, the second person in the bless- 
ed Trinity, who now presented himself to Abraham in the 
form and shape wherein he would dwell amongst men, when 
of his seed he should be made flesh. Herein was at once 
a revelation of his Divine nature and person, and a pledge 
of his incarnation. And it is more than probable that our 
Lord and Savior referred to this as one prominent instance 
in which Abraham saw his day and was glad. John, 8 : 56, 58. 
§ 2. Passing by the appearance of the same person men- 
tioned Gen. 20, and again chap. 21, permit me to call your 
particular attention to that recorded Gen. 22, Abraham ofl!er- 
ing up his only son Isaac. Here you find the angel speaking 
twice to Abraham out of heaven. In ver. 11, 12, he claims 
sovereign dominion, in having commanded Abraham to offer 
up his son ; he receives divine worship, the ofl^ering up of 
an only son, and declares that he was the object of Abra- 
ham's fear, which is another part of divine worship. 

In his second address, in verses 15-18. he renews the 
divine covenant, enlarges divine promises, and confirmc 
them by an oath ; and not being able to swear by a greater, 
(says the inspired writer in the epistle to our forefathers, 
Heb. 6 : 13,) he swore by himself. 

Now, my dear Benjamin, who could believe that our fa- 



166 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part 3. 

ther Abraham would offer his son to a creature, or that 
any angel would dare to claim such an unusual act of wor- 
ship ? In vain is it said that the angel only repeated the 
words of Jehovah, because of the sentence in ver. 16, " says 
.Tehovah." Let it be noticed that this sentence is not in his 
first address, verses 15, 16; and yet he says, ** thou hast 
not withheld thy son from me." Now, if the speaker, on 
this occasion, was a created angel, the proof that satisfied 
him that Abraham truly feared God, (seeing he was will- 
ing to offer up his son to the speaker, a mere creature,) was 
the strangest that could be imagined. Instead of being a 
proof that he feared God, it would have been the most dar- 
ing act of idolatry. 

Further : the very place mentioned where this angel 
spoke, both on this occasion and that of Hagar, evidently 
distinguishes him from a created angel ; for it is mentioned 
as the prerogative of Jehovah to speak from heaven, and 
he appeals to it as an evidence of his Deity. " And the 
Lord said unto Moses, thus thou shalt say unto the children 
of Israel, ye have seen that I have talked with you from 
heaven ; ye shall not make with me gods of silver, neither 
shall ye make unto you gods of gold." Exod. 20 : 22, 23. 
Again Moses says, " Unto thee it was showed that thou 
mightest know that the Lord he is God ; there is none else 
beside him : out of heaven he made thee to hear his voice, 
that he might instruct thee." Deut. 4 : 36, 37. This simple 
circumstance of speaking out of heaven, is a proof of om- 
niscience and of almighty power. See Psa. 68 : 32-35. 
Neh. 9 : 27, 28. 

§ 3. The next appearance of this angel is that to our 
father Jacob when he fled from his brother Esau, and was 
favored with a very singular and encouraging vision from 
the Almighty, who declared himself to be the God of his 
fathers Abraham and Isaac. You have doubtless, my dear 
Benjamin, read and compared the passages formerly re- 



Let. 5. J THE ANGEL JEHOVAH. 167 

commended to you, in which you will observe that he who 
is called the God of our fathers Abraham and Isaac, is also 
called an angel ; and you will again remember that Jehovah 
the Father never appeared nor is ever called an angel, and 
that our Rabbins ascribe all these appearances to the self- 
same person, even to the Messiah, who should hereafter 
become incarnate. Examine then carefully what is said by 
this angel, and what our father Jacob ascribed to him, and 
you will plain] }'■ perceive that most if not all the divine 
criteria are ascribed to him, and therefore he must be Jeho- 
vah the true God, in unison with, but distinct from Jehovah 
the Father. Let us further notice, in connection with this ap- 
pearance, the appearance that is recorded Gen. 32, where we 
read of a man wrestling w^ith Jacob, and by comparing this 
account with what is said in Hosea, 12 : 3-5, we find that this 
man is called by different names, viz. God, Jehovah, and the 
God of hosts, and that it was the same that appeared to Jacob 
at Bethel. Here then we have, besides the name Jehovah, 
the title of the God of hosts also. Now this is the peculiar 
title of the true God, he that is supreme over all the hosts 
or armies of heaven and earth, as appears from the follov;- 
ing passages : *' And David arose and went with all the 
people that were with him from Baal of Judah, to bring up 
from thence the ark of God, whose name is called by the 
name of the Lord of hosts that dwelleth between thecheru- 
bims." 2 Sam. 6:2; and again, " Let thy name be mag- 
nified for ever, saying, the Lord of hosts is the God of 
Israel," chap. 2 : 26 ; again, "Who is this King of glory? 
The Lord of hosts, he is the King of glory,'' Ps. 24: 10. 
Again it is said, " And one cried unto another and said, 
Holy, holy, holy is the Lord of hosts, the whole earth is 
full of his glory." Isa. 6 : 3. You will further notice that 
divine worship is paid to this angel : " And he wept and 
made supplication to him." Also, divine work is ascribed 
to him : " To bless him there ;" and Jacob made a religious 
vow unto him. 



168 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part 2. 

§ 4. Now this angel at Bethel calls himself Jehovah the 
God of Abraham and of Isaac. He assumes the incom- 
municable attribute of omnipresence, " I will be with thee ;" 
and of almighty power, " I will increase and multiply." No 
created angel but devils only would do so. Jacob must 
have believed him to be the true God, else he would have 
been guilty of idolatry. To what has been said we may 
add the remarkable saying of the patriarch Jacob at the 
time of his death, concerning the self-same angel, recorded 
Gen. 48 : 15, 16, " And he blessed Joseph and said, God, 
before whom my fathers Abraham and Isaac did walk, the 
God which fed me all my life long unto this day, the angel 
which redeemed me from all evil, bless the lads." From 
these words it appears indeed that it was an angel that had 
appeared and spoken to him at Bethel ; but if he considered 
him as a mere creature, instead of being a saint, he would 
have been a gross idolater ; for he not only gave this angel 
his faith and worship, but ascribed the whole of his salva- 
vation, both temporal and eternal, to him as God, trusting 
in him and praying to him for all blessings when perform- 
ing his last duty to his children. Further : if Jacob was an 
idolater in worshiping this angel, our fathers Abraham and 
Isaac were the same, for he declared that this angel was the 
God before whom they walked, an expression which in- 
cludes the most solemn religious acts of piety, worship and 
devotedness to God. Hence Enoch and Noah are charac- 
terized by this expression. Gen. 5 : 22 ; 6:9. Nay, he so- 
lemnly transmitted this idolatry to his posterity. Now in 
this case can we justify God from the charge of enticing 
his servants to idolatry, by allowing a messenger of his, 
a mere creature, to address them in such language that they 
could not consider him any other than God ? Nay, on this 
supposition, can we give any credit to the Scriptures as a 
divine revelation, since these men are still exhibited as true 
worshipers ? 



Let. 5.] THE ANGEL JEHOVAH. 169 

^ 5. We proceed to the remarkable appearances of this 
angel to Moses, recorded in Exod. 3. Here, my dear Ben 
jamin, you will observe that the person who appeared to 
Moses in the burning bush is called the angel Jehovah, ver. 
2 ; the same person calls himself " I am that I am," ver. 
14; gives Moses his commission to go to the children of 
Israel, and to say unto them, " The Lord God of your 
fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the 
God of Jacob has sent me unto you : this is my name 
for ever, and this is my memorial unto all generations. 
Go and gather the elders of Israel together and say unto 
them, The Lord God of your fathers, the God of Abra- 
ham, of Isaac, and of Jacob, appeared unto me." Ver. 15, 
16. And the same person commissions him to go with the 
elders of Israel and say unto them, " The Lord God of the 
Hebrews has met with us, and now let us go." Ver. 18. 
That he who appeared in the bush, and he who spoke to 
Moses, was the self-same person, is further evident from 
chap. 4: 1, 5: "For they will say, the Lord has not ap- 
peared unto thee — that they may believe that the Lord God 
of their fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and 
the God of Jacob, has appeared unto thee." To this angel 
Moses gave divine worship ; for when he blessed the tribe 
of Joseph with the divine blessing and favor of God, he 
calls it the " good will of him that dwelt in the bush." 
Deut. 3:16. Now, my dear Benjamin, does it not appear 
to you most clearly from the whole context, and especially 
by his saying " I am Jehovah, the God of Abraham," &c. 
&c. that this angel was not a creature ? The angels never 
speak that language in Scripture, but " I am sent from 
God," and " I am thy fellow-servant," &c. &c. It is a vain 
pretence to say that the angel, as God's ambassador, speaks 
in God's name and person ; for what ambassador of any 
king in the world did ever speak thus: "I am the king." 
&c.? Ministers are God's ambassadors ; but if any of them 



170 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Pait 2. 

should say, " I am the Lord," they would be guilty of blas- 
phemy^ and so would any created ang^el too, for the same 
reason. 

§ 6. The next appearance to which I would call the at- 
tention of my dear Benjamin, is that to Joshua the son of 
Nun, the first time near Jericho, Joshua, 5: 13-15; this 
person calls himself the captain, or rather prince of the 
Lord's host, and makes use of the same words as the angel 
did to Moses: " Loose thy shoe from off thy foot, for the 
place whereon thou standest is holy ;" and receives divine 
worship, and ascribes to himself the government of the 
world: " I have given into thy hands Jericho," &c. ; se- 
condly, he appeared unto him at Bochim, saying, " I made 
you to go up out of Egypt, and have brought you unto the 
land which I sware unto your fathers ; and I said, I will 
never break my covenant with you." Judges, 2:1. Here 
you will observe again, that this angel claims the covenant 
with Abraham to be his covenant ; that it was he that made 
the promises to the fathers, and confirmed them by an oath ; 
that he brought the children of Israel out of Egypt and led 
them to the land of Canaan, and reproved them for not 
obeying his voice ; which makes it evident that it was he 
that was promised to be their leader, saying, " Behold, I 
send an angel before thee, to keep thee in the way and to 
bring thee unto the place which I have prepared : beware 
of him and obey his voice ; provoke him not, for he will 
not pardon your transgressions, for my name is in him." 
Exod. 23:20,21. 

§ 7. The same angel Jehovah appeared to Gideon, ac- 
cording to Judges, 6 : 1 1-24. Here again he is called the 
angel Jehovah, and also Jehovah. He claims the honor of 
sending Gideon. He promises to him his own presence, 
and by a mere look he communicates strength to him. Gi- 
deon addresses him as the object of prayer, and the sign he 
received is ihe same as the prophet Elijah asked to con- 



Let. 5.] THE ANGEL JEHOVAH. 171 

vince the worshipers of Baal of the nature and presence of 
Jehovah, 1 Kings, 18:24, and by this sign Gideon be- 
came convinced that it was not a created angel, but Jehovah 
himself that spoke to him, and hence he was afraid he 
should die. 

^ 8. The last of these appearances I shall name, is that 
to Manoah and his wife. Judges, 13 : 2-22. 

That they understood that he who spoke to them was Je- 
hovah is evident, for they, like Gideon, were afraid that 
they should die because they had seen God. This angel 
says that his name is Wonderful, the same name which is 
given to the Messiah by the prophet Isaiah, 9 : 6, and it was 
doubtless to this angel they offered a sacrifice. 

§ 9. These different manifestations of the Angel Jehovah 
are beautifully summed up by the learned Eusebius in the 
following manner : '' I will here explain myself upon the 
fundamental point of Christ's divinity and humanity, so as 
to silence those adversaries who call the Christian religion 
a new and upstart institution. They are, therefore, desired 
to understand that its Author's nature and substance is of an 
existence ineffably eternal ; for ' who shall declare his gen- 
eration? No one has known the Father but the Son, and no 
one the Son but the Father ;' with whom and from whom he 
subsisted from everlasting, the glorious minister of his will ; 
by whom, as he created, so he governs all things, his only 
begotten Son, truly God : for ' in the beginning was the 
Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was 
God. All things were made by him, and without him was 
nothing made.' Accordingly Moses assures us that the 
Father communicated with him his counsel of creating 
man, where he says, ' Let us make man after our image.' 
To the same effect the Psalmist : ' He spake and they were 
made, he commanded and they were created.' The Father 
pronounced his pleasure, which the Son administered. This 
is he whom the patriarchs and the prophets, both before and 



172 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part 2. 

after Moses, beheld frequently exhibited before their eyes, 
and as frequently received with adorations. This is the 
Lord God that appeared to Abraham in a human shape, 
before whom he kneeled, and to whom he addressed him- 
self in these words : ' Shall not the Lord of all the earth 
judge righteously ?' The Scripture cannot lie, nor the God- 
head become a human body; so that unless by the 'Lord 
of the whole earth' in this place is meant the first begotten 
cause of things, which it cannot be, it must signify the Lo- 
gos, or Word ; concerning whom the Psalmist says, ' He 
sent out his Word and healed them, and they were saved 
from their destruction.' This is that Lord ' that rained fire 
upon Sodom and Gomorrah from the Lord out of heaven ;' 
that God who wrestled with Jacob, and from whom he 
called the place where they strove, • The vision of God,' 
because he had seen him face to face. Nor were these the 
appearance of angels ; the Scripture ascribing them not, as 
at other times, to angels, but to God. Thus again, when he 
presented himself in the form of a man before Joshua, he 
tells him the place is sanctified by his presence ; at which 
Joshua falls upon his knees and acknowledges him * Cap- 
tain of the host of the Lord.' So we find the place where 
he talked with Moses consecrated by his presence ; for he 
was the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, the Wisdom of 
God before the foundations of the world,' that pitched his ta- 
bernacle with prudence, and called to him knowledge and 
understanding ; by whom princes rule, and nobles, even all 
the judges of the earth; whom the Lord created in the begin- 
ning of his ways, before his works of old. That it pleased the 
divine goodness to manifest itself, till the world being pre- 
pared for the entertainment of his divine truths, the Son of 
God came incarnate to perform, to teach and to suffer what- 
ever the prophets had foretold concerning him ; and lastly 
to receive that kingdom, that universal, everlasting domin- 
ion, Avhich the prophet Daniel represents him invested 



Let. 5.] THE ANGEL JEHOVAH. 173 

with, in the midst of thousand thousands and ten thou- 
sand times ten thousand. All these characteristics are ap- 
plicable only to the eternal Word incarnate." Ecclesiast. 
Hist. L. 1st, c. 2. 

•^10. In closing the observations on this subject, I cheer- 
fully adopt, as has been hinted before, the opinion of those 
who suppose that the appearances of the angel Jehovah 
were probably intended as a prelude or earnest of his as- 
suming human nature in the fullness of time, and his dwell- 
ing among mortals. He was the immediate agent in the 
creation of the world, and the Father devolved upon him 
the whole economy of providence from the beginning ; and 
hence he had frequent occasions to appear on some grand 
design. It cannot seem incredible that he should thus as- 
sume some visible form to such as believe that God was at 
length really manifested in the flesh ; for this temporary ap- 
parent incarnation cannot be deemed more strange than 
his really being made flesh and dwelling among us. 

§ 11. From what has been said on the difl^erent appear 
ances of this angel Jehovah, where we have seen that he 
assumed the names, titles, and attributes of the true and 
living God, promised to perform the works peculiar to 
Deity, confirmed those promises by an oath in the manner 
peculiar to Jehovah, and received with approbation the 
highest acts of worship ; by these considerations I hope my 
dear Benjamin will be convinced that he was really Jeho- 
vah, a distinct person from Jehovah the Father, the Mes- 
siah who should, in due time, become incarnate. And be- 
fore I proceed any further, permit me, my dear brother, 
once more to observe, that to say that this angel, or any 
other messenger of Jehovah, may assume any of the divine 
criteria, because he came in the name and by the authority 
of the true God, is not only a vain evasion, but it is against 
reason and Scripture, and the united sentiment of our an- 
cient Rabbins. 



174 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part 2. 

Is it reasonable to believe that a holy angel would be so 
assuming and presumptuous as to personate God, without 
some plain distinguishing marks of his own inferiority ? 
How different was the conduct of Paul and Barnabas when 
the priests of Jupiter would offer sacrifices to them ! they 
rent their clothes and ran in among the people, crying out, 
saying, " Sirs, why do ye these things ? we are men oi 
like passions with you." Acts, 14 : 13-15. In like man- 
ner when John fell at the feet of an angel to worship him, 
the angel said, " See thou do it not, for 1 am thy fellow-ser- 
vant, and of thy brethren that have the testimony of Jesus : 
worship God." Rev. 19 : 10. 

The following remark, I doubt not, my dear Benjamin 
will read with pleasure : " An earthly ambassador, indeed, 
represents the person of his prince ; is supposed to be 
clothed with his authority, and speaks and acts in his name. 
But who ever heard of an ambassador assuming the very 
name of his sovereign, or being honored with it by others ? 
Would one in this character be permitted to say, /, George ; 
/, Louis; I, Frederick? As the idea is ridiculous, the ac- 
tion would justly be accounted high treason. Would the 
most illustrious plenipotentiary, referring to a treaty made 
by his sovereign with a neighboring power, and declaring 
his fixed resolution to abide by it, say, I will never break 
my covenant with you ? or if sent to undutiful subjects to 
remind them of his master's kindness and their own ingra- 
titude, would he presume to say, / brought you into this fer- 
tile country which you now possess, but ye have not obey- 
ed my voice ? Do not ambassadors, however great their 
powers in all memorials and deeds of every kind spoken 
or written, still use their own names, and distinguish them- 
selves from their royal masters ? And can we suppose that 
the humble minister of the King of kings may use far 
greater freedom with his names, attributes, works, and ho- 
nors, than those of a petty fellow-worm with his? Satan i? 



Let. 5.] THE ANGEL JEHOVAH. 175 

the only angel that we read of who ever claimed the honor 
due to God." Jamieson's Vindication, P. 110. 

Would not such conduct be an unavoidable temptation to 
give divine honors to a creature, and thus be guilty or 
idolatry ? 

Besides, would a holy and jealous God permit one of his 
messengers to assume to himself that glory which he has 
so frequently declared (as has been shown before) that he 
would give it to no other ? 

No ! The religion of the Bible, my dear Benjamin, is 
rational, and does not admit of such a supposition. 

§ 12. Before I dismiss the subject I would notice the 
gracious promise of Jehovah to our fathers, of an angel 
that should be their guide and protector through the wil- 
derness, and bring them safely to the land of Canaan. It 
is recorded, Exod. 23 : 20-23, " Behold, I send an angel be- 
fore thee to keep thee in the way, and to bring thee into the 
place which I have prepared ; beware of him, and obey 
his voice ; provoke him not, for he will not pardon your 
transgressions, for my name is in him. But if thou shalt 
indeed obey his voice, and do all that I speak, then I will 
be an enemy unto thine enemies, and an adversary unto 
thine adversaries ; for my angel shall go before thee and 
bring thee in unto the Amorites," &c. Now, of this angel 
it is said, beware of him, or rather take heed to thyself be- 
fore him : this is the caution that is usually given to peo- 
ple requiring that reverence and aw*e which is due unto the 
presence of the holiness of God. " Obey his voice ;" this is 
the great precept which is solemnly given, and so often re- 
peated in the law with reference unto God himself. Again 
it is said, provoke him not, or rebel not against him. This 
is the usual word whereby God expresses the transgression 
of his covenant, a rebellion that can be against God alone. 

Further: of these precepts a two-fold reason is given. 
First, the sovereign authority of this angel, for he will not 



176 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part 2. 

pardon your transgressions ; that is, as Joshua afterwards 
tells the same people, " He is an holy God ; he is a jealous 
God; he will not forgive your transgressions nor your sins." 
Joshua, 24: 19. 

Now, who can forgive sins but God ? To suppose here a 
created angel, is to open a door unto idolatry ; for he in 
w hose power it is absolutely to pardon and punish sins, may 
certainly be worshiped with religious adoration. 

The next reason is, for my name is in him,* a more ex- 
cellent name than any of the angels do enjoy. Heb. 1 : 4. 
He is God Jehovah; that is his name, and his nature an- 
swers thereunto; hence, verse 22, it is added, if indeed thou 
obey his voice and do all that I speak. His voice is the voice 

* Had a mere delegation of authorit}' been meant, it would have 
been more properly expressed "He comes," or " acts in my name," 
or " my name is in him •," but the language cannot, with propriety, 
convey any idea but that of identity of essence. It does not denote 
any thing external and adventitious, but something internal and es- 
sential, for it literally is, " my name is in his inward part." Name is 
often put for thing or being, human or divine ; thus, Rev. 11 : 13, we 
read of 7,000 men. In the original it is Onomata Anthropon, i. e. 
names of men. In like manner the glorious and fearful name, the 
Lord thy God, (Deut. 28 : 58,) is no other than Jehovah himself. So 
in Ps. 20 : 1, the name of the God of Jacob, i. e. the Lord God of 
Jacob, who is the defence of his people. Besides, these words con- 
tain a reason for what is declared immediately before, '' He will not 
pardon your transgressions." Now, this declaration, in its connection, 
leads us to the sense in which we are here to understand the name of 
God. The divine perfection of justice is ascribed to this angel, and 
in this respect God's name is said to be in him. The language evi- 
dently directs us to that solemn proclamation which Jehovah made 
of his name as the Lord God, who will by no means clear the guilty, 
or, an it may be read, hold it, that is, sin, innocent; chap. 34: 5, 7. 
"What was this but a proclamation of his nature 1 When, therefore, 
he says of this angel, he will not pardon, for ray name is in him, he 
assures the Israelites that although this glorious person appeared as 
his messenger, he was to be viewed by them in the same light with 
himself as essentially possessing all that this name denotes, and par- 
ticularly as that God to whom vengeance belongs. Deut. 32 : 35. 



t,et. 5.] THE ANGEL JEHOVAH. 177 

of God; in his speaking does God speak, and upon the 
people's obedience thereunto depends the accomplishment 
of the promise. Moreover, chap. 33 : 14, 15, God says con- 
cerning this angel, " My presence," i. e. " my face shall go 
with thee," which presence Moses calls his glory; ver. 18; 
his essential glory which was manifested unto him ; chap. 
34:6; though but obscurely in comparison of what it was 
unto them who in his human nature, wherein dwelt the 
♦' fullness of the Godhead bodily," Col. 2 : 9, beheld his 
glory, the glory as of the only begotten of the Father. John, 
1:14. For this face of God is he,whom, whosoever seeth, " he 
seeth the Father also." John, 14 : 19. Because he is " the 
Drightness of his glory and the express image of his per- 
son." Heb. 1 : 3. These things evidently express God, and 
none other ; and yet he is said to be an angel sent of God 
in his name, and unto his work ; so that he can be no other 
but the second person in the blessed Trinity who accepted 
of this delegation, and was therein revealed unto the fa- 
thers as he who was to take upon him the seed of Abraham, 
their eternal Redeemer. 

^ 13. To close this part of our subject, I will observe 
that it is further evident that our ancient Rabbins expected 
that the Messiah was a divine person, from those passages 
which they applied to the Messiah, in which he is the ob- 
ject of divine worship, such as Psa. 2:12, where all peo- 
ple are commanded to love him, and to put their trust in 
him. See also Psa. 45 : 10, 11 ; 72 : 5, 8, 11, 15 and 17. 
That they applied these Psalms to the Messiah, see vol. I. 
pp. 120, 257. 

Further : our Rabbins frequently speak of the Messiah 
as the Son of God. The Jerusalem Targum, on Gen. 3 : 
22, says, "Jehovah said, Here, Adam whom I created, is 
the only begotten son on the earth, as I am the only begotten 
Son (Yachid) in the high heaven :" on Prov. 30 : 4, " What 
is his name, and what is his son's name?" The Zohar an- 
Vol. II. 8 



178 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part 2. 

svvers, " Messiah;" fo. 119. c. 473. On Psa. 89 25, 2G, 
" I will set his hand in the sea, and his right hand in ths 
rivers; he shall cry unto me, Thou art my Father!" All 
the Targums apply this to the Messiah. On Psa. 2 : 7» 
" Thou art my Son," the Zohar interprets it thus : " This 
Son is the faithful Shepherd, and he is the Prince of Israel, 
the Lord of things below, the Lord of ministering angels, 
the Son of the Highest, the Son of the God of the universe, 
the gracious Shechinah, he is the King Messiah ;" fo. 88. c. 
348. R. Sol. Yarchi says, " What is the name of the Mes- 
siah? Abba, the son of Cashmah, replies, Jehovah is his 
name, for it is written, (Jer. 23 : 6,) ' And this is his name 
whereby he shall be called, Jehovah our Righteousness.' " 
Lam. p. 68. R. Alshech says, " Who Avill he be that shall 
thus call on Jerusalem to comfort her according to that ex- 
hortation, ' Speak to the heart of Jerusalem and call on her ?' 
(Isa. 40 : 2.) Is it not he, even Jehovah our Righteousness, 
the King Messiah? as it is written, and he is Jehovah 
from his righteousness and just conduct," Comment, on 
Jer. 33, p. 98. c. 2. Hence our people, in the days of Christ 
Jesus, expected the Messiah to be the Son of God, as is 
evident from the following passages : 

" Thou art the Son of God ; thou art the King of Is- 
rael." John, 1 : 49. " We believe and are surethat thou art 
Christ the Son of the living God." John, 5 : 69. " Simon 
Peter answered and said. Thou art Christ, the Son of the 
living God." Matthew, 16 : 16. Martha says, " Lord, I be- 
lieve that thou art the Christ, the Son of God, who should 
come into the world." John, 1 1 : 27. The high priest says, 
♦♦ I adjure thee by the living God, that thou tell us whether 
thou be the Christ, the Son of God." Matthew, 26 : 63. 
Hear also the confession of devils, " What have we to do 
Avith thee, Jesus, thou Son of God ?" Matthew, 8 : 29. 
f § 14. Now, my dear Benjamin, I have endeavored to 
prove, both from the sacred Scriptures and the testimonies 



Let. 5.] THE ANGEL JEHOVAH. 179 

of our Rabbins, and I humbly hope to your perfect satis- 
faction, the doctrine of the Trinity of persons in the unity 
of Jehovah ; and that the Messiah was expected to be the 
second person in the blessed Trinity. I should, perhaps, 
not have detained you so long, were it noi to show that 
these all-important truths are as ancient as the Bible, and 
not " modern inventions, the invention of priestcraft and the 
mere productions of the illiterate fishermen." 

And now, may the God of all grace open your eyes that 
you may behold wondrous things out of his word. F«a. 
119 : 18. Farewell. 



Ere the blue heavens were stretch'd abroad. 
From everlasting wan the Word ; 

With God he was, the Word was God. 
And must divinely be ador'd. 

By his own power all things were made ; 

By him supported all things stand ; 
He is the v/hole creation's head, 

And angels fly at his command. 

Ere sin was born or Satan fell, 
He led the hoi>t of morning stars ; 

(Thy generation who can tell, 

Or count the number of thy years 1) 

But lo ! he leaves those heavenly forms ; 

The Word descends and dwells in clay, 
That he may converse hold with worms, 

Dress'd in such feeble flesh as they. 



FART Xn. 

JESUS IS TRULY GOD. 

Lietter I^ 

SIMILARITY BETWEEN CHRIST AND THE ANOEi:^ 

Dear Brother Benjamin, 

Permit me now to call your attention to a subject to mer 
the most interesting and important, viz. the divinity of 
Jesus Christ, my blessed Lord and Savior. To establish 
this truth, I will show, first, 

That he is the angel Jehovah. 

This is evident, 

^ 1. 1st, From the striking similarity between him and 
that angel who appeared under the Old Testament. I will 
select but a few particulars. 

Did the angel appear as a man ? Gen. 32:24; Judges, 
13: 16. So Christ became incarnate. 

Did the angel assert that he was sent by Jehovah, and yet 
that he was equal with him ? Zech. 2:11,12. So did Christ 

Did the angel call himself the " I am?" Exod. 3. So did 
Christ. John, 8 : 58. 

Did Jacob call the angel Goail, i. e. Kinsman, Redeem- 
er? Gen. 48: 16. So did Christ become our kinsman. 

Was the angel sent to reveal the will of Jehovah ? So 
Christ came from the bosom of his Father. 

Did the angel make the covenant with Abraham ? Judges, 
2:1. So Christ was given as a covenant to the people. Isa. 
42 : 6. 



Let. 1.] CHRIST AND THE ANGEL. 181 

Was the angel the captain of the liOrd's host? Jo- 
shua, 5 : 14. So Christ is the captain of our salvation. 
Heb. 2: 10. 

Did the angel in love and pity redeem his people ? Isa. 
63 : 9. So Christ loved the Church and gave himself for 
h&c. Eph. 5 : 25. 

Was it the prerogative of the angel to forgive sins'? 
Zech. 3:4. So does Christ. Acts, 5 : 3. 

Did the angel intercede for Joshua ? Zech. 3:2. So did 
Christ for Peter. Luke, 22 : 32. 

Did the angel bless Abraham and Jacob ? Gen. 22 : 17 ; 
32 : 29. So does Christ bless his people. Acts, 3 : 26. 

Did the angel commission Moses? Exod. 3: 2, 14. So 
does Christ commission his apostles. Matt. 28 : 19. 

Did the angel put his spirit in them ? Isa. 63 : 1 1. So did 
Christ send his holy Spirit 

Did the angel govern the world ? Gen. 21:18; 22 : 17, 
So Christ had all power in heaven and on earth. 

Did the angel employ other angels as his ministers! 
Zech. 1 : 11 ; 2 : 3, 4 ; 6 : 8. So does Christ. Heb. 1 : 14. 

Did the angel speak out of heaven? Gen. 21 : 17; 22: 
15. So did Christ. John, 3: 13. Heb. 12: 25. 

Was the angel promised as a leader to Israel ? Exod. 
23 : 21. So is Christ. Isa. 55 : 4. 

Was it dangerous to offend this angel? Exod. 23:21. 
Much more to disobey Christ. Heb. 2:3; 12 : 25. 

How beautiful, my dear Benjamin, is the harmony of the 
Old and New Testaments. Moses bore witness of Jesus, 
and Jesus came to fulfill all that was written of him. •' The 
law was given by Moses, but grace and truth came by Jesus 
Christ." John, 1 : 17. 

§ 2. It fu.ther appears that Jesus is the angel Jehovah, 
from the united testimony of Christian writers. 

The learned Dr. Jordan tells us " that all the visible or 
audible manifestations of God, of which mention is made 



182 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part 3. 

in the Scriptures of the Old Testament, seem to have been 
appearances of the Word, or the Son of God, acting and 
speaking in his Father's name : as after the incarnation he 
acted and spake in his own person; as when he appeared 
to St. Stephen, to St. Paul, and to other saints and disciples. 
In this the ancient Christians and most of the moderns are 
agreed." Ser. fol. 4. p. 218. 

Dr. Samuel Clarke speaks somewhat more at large. He 
says : " It is the constant doctrine of all the primitive wri- 
ters of the Church, that every appearance of God the Fa- 
ther in the Old Testament, was Christ appearing in the 
name or person of the Father, in the form of God, as being 
the image of the invisible God, Col. 1 : 15 ; of him ' whom 
no man hath seen at anytime.' John, 1 : 18 ; of him whom 
no man hath seen or can see. 1 Tim. 1 : 16." Script. 
Doct. p. 93. Again he says : " It is the unanimous opin- 
ion of all antiquity, that the angel who said, I am the God 
of thy fathers, Acts, 7: 30, 31, 32, was Christ the angel 
of the covenant, Mai. 3:1; the angel of God's presence, 
Isa. 63 : 9 ; and in whom the name of God was, Exod. 23 : 
21, speaking in the name of the invisible Father. See Gen. 
16: 10; again, Gen. 31 : 11, 13, and 48: 15; Hos. 12: 3, 
4, and Zech. 12 : 8." Ibid. p. 105. The learned Dr. Bella- 
my says : " God the Father is never called the angel ol 
God, but the God of Bethel is called the angel of God. 
Therefore the God of Bethel is not God the Father. The 
God of Bethel is the same who is called the angel of the 
covenant in Mai. 3:1; but that angel of the covenant is 
Christ, as is plain from Mark, 1 : 2, therefore the God of 
Bethel was Christ. The God of Bethel was the God who 
appeared to Abraham, Gen. 12: 1-7; to Isaac, Gen. 26: 
24,25; to Jacob, Gen. 28: 13; 31 : 13 ; to Moses, Exod. 
3 : 2-6 ; on Mount Sinai, Exod. 20 : 2 ; and is usually called 
the God and King of Israel through the Old Testament. 
But the God of Bethel was Jesus Christ, therefore Jesus 



Lei. 1.] CHRIST AND THE ANGEL. 183 

Christ was the God and King of Israel. If Jesus Christ 
was th« God and King of Israel, then may St. Paul be 
justified in representing him as the Creator of the uni- 
verse, Col. 1: 16, and in applying to him in his epistles, 
what was evidently spoken of the God and King of Israel 
in the sacred writings of the Old Testament. Compare Ps 
68 : 18 with Eph. 4 : 8, and Ps. 102 : 25 with Heb. 1 : 10. 
And our bkssed Savior may be justified in laying down 
his life rather than give up his claim. And there was more 
truth in the title set up over his head when on the cross: 
'Jesus of Nazareth, the King of the Jews,' than his cru- 
cifiers were aware of; for had they known it, they would 
not have crucified the Lord of glory." Works, fol. 1, p. 
467, note. The pious and judicious E. Simpson says, 
*'That the Son of God, before he took upon him human 
nature, did conduct all the divine dispensations, has been 
and now is the opinion of some of the most able and 
learned men of every denomination. I know of none among 
us who reject the sentiment, except the Deists and Socini- 
ans. The Arians and Orthodox are agreed on the subject. 
And as this opinion, if once fairly established, absolutely 
eubverts the Socinian hypothesis, that Christ had no exis- 
tence before he was born of the Virgin Mary, we wilt 
dwell a little on the subject, and notice such considerations 
as appear to us altogether conclusive. 

** 1. It has been the uniform opinion of men the most 
competent to judge, though on other subje^-ts they widely 
diflfer from each other. 2. It appears from the internal 
marks of many of those dispensations recorded in Scrip- 
ture. 3. From the application of many passages of the 
Old Testament to the Son of God, in the New, by the apos- 
tles who wrote under the direction and influence of the 
Holy Spirit ; which passages can be applied to no merely 
created being whatever. 4. From the opinion of the most 
able and learned of the ancient Jewish writers, who usually 



184 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. LPart 3. 

applied the appearance of God, both before and during 
their own dispensation, to the Logos. 5. From the uni- 
form sense of the Christian Church, even in its best and 
purest ages. If we can establish these five propositions, it will 
be easily granted that Christ in his divine nature conducted 
all the dispensations of God from the beginning." p. 123« 

I can assure you, my dear brother, that these proposi- 
tions are so established and confirmed as it were upon a 
rock, that all the opposers of the divinity of the blessed Je- 
sus will never be able to refute them, and I regret exceed- 
ingly that they are too long to be transcribed. I proceed 
therefore to show, 

2dly, That Jesus Christ possesses all the Divine criteria. 

§ 3. He is called God. It is granted that his name (God) 
is given to creatures, but it is apparent that in such cases it 
is either given in the plural number, (as to angels and ma- 
gistrates,) or if used in the singular number, it is in such a 
particular sense, and under such circumstances and limita- 
tions, as plainly show it is applied only in a figurative 
sense ; as when Moses is said to be a god to Aaron, that is, 
instead of God, and when he is said to be made a god to 
Pharaoh, Exod. 7 : 1, it is limited, and signifies no more 
than that he should represent God's authority in command- 
ing, and exert his power in punishing Pharaoh. It is evi- 
dent that Moses was not a god by nature, because he was 
a made god, which the true God is not ; and he is said to 
be a god only to Pharaoh, whereas the true God " is over 
all, God blessed for ever." Magistrates must die, Ps. 82: 
6, and angels are but ministering spirits. In like manner 
the devil is called the god of this world; here again is a 
limitation, but when ascribed to Jesus it is without limita- 
tion in any circumstances that should lead us to a figura- 
tive sense of the word ; nay, on the contrary, it is used in 
such a manner as leads us to take the title in its true and 
proper sense. Hence, in accordance with the prediction, 



Let. 1.] CHRIST AND THE ANGEL. '85 

Isa. 7 : 14, He was called Immanuel, i. e. God with us, 
Matt. 1 : 23, without any limitation. 

^ 4. The apostle John says ; " This is the true God and 
eternal life,"" and then adds, " Little children, keep yourselves 
from idols. Amen." Now it has been properly observed 
that it is very unlikely that the apostle should conclude his 
epistle with such a solemn charge against idolatry, and yet 
ia the foregoing verse leave his expression concerning the 
true God so easily and so naturally to be interpreted con- 
cerning Jesus Christ, if he were not the true God. Again; 
he is called the mighty God, Isa. 9 : 6. and the great 
God, Titus, 2:13; and you know, dear Benjamin, that 
this last expression is the distinguishing name of Jehovah. 
See Deut. 10 ; 17; Jer. 32 : 18, 19. 

Further, he is called the only wise God. Jude, v. 24, 25. 
" Now unto him that is able to keep you from falling, and to 
present you faultless before the presence of his glory with 
exceeding joy, to the only wise God our Savior, be glory 
and majesty, dominion and power, both now and ever. 
Amen." That this doxology is ascribed to Jesus is evident 
from Eph. 5 : 25, 27 ; where he is said to present the 
church. Farther, this name is also ascribed to him, Rom. 
16 : 27, and 1 Tim. 1 : 17. Again, Jesus Christ is called 
the only God, or God and none else ; for Isa. 45 : 22-25, is 
applied to Jesus by the apostle, Rom. 14 : 10, 11: and yet 
this is the peculiar name of Jehovah, as appears from Deut. 
4 : 35, 39 ; and Isa. 45 : 5. Again, the apostle calls him, 
Rom. 9 5, *' God blessed for ever." Now I wish you, my 
dear Benjamin, to notice particularly that this description, 
God blessed for ever, is an incommunicable name of the 
true God, and is no where in Scripture given to any mere 
creature. The apostle gives it as a distinguishing character 
from all that are called gods, " who changed the truth of 
C4od into a lie, and worshiped and served the creature 
more than the Creator, who is blessed for ever. Amen." 
8* 



186 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part 3. 

Rom. 1 : 25. And you know that it has ever been the 
custom of our people, when they speak of the true and 
living God, to add, " Blessed be he;" and sometimes, " for 
ever and ever. Amen." 

Hence the question proposed by the high priest was, 
" Art thou the Christ, the Son of the Blessed ?" and when 
Christ had answered it in the affirmative, the high priest 
rent his clothes (as an expression of mourning) and said, 
"What need we any further witnesses? ye have heard 
the blasphemy." Now, if the apostle had believed our 
Savior to be no more than a dignified creature, he could 
not have put a greater stumbling-block before our people, 
to harden them in their unbelief and prejudice against 
Christ, than by giving him a name and character which 
they had always appropriated to the great Jehovah. 

§ 5. Jehovah, or Jehovah of hosts, is the next incom- 
municable name which is also ascribed to Jesus. 

That this is the peculiar name of the true and living 
God, and never given to any mere intelligent being, has 
been proved before, and I will now show that it is ascribed 
to the Messiah in several places in the Old Testament, 
which are applied to him by the Rabbins, and which are 
quoted in the New Testament and applied to Jesus Christ. 

The Lord of hosts, whom Isaiah, ch. 8:13, 14, foretold 
would be a sanctuary to some, and a stone of stumbling 
and rock of offence to others, good old Simeon and the 
apostle Peter apply to Jesus Christ, Luke, 2 : 34. 1 Pet. 2 : 
7 ; and our own nation to the present day is an awful proof 
of its fulfillment. 

The Lord of hosts, whom Isaiah saw seated on a throne, 
and who was worshiped by the seraphim and cherubim, 
we are assured by the evangelist John, was our blessed 
Jesus. Compare Isa. 6: 1-10, with John, 12: 40,41. 

Again, the Lord God, (Jehovah Elohim,) whose way 
WvV to be prepared in the wilderness, is Jesus Christ our 



Let. 1.] CHRIST AND THE ANGEL. 187 

Lord, whose way was prepared by John the Baptist, as 
has been ftiUy shown before, (see p. 272.) 

The title King of glory, which is Jehovah of hosts in 
Psalm 24, is ascribed to Jesus Christ by the apostle, 1 Cor. 
2:8; and in the Revelation of St. John, 17 : 14 ; and 19 : 
16, Christ is called King of kings and Lord of lords. 
Now, if Christ was not the Lord of glory before his cruci- 
fixion, the force of the apostle's argument with the church 
at Corinth, in the forecited passage, vanishes, and the appli- 
cation of that title is unbecoming, for Jehovah claims it as 
his own. Deut. 10 : 17 ; Psa. 136 : 2, 3. 

^ 6. In the following passage we have a glorious de- 
scription of the triumph of Jehovah : "He rides upon the 
heavens by his name Jah. The earth shook, the heavens 
dropped at the presence of God, the God of Israel. The 
chariots of God are twenty thousand, even thousands of 
angels. The Lord is among them as in Sinai, in the holy 
place. Thou hast ascended on high, thou hast led capti- 
vity captive, thou hast received gifts for men." Psa. 68: 

4, 8, 17, IS. Now this passage is applied to the ascension 
of Christ into heaven ; Eph. 4: 8, 10. Christ is, therefore, 
this Lord, this God, this Jehovah or Jah, whose triumph is 
there described. To these passages I might add, Jer. 23 : 

5, 6 ; 33 : 15, 16, compared with 1 Cor. 1 : 30 ; Zech. 11 : 
12, compared with Matt. 27 : 9, 10, <&c. &c. ; but I close 
this paragraph by observing, that since the title of Jehovah, 
or Jehovah of hosts, is a principal mark of distinction by 
which the true God was pleased to manifest himself, and 
to set forth his own superior excellency in opposition to all 
pretended deities; and since the writers of the New Testa- 
ment have assured us that Christ is Jehovah, or Lord of 
hosts, and consequently possessed of all those distinguish- 
ing powers and perfections which go along with that title, 
the consequence is evident and undeniable, that they con- 
sidered Christ to be God in the true, strict, and proper 



188 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part 3. 

sense, eternal and immutable, of the same power, nature, 
and perfections with God the Father. 

§ 7. It is proper to observe in this place, that the Avriters 
of the New Testament frequently quote passages from the 
Old, either in proof of their doctrine, or to show that the 
predictions of prophets are fulfilled. Whenever this is 
their point in view, the passages they quote from the Old 
Testament must, in their literal sense, signify what they 
are alledged to signify. It is inexcusable in interpreters of 
sacred Scripture to pretend " that the apostles cite the 
authority of the Old Testament in the Jewish way of draw 
ing conclusions, which in sound logic would have been 
rejected." If they were under the influence of the Spirit 
of God, we cannot suppose their writings to contain any 
false reasoning, however common it might have been 
among their countrymen to argue absurdly. To say that 
Christ and his apostles applied quotations merely by way 
of accommodation, is most ridiculous and profane. The 
following quotation is from the learned Bishop Sherlock : 
•' Our blessed Savior," says he, " claims to himself that 
awful name, / Am, which belongs to the Supreme Being. 
Before Abraham was, I Am. Had our Savior only said, 
before Abraham was, I tvas, thus much at least would 
have been the consequence, that he had an existence before 
Abraham ; but, now that he says, before Abraham was, I 
anij something more is implied, something that peculiarly 
belongs to the expression I am ; and what that is, we may 
learn from the original use of the words. I'hey are the 
words which God made choice of to express his own 
eternity and power. When Moses inquired after the name 
of God, he answered him, ' I am that I am. Thus shalt 
thou say unto the children of Israel, I Am has sent me 
unto you.' Exod. 3 : 14. What now could tempt our 
Savior to use and apply this expression to himself? He 
knew that it had never been applied to any but God, and 



Let.l.] CHRIST AND THE ANGEL. 189 

would have been, in the man so applying it, in the highest 
degree to commit the robbery of making himself equal with 
God." Disc. 1, fo. 4. 

It is evident, from the context, that the Jews understood 
our Savior as asserting his own divinity, for they immedi- 
ately took up stones to stone him for blasphemy ; and Christ, 
instead of making the smallest apology for what he had 
said, or attempting in the least to explain himself in any 
other sense, exerted his supernatural power and escaped 
out of theic hands, leaving them in full possession of the 
opinion they had formed concerning him. 

§ 8. I pass on to the next title ascribed to the Messiah in 
the Old Testament, and applied to Jesus Christ in the New, 
which is that of the " First and the Last." Isa. 44 : 6; 48 : 
12, compared with Rev. 1:8, 11; 2:8. In the first of these 
passages, viz. 1 : 8, the Lord Jesus Christ is called Jehovah, 
or what is equivalent, He that was, is, and is to come; and 
the incommunicable attributes of omnipotence and eternity 
are ascribed to him. 

§ 9. I will close this part of our subject by noticing the 
title of the " Son of God," by which Jesus Christ is so fre- 
quently called. 

We have already seen that the Messiah was expected to 
be the Son of God. Psa. 2:7; 89 : 26, 27. Isa. 9:6. As 
the expression " Son of man '* refers to and expresses the 
reality of his human nature, so the phrase " Son of God " 
refers to and expresses the reality of his divine nature. 
On two different occasions Peter confessed him to be the 
Son of God, where it is evident he must have reference to 
his divinity. The first is recorded, John, 6 : 69, and the 
second in Matthew, 16 : 17. They read thus : " We believe 
and are sure that thou art that Christ, the Son of the living 
God." Again, " And Simon Peter answered and said, 
Thou art the Christ, the Son of the living God. And Jesus 
answered and said unto him, Blessed art thou, Simon Bai 



190 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part 3. 

jona, for flesh and blood has not revealed it unto thee, but 
my Father which is in heaven." Now these confessions 
consist of two parts, viz. that Jesus is the Christ, and the 
Son of God. With respect to the first, Peter declares his 
conviction that Jesus was the illustrious person pointed 
out by the prophets, as the Lord's anointed to the work of 
salvation ; and with this he subjoins his other character 
as the Son of God, because no one was to be the anointed 
of Jehovah but he to whom he had said, *' Thou art my 
Son, this day have I begotten thee." Psa. 2:7, Now, 
as he is denominated that Christ, to distinguish him from 
all the anointed prophets ; so he is denominated that Son, 
to distinguish him from believers, who are sons by regene- 
ration and adoption ; from all the Jews, who, because of 
their lawful descent from Abraham, said that God was their 
Father, John, 8 : 41, and to whom, in a natural respect, 
belongs the adoption ; and from angels, who by creation 
are the sons of God. Now, if these expressions, viz. thou 
art that Christ, and the Son of the living God, were synony- 
mous, and meant no more than that Jesus is the Messiah, 
then the apostle's confession would have been no more 
than that which the carnal Jews had frequently made, 
John, 6 : 14, 15, and would therefore by force make him 
a king ; but when Christ asserted his divinity, they were 
offended, and forsook him ; w^hich led to the confession of 
Peter. Besides, it is evident, from our Lord's observation, 
that Peter's confession referred to his divinity, and not to 
his office as Messiah. The miracles which Jesus wrought 
were sufficient evidence to convince the carnal Jew that he 
was the Messiah ; but that he was the Son of God, was 
revealed to Peter by the Father. For you know, my dear 
Benjamin, that nothing is more frequent with our Rabbins 
than the phrase flesh and blood, as denoting men in dis- 
tinction from God. Hence they say " the first man was the 
work of the blessed God, and not the work of flesh and 



Let. 2.J DIVINE CRITERIA ASCRIBED TO JESUS. 191 

blood." Zohar. Gen. fo. 43. c. 3. Hence the sense is, that 
Peter had not received this knowledge from men, but from 
God. The doctrine of the deity of Christ is of pure reve- 
lation. That there is a God, is discoverable by the light 
of nature ; but that he has a Son of the same nature with 
himself, and equal to him, which is the Messiah, the Savior 
of lost sinners, could never have been found out by flesh 
and blood; "for no man knoweth the Son but the Father, 
and he to whom he reveals him." Matt. 11 : 27. Happy 
are they who are blessed with the outward revelation of 
Jesus Christ in the Gospel, but more blessed they to whom 
the Father reveals Christ in them the hope of glory. 

Farewell. 



JLctter II. 



DIVINE CRITERIA ASCRIBED TO JESUS. 



Dear Benjamin, 

Having shown that the incommunicable names and 
titles of Deity are applied to Jesus Christ, 

§ 1. I proceed to show that the incommunicable attri- 
butes of Jehovah are also ascribed to him. As he who 
wants one of these attributes cannot be God ; for God is 
mfinitely perfect ; so he who possesses but one infinite per- 
fection, must possess all the rest ; for none but a true God 
is infinite. Now, of Christ it is said, that " in him dwell- 
eth all the fullness of the Godhead bodily." Col. 2 : 9. 

Eternity is an incommunicable perfection of Jehovah 



192 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part 3* 

Psa. 90 : 2, and is ascribed to the Messiah by the prophet 
Micah, 5:2; and to Jesus Christ, Matt. 2 : 6. Christ 
was not only before Abraham, but long before Adam ; for 
his goings forth have been Meolamim, i. e. before time 
commenced. Micah, 5 : 2. Hence he is called the Alpha 
and Omega, the First and the Last, the Beginning and the 
Ending. 

Immutability is another divine criterion, Psa. 102 : 25- 
27, and is applied to Jesus Christ, Heb. 1 : 10-12. 13: 8. 

Omnipresence, which is the peculiar property of Deity, 
is claimed by Jesus Christ himself; who declared that he 
was in heaven at the same time whilst he was on the earth 
conversing with Nicodemus, John, 3:13; and he pro- 
mised his presence wherever two or three are met in 
his name, Matt. 18 : 20, and wherever his Gospel is 
preached. 

This was the great encouraging promise of Jehovah, 
under the Old Testament. See Deut. 23 : 14. Joshua, 2 : 
4, 5. Isa. 12 : 6. 58 : 9. Jer. 14:9. Joel, 2 : 27. Haggai, 
1:13. Zeph. 3 : 16. 

Omniscience is another attribute of Deity. The know- 
ledge of men's thoughts is a divine prerogative. This 
knowledge God expressly claims as his own. Isa. 66 : 18, 
*' I know the heart." Nay with this he puts all creatures 
to defiance. Jer. 17 : 9, 10. " The heart is deceitful above 
all things, and desperately wicked, who can know it? I 
the Lord search the heart, I try the reins, even to give 
every man according to his ways, and according to the 
fruits of his doings." The faith of the saints under the 
Old Testament corresponded with such declarations; 
hence David assigns this work to God, saying, "Shall 
not God search this out ? for he knows the secrets of the 
heart." Psa. 44:21. Again he says, "Search me, O 
God, and know my heart ; try me, and know my 
thoughts." Psa. 139:23. And Solomon says, "Then 



Let. 2.1 DIVINE CRITERIA ASCRIBED TO JESUS. 193 

hear thou in heaven thy dwelling-place, and forgive, and 
do, and give unto every man according to his ways, whose 
heart thou knowest ; for thou, even thou only, knowest the 
hearts of all the children of men." 1 Kings, 8 : 39. Now 
the evangelists ascribe to our Savior the knowledge of 
the thoughts of men. Matt. 9:4. 12 : 25. Luke, 5 : 22. 
6:8. 9 : 47. 11 : 47. And Jesus Christ himself claims 
this knowledge, saying, "All the churches shall know 
that I am he which searches the reins and hearts." Rev. 

2 : 23. Besides, he hears and answers the prayers of his 
people, John, 14 : 13, 14, which requires the attribute of 
omniscience. 

Almighty power is also one of the divine criteria, and 
is claimed by Jesus Christ. To raise the dead requires 
almighty power ; but Jesus said, " Destroy this temple, and 
in three days I will raise it up." John, 2:19. Acts, 2 : 24, 
compared with John, 10: 18. Again he says, ''I have 
power to lay down my life, and I have power to take it 
again." From these passages it clearly appears that 
Jesus Christ had an actual existence and possessed al- 
mighty power at the very time his body was lying lifeless 
in the grave. Jesus Christ also possesses almighty power 
to raise others from the dead ; for he can, by his command- 
ing voice, cause the dead to hear and rise out of their 
graves. John, 5:21, 25, 28. And accordingly this raising 
of the dead, and changing of our vile body, to fashion it like 
to his glorious body, are by the Apostle Paul said to be efr 
fected " according to the working of his mighty power, 
whereby he is able to subdue all things to himself," Phil. 

3 : 21 — expressions which import his power to be absolute 
and irresistible. But this divine power will appear more 
clearly as we proceed to consider, 

§ 2. The works peculiar to Deity are ascribed to Jesus 
Christ also ; for Jesus said, " My Father worketh hitherto, 
and I work ; what things soever he doeth, these also doeth 



194 JOSEPH ANP BENJAMIN. [F'^J 3. 

the Son likewise." John, 5 : 17, 19. The creation of the 
world is the exclusive work of Jehovah, as has been 
shown before. But the creation of the universe is the 
work of Jesus Christ. Compare Psa. 102 : 25-27, with 
Heb. 1 : 10-12; read also carefully, John, 1 : 2, 3, 14. 
Col. 1 : 16, 17. On this subject Saint Austin reasons 
thus : " Christ, by whom all things were made, cannot be 
made himself; and if Christ be not made, then he is not a 
creature; but if he be not a creature, then he must be of 
the same substance with the Father ; for all substance 
or being which is not God, is necessarily a creature, and 
what a creature is not, that God is. Now, if the Son is 
not of the same substance of which the Father is, he must 
necessarily be a created substance, and if he be a created 
substance, then all things could not be made by him ; but all 
things were made by him, therefore he is of the same sub- 
stance with the Father, and consequently is not only God, 
but the true God." De Trinit. fo. 1. 

That Christ was not a mere instrument which God 
used in the work of creation, is plain from this, that the 
Scriptures not only teach that Christ was the very supreme 
God himself that created all things, Psa. 102 : 25. Heb. 
1:10, but also that no instrument was used in that work. 
It was wrought immediately by God himself; as it is 
written, *' God himself formed the earth, and made it." Isa. 
44 : 22. 45 : 18. 

• The preservation and government of all thmgs is as 
much the work of God as their first creation. But Christ 
is said to uphold all things by the word of his power, 
Heb. 1 : 3, and therefore he must be truly God. 
k The miracles of Jesus Christ, which have been consider- 
ed, in a former letter, as a proof of his Messiahship, might 
be considered also as a proof of his true divinity. But I 
proceed to consider, 

§ 3. The work of redemption, which is the peculiar 



Let. 2-] DIVINE CRITERIA ASCRIBED TO JESUS. 195 

work of Jehovah, but is every where ascribed to Jesus 
Christ, and therefore is a clear demonstration of his divi- 
nity. To magnify the law of God, and to make it honor- 
able; to atone for our sins, and deliver us from the wrath 
to come ; to redeem us from the curse of the law, and free 
us from the tyranny of sin and Satan, the fear of death, 
and the misery of hell ; to restore us to the lost favor of 
God, to the acceptance of our person and services, and to 
a title to, and fitness for, eternal life ; to accomplish all 
this, and much more, included in the work of redemption, 
required not only that the Redeemer should be partaker 
of flesh and blood, to be our Goel, i. e. kinsman and bro- 
ther, but he must also be equal with God, the offended 
party, as has been shown in a former letter. Besides, the 
act of forgiving sin is the prerogative of God. Isa. 43 : 25 
But Jesus Christ forgave sins whilst on earth, Mark, 2 : 
5-12, and " him has God exalted with his right hand, 
to be a Prince and a Savior, to give repentance to Israel, 
and forgiveness of sins." Acts, 5:31. And to him the 
Martyr Stephen prayed, saying, " Lord, lay not this sin to 
their charge." Acts, 2 : 60. 

§ 4. To raise the dead is another work peculiar to God 
only ; but Jesus Christ declared that he could raise him- 
self from the dead, as has been shown before ; and by his 
voice and almighty power all the dead will be raised and 
brought to judgment, and the proceedings of that awful 
day will prove, beyond all contradiction, the true and pro- 
per divinity of Jesus Christ. John, 5 : 28, 29. 1 Thess. 
4 : 16, 17. For, my dear Benjamin, how can we suppose a 
being destitute of the divine perfections capable of such 
a work? It certainly requires an omniscient mind and an 
almighty arm to manifest the secrets of all hearts, and to 
discover and punish the infinite variety of secret wickedness 
in the heart of man, as well as proclaim and reward the 
secret workings of piety in those that have loved God. 



196 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part 3. 

§ 5. I proceed now to show that divine worship which 
is due to Jehovah only, is also applied to Jesus Christ. I 
have already proved, both from reason and Scripture, that 
religious worship belongs to the true and living God only ; 
if, therefore, it can be proved that Jesus Christ both requir- 
ed and received such worship, it will follow that he pos- 
sesses real and proper divinity in common with his eternal 
Father; or else it will follow that Christ himself was 
guilty of blasphemy, and all the apostles and first Chris- 
tians robbed God of his incommunicable honor, and were 
guilty of idolatry. That Jesus Christ did require and 
receive such worship, is abundantly evident from the Gos- 
pels, the Epistles, and the Revelation of St. John, and from 
the testimony of the fathers in the Christian church. The 
Lord Jesus Christ himself has told us that it is the will 
of the Father that all men should honor the Son as they 
do the Father." John, 5 : 23. Calling on the name of the 
Lord is considered divine worship, Joel, 2 : 32. Isa. 28 : 

11, and it is ascribed to Jesus Christ as the object of that 
worship. Rom. 10 : 11-15. This calling on the name of 
the Lord is made the character of the saints. 1 Cor. 1 : 

12. Acts, 9 : 14, 21. Further, we are to believe in the 
Lord Jesus Christ as we believe in God. John, 14:1: 
We are to love him supremely, more than father or mother, 
&c. Mark, 10 : 37. Luke, 14 : 26. Now, if the love here 
demanded be not supreme, it is impossible to find any 
other that can come under this description. It implies all 
that God claims in the first commandment. Matt. 22 : 37, 
38. Christ also requires unreserved subjection. Matt. 1 1 : 
29. Col. 3 : 24, and devotedness to him. 2 Cor. 5 : 14. 
Matt. 28 : 19. 

Again, praise and thanksgiving due unto God are as- 
cribed equally unto Christ. The doxologies are addressed 
to Christ as well as to the Father. 1 Tim. 1 : 17. 6 : 16. 
1 Peter, 3:11.4:11. 5 : 10, 1 1. Rev. 1 : 5. 5 : 13. 7 : 



Let. 2.] DIVINE CRITERIA ASCRIBED TO JESUS. 197 

10. Again, prayer and supplication are made to Christ as 

well as to the Father. Rom. 1:7. 16: 24. 1 Cor. 1 : 3. 

16: 23. The Apostle Paul prayed three times to Christ. 

2 Cor. 12 : 8, 9. Stephen also directed his prayer to Jesus. 

Acts, 7 : 59, GO. See also 1 Thess. 3 : 11, 12. 2 Thess. 2: 

16, 17. Rev. 22: 17,20, 21. 
§ 6. "If Christ is only a man," says Novatian, "how is 

he every where present to those who call upon him ? since 

this is not the nature of man, but of God. If Christ is 
only a man, why does man invoke him in prayer as Medi- 
ator ? since the invocation of a man must be considered as 
ineffectual to the accomplishing of deliverance and salva- 
tion. If Christ is nothing more than a mere man, why is 
our hope and trust put in him? seeing cursed is the hope 
that is placed in man." De Trinit. ch. 14. If Christ be 
not God, then to worship him would be idolatry. If to 
worship Christ is idolatry, then Paul, it must be acknow- 
ledged, was provided by Jesus Christ himself with a very 
bad spiritual director; for Ananias undoubtedly exhorted 
him to worship Christ, saying, " Arise and be baptized, and 
wash away thy sins, calling on the name of the Lord." 
Acts, 22 : 16. If Paul had considered Jesus as a mere man, 
would he have believed that he could make him an instru- 
ment in enlightening the understandings and changing the 
heart of sinners, and of delivering them from the power of 
Satan ? Would he believe that Jesus could give them pardon 
and glory; that he was the object of faith; and that faith in 
him could be the means of sanctification ? Would he con- 
fide in him for deliverance from the heathen, or even sub- 
mit to receive a commission from him ? Immediately after 
his conversion, he testified his full conviction of the di- 
vinity of Christ. Acts, 9 : 20. 

§ 7. Let it be further noticed, that Christ received di- 
vme worship without any check or reproof Matt. 23 : 17. 
Luke, 24 : 52. John, 20 : 28. Not so with Peter, Paul, 



198 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part 3. 

and Barnabas, and the angel ; they all forbid such worship to 
be given to them. Acts, 10 : 25, 26. 14 : 14, 15. Rev. 19 : 10. 
22 : 9. Now, as nothing less than God can be the proper 
object of our adorations, therefore when Christ assures us 
that he will present all our supplications, and that he will 
perform our petitions, he encourages and directs us to ad- 
dress our prayers to him, as well as to the Father ; and 
thereby declares himself God as unequivocally as by any 
appellation the most expressive of divinity. 

§ 8. Further, upon supposition that Christ was no more 
than a mere good man, exalted by the pleasure of the Fa- 
ther, the sacred Scriptures abound with strange, unguard- 
ed language. There is an indecency and impropriety, 
an unsuitableness in such representations ; for they are 
calculated to mislead and deceive. It has justly been ob- 
served, that neither Moses nor the prophets exhibited their 
testimony as the foundation of faith ; they always referred 
to divine authority, prefacing their declarations with a 
" Thus saith the Lord." But Jesus speaks in his own 
name ; and requires faith in his testimony, on the ground 
of his own authority. John, 4 : 41. 14 : 11. Thus, true 
faith fixes on the very name of the Son of God as every 
way worthy to be its proper object : it is subjection of 
the whole soul to him ; a captivity of every thought to the 
obedience of Christ, 2 Cor. 10:5; a submission of our 
will to his, Psa. 45 : 5. 110 : 3; an acknowledgment of 
his sovereign authority over the conscience, Matt. 28 : 20, 
and a recognition of his right to supreme affections. 
Luke, 14 : 26. Faith is a fleeing for refuge to him as the 
hope set before us, Heb. 6 : 8 ; a firm persuasion of his 
ability to save to the uttermost. Heb. 7 : 25. It is a rest- 
ing of the soul on him, Matt. 1 1 : 28, 29, and an un- 
bounded confidence in him. Matt. 12 : 21. Eph. 1 : 12, 13. 
Faith respects Jesus as its author and finisher, Heb. 12: 
1 ; as the very spring and support of spiritual life. Gal. 



Let. -2.] DIVINE CRITERIA ASCRIBED TO JESUS. 199 

2 : 20; and as the giver of eternal life. John, 10 : 28. It 
is a commitment of the soul to him. Acts, 17 : 59. And 
this cannot be in well-doing, unless he be a faithful Crea- 
tor. 1 Peter, 4 : 19. In a word, it is a surrender of the 
whole person to him as his property, and a constant pro- 
posal of his glory as the supreme end, whether in life or 
in death. 2 Cor. 8 : 5. Rom. 14 : 8. Philippians, 1 : 20. 
Let any man in his senses judge if there be a creature, 
either in heaven or on earth, vi^orthy of such faith and 
worship. 

§ 9. Besides, the ordinances of baptism and the Lord's 
Supper, of which Christ is the author, and in which he 
is the object of divine worship, prove him to be the true 
and living God. In baptism we solemnly dedicate our 
faith, \vorship and service to the Son, as well as to the 
Father and the Holy (jlhost. 

If there were no other foundation for the doctrine of the 
Holy Trinity in unity than the command of our Lord 
and Savior in this ordinance, what higher authority or 
sanction could we have for believing and obeying it? 
"Go," says he, "and teach all nations ; baptizing them in 
the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the 
Holy Ghost." Jesus Christ uttered these words after his 
resurrection from the grave, and his victory over death 
and hell. He is the eternal Amen ; he cannot err. He 
spoke to poor, illiterate men, who knew there was but one 
God. and who naturally had an extreme abhorrence for any 
thing which has the least show of weakening this great 
truth. Yet these very men are commanded to baptize in 
the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy 
Ghost. Here mention is clearly made of three different 
persons. It is evident he does not enjoin baptism in the 
name of any quality or virtue ; nor does he wish to con- 
found the creature with the Creator, but rather to establish 
a perfect equality among the three : for he invariably 



200 Joseph and benjamin. :part 3. 

taught the unity of God. Consequently it is manifest that 
God, in whose name alone it is lawful to administer bap- 
tism, is the same one Supreme who is distinguished under 
three characters or persons — of Father, Son, and Holy 
Ghost. We cannot reject, therefore, this doctrine so plainly 
taught by Jesus Christ, under pretence that, if we receive 
it, we admit three gods, without impeaching Wisdom him- 
self Prov. 8 : 22-31. 

^10. The Lord's Supper is designed to honor our bless- 
ed Savior, by a grateful commemoration of his dying 
love ; by the exercise of a lively faith in him ; by a renew- 
ed dedication of ourselves to him, as our Lord and Savior ; 
and by a public ascription of endless glory and dominion. 

§ 11. The importance of the subject, I hope, my dear 
Benjamin, will be a sufficient apology for having detained 
you so long ; and I will now close this letter with the 
sentiment of the pious Bishop Home, " What shall we 
then say to these things ? What can we say ? but that He, 
to the invocation of whose name salvation is promised ; 
He whose name his disciples, before they were called 
Christians, invoked, and were known to be his disciples by 
so doing ; He, in whose name the apost\es were accustom- 
ed to give their benedictions, and concerning whom St. 
John says, that whatever we ask of him, according to his 
will, we shall have the petitions we desire of him : He, 
who was worshiped by men on earth, without reproving 
them for it, and to whom in heaven all the angelic hosts, 
with the spirits of the redeemed, and the whole creation of 
God, give glory and honor ; He, whom the church univer- 
sal professed, from the beginning, to adore, and into whose 
hands the dying martyrs, from Stephen downward, com- 
mitted their departing spirits; He, to whose service and 
worship, with that of the Father and the Holy Ghost, 
every Christian is dedicated in baptism ; that this person 
is indeed what St. Paul certainly styles him, God over ail. 



Let. 2.] DJVINE CRITERIA ASCRIBED TO JESUS. 201 

blessed for ever, Rom. 9 : 5, and that we all may, and 
ought to use the words of St. Thomas : " My Lord and 
my God." John, 20 : 28. fo. 5, disc. 34. 

Farewell. 



When first the God of boundless grace 

Disclos'd his kind design, 
To rescue our apostate race 
From mis'ry, shame, and sin j 

Cluick through the realms of light and bliss 

The joyful tidings ran ; 
Each heart exulted at the news, 

That God would dwell with man. 

Yet, 'midst their joys, they paus'd awhile, 
And ask'd with strange surprise, 

" But how can injur'd justice smile, 
** Or look with pitying eyes 1" 



The Son of God attentive heard, 

And quickly thus replied, 
" In me let mercy be rever'd, 

" And justice satisfied. 

" Behold ! my vital blood I pour 

" A sacrifice to God ; 
" Let angry justice now no more 

" Demand the sinner's blood.*' 

He spake, and heaven's high arches rung 
With shouts of loud applause ; 

** He died !" the friendly angels sung, 
Nor ceas'd their raot'rous joys. 
9 



Vol II. 



PART XV. 

IMPORTANCE OF THE DIVINITY OF CHRIST. 



I^etter I. 



CONSEQUENCES IF HE IS NOT GOD. 

My Dear Benjamin^ 

I have endeavored, in several preceding letters, to prove 
the divinity of the Lord Jesus Christ ; and cannot but 
hope that the variety of proofs produced will remove all 
doubts from your mind. For, however great and sincere 
your profession may be, that Jesus is the Christ, that is, 
the promised Messiah, and even the most exalted creature, 
yet, unless you believe him to be Jehovah, equal with the 
Father, you still labor under a most fatal error, fraught 
with the most dangerous consequences* I know there are 
not a few who consider this subject a matter of no impor- 
tance ; but I consider the divinity of Christ a scripture 
truth as much as the divinity of the Father, as has been 
fully shown, and the one is no more a " metaphysical spe- 
culation " than the other. Besides, it is exceedingly im- 
proper and absurd to call the principles pure specula- 
tions, which are of so great importance for the regulating 
our worship, that we can neither omit to worship Christ, 
if they are true, without the greatest impiety, nor perform 
it, if they are false, without being guilty of idolatry. 

Let me therefore invite your most serious and patient 
attention, whilst I shall point out the important consequen- 



Let. 1.] CONSEQUENCES IF HE IS NOT GOD. 203 

ces that must inevitably follow, on the one hand, if Christ 
be not truly God, and on the other hand, if he be truly 
God. 

First, If Christ be not truly God, then it follows, 
§ 1. That he was not the promised Messiah, but a de- 
ceiver and a blasphemer. We have formerly proved, both 
from the Scriptures and from the writings of our most an- 
cient Rabbins, that the Messiah was expected to be truly 
God ; therefore, if Christ be not truly God and equal with 
the Father, he does not answer the character of the Mes- 
siah, and consequently was a deceiver ; for he repeatedly 
declared that he was the Christ, the Messiah, of whom it 
was written in the law, in the prophets, and in the book of 
Psalms. Further, he would have been guiltj'^ of blasphe- 
my, as well as of deception ; for he not only claimed to be 
the Christ, but repeatedly declared that he was equal with 
God. 

Let me call your attention to the following passage : 
"Jesus answered them, My Father worketh hitherto, and I 
work : therefore the Jews sought the more to kill him, be- 
cause he had not only broken the Sabbath, but said also 
that God was his Father, making himself equal with God. 
Then answered Jesus and said unto them. Verily, verily, 
I say unto you, the Son can do nothing of himself, but what 
he seelh the Father do; for what things soever he doeth, 
these also doeth the Son likewise. For the Father loveth 
the Son, and showeth him all things that himself doeth; 
and he will show him greater works than these, that ye 
may marvel. For as the Father raiseth up the dead and 
quickeneth them ; even so the Son quickeneth whom he 
will. For the Father judgeth no man ; but hath commit- 
ted all judgment unto the Son; that all men should honor 
the Son, even as they honor the Father. He that honoreth 
not the Son, honoreth not the Father which hath sent him." 
John, 5 : 17-23. Now these words contain our Lord's 



204 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part 4. 

vindication of nis own conduct when accused by our pro- 
pie of having violated the Sabbath, because he had per- 
formed a miraculous cure on that day. His vindication, 
however, was so little to their satisfaction, that they ac- 
cused him still further, of making himself equal with God. 
Our Savior then goes on to explain, but without making 
the least concession of his simple humanity. He claims 
God for his own proper Father — assumes a right of ope- 
rating on the Sabbath — a power of imitating God in his 
works of providence — of quickening whomsoever he will 
— the privilege and power of judging the world, and of be- 
ing honored like as his heavenly Father is honored. That 
these are the pretensions of Jesus, is evident from the whole 
context; and that they are inconsistent with every idea we 
can entertain of mere created excellence, must be evident to 
the judgment of every impartial inquirer into the truth as 
it is in Jesus. He is either the true, proper, natural Son of 
God ; or it is impossible to vindicate him from the most 
insolent and consummate im-posture. There is no medi- 
um, (I speak it with reverence,) he must either be the real 
and genuine Son of God, or a most daring blasphemer. 

§2. On another occasion, recorded John, 10: 23-39^, 
Christ was again charged with blasphemy in making him- 
self equal with God. To justify his claim, he quotes the 
Old Testament to illustrate his meaning; but, so far from 
being satisfied, they were proceeding to seize him, when 
he escaped out of their hands. Now, if he had been a 
Hfiere man, according to his external appearance, he had 
nothing to do but to tell them so, and all would have been 
easy. But as he used such expressions as led them to 
think that he pretended to be equal with God, he either 
was so in reality, or, to say the least, he dealt very disin- 
genuously with them. He was to blame ; they were 
to be pitied. 

§ 3. From Matt. 26 : 63-66, it is very evident that Christ 



Le«. 1.] CONSEaUENCES IF HE IS NOT GOD. 205 

was charged of being guilty of blasphemy, for making 
himself equal with God, for saying he was the Son of the 
most Blessed : and for this, and this only, did they think 
themselves justified in condemning him to death. The Jews 
certainly understood that our Lord meant to assert that he 
is equal with God. They either w^re right in their conclu- 
sion or not. If the former, then Christ is equal with God, 
as we believe him to be ; if the latter be the case, viz. that 
they were mistaken, then it certainly would have been the 
duty of Christ to rectify their mistake. He doubtless knew 
in what sense he used the appellation which he assumed, 
and by his acquiescence admitted the truth of their allega- 
tion. If they had misunderstood his pretensions, he had ma- 
ny opportunities of undeceiving them, both to prevent his- 
death and the propagation of an error which his acquies- 
cen<:e and their charge did not fail to establish. Yet, instead 
of correcting their opinions, he confirmed the charge by re- 
peating his assertion, and submitting to the sentence which 
the Levitical law passed on him for calling himself the Son 
of God. Therefore if we admit, in any degree, the truth of 
the Christian revelation, and believe that Christ came into 
the world to bear witness unto the truth, we must believe 
him to have been vrhat he professed himself to be. viz. the 
Son of God in the literal sense of the sentences which his 
living witnesses imputed to them, i. e. God — equal with 
God — and one with God. 

§ 4. Besides, I have already shown, in the preceding let- 
ter, that Christ both required and received divine worship ; 
and in the first and second chapters of the Revelation of 
St. John, Christ assumes to himself the divine criteria of 
eternity, immutability, omniscience, omnipotence, and abso- 
lute" control of the universe — killing and making alive at 
his pleasure. Such language ill becomes a mere creature, 
and is nothing less than blasphemy ; and equally unbecom- 
ing would be the language with which he closes the sacred 



206 JOSEPH AND benjamin: [Part 1 

volume of divine revelation, chap. 22: 12, 13, 16, compared 
with Numb. 24: 17 ; Mai. 4: 2. 

§ 5. If Jesus Christ was not God, and consequently viras 
guilty of blasphemy, then the Jews, in putting him to death, 
only executed that punishment which God himself had com- 
manded them : for the law expressly required that a blas- 
phemer should be put to death, Lev. 24 : 15, 16. Hence, 
when Pilate declared that he could find no fault in Jesus 
worthy of death, the high priest said, "We have a law, and 
by our law he ought to die, because he made himself the 
Son of God." John, 19 : 7. The accusation, then, was blas- 
phemy, for calling himself the Son of God in the strictest 
sense of the word. Pilate, therefore, when he heard that 
Jesus was the Son of God, was the more afraid, and asked 
•• Whence art thou ?" that is, art thou indeed a divine per- 
son ? of what deity hast thou descended ? for Pilate could 
not have had a reference to his natural descent or native 
place, for he was well acquainted with both. Now if Jesus 
was condemned and put to death according to God's law, 
the inspired apostle Avould not have charged the Jews with 
having crucified the Lord of glory, and with having done 
it with wicked hands. Nor could they have blamed them 
for not believing in a deceiver and a blasphemer. And 
surely a holy, just, and righteous God would never have 
poured out his wrath upon them to the uttermost, which we 
are assured he has done. 1 Thes. 2:16. Besides, I have 
shown already in a former letter, (p. 296.) that the unpa- 
ralleled sufferings of our nation, since the death of Christ to 
the present day, could be accounted for upon no other prin- 
ciple except their rejection of Jesus of Nazareth, the true 
Messiah. 

^ 6. If Christ was not truly God, then it follows he 
was not the promised Messiah, and consequently the cere- 
monial law is not abrogated, and no atonement is made 
for sin. The Mosaic dispensation was to continue until the 



LqL h] CONSEaUENCES IF HE IS NOT GOD. 207 

coming of the Messiah, who was to give a new law, as is 
acknowledged by our Rabbins. The types were to continue 
until the coming of the anti-type. The shadows were to 
remain until the coming of the substance. Sacrifices, which, 
were the very soul of the Mosaic ceremonies, were not to 
cease until after the death of the Messiah : but sacrifices 
have ceased; the veil of the temple is rent from the top to 
the bottom, to show that the way unto the most holy place 
is opened for all, and the distinction between the carnal 
priests, Levites, Israelites, Gentiles, and women, is for ever 
done away, *• for in Christ Jesus there is no difference." 
Rom. 10: 12; Gal. 3:28. . . ^• 

Further, if Chri^ was not God, then he could not make 
an atonement for sin. " There are two things," says Dr, 
Owen, '• concerning the Messiah, which are the pillars and 
foundation of the Church. The one is his divine nature ; 
and the other, his work of mediation in the atonement for 
sin, which he was to make by his sufferings, or the sacri- 
fice of himself." Now, if the foundation is removed, the 
pillars must fall. The blood of a mere human creature could 
no more atone for the sins of men than the blood of bulls 
and goats. " The divinity of Jesus Christ," says the pious 
Dr. Hawker, '' I conceive to be the chief corner-stone in 
the edifice of Christianity. Remove this from the building, 
and the whole fabric immediately totters. The foundation 
is shaken to the very centre. There appears at once an evi- 
dent disproportion between the end and the means, the im- 
portance of the object proposed, and the person by whom it 
was accomplished." Serm, Div, of Christ, p. 8. 

But instead of enlarging on this subject, I will refer my 
dear Benjamin to what I have said on the priestly office of 
the Messiah, and simply observe, that if Jesus Christ is not 
as truly God as he is man, then the law of God is not yet 
magnified and made honorable ; divine justice is not satis- 
fied ; and God cannot be a just God, and yet the justifier of 



208 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part 4. 

them that believe in Christ ; — then the Gospel is a decep- 
tion, our preaching is vain, our hope is vain, and we are 
yet in our sins ; yea, we are of all men the most miserable. 
And remember, my dear Benjamin, that if we go about to 
establish our own righteousness, as our people attempted to 
do, then, like them, we shall surely stumble and fall ; for 
by the deeds of the law no flesh living can be justified. 

§ 7. I still remember a sermon preached in London in 
1802, at the Missionary meeting, by the late Dr. John Ma- 
son, in which he said, " The doctrine of our Lord's divinity 
is not, as a fact, more interesting to our faith, than, as a 
principle, it is essential to our hope. If he were not ' the 
true God,' he would not be ' eternal life.' When, pressed 
down by guilt and languishing for happiness, I look around 
for a deliverer, such as my conscience and my heart and 
the word of God assure me I need, insult not my agony by 
directing me to a creature — to a man — a mere man like 
myself ! a creature — a man ! My Redeemer owns my 
person. My immortal spirit is his property. When I 
come to die, I must commit it into his hands. My soul, 
my infinitely precious soul committed to a mere man ! be- 
come the property of a mere man ! I would not thus in- 
trust my body to the highest angel who burns in the tem- 
ple above. It is only the 'Father of spirits' that can have 
property in spirits, and be their refuge in the hour of tran- 
sition from the present to the approaching world. In 
short, my brethren, the divinity of Jesus is, in the system 
of grace, the sun, to which all its parts are subordinate, and 
all their stations refer — which binds them in sacred con- 
cord, and imparts to them their radiance, and life, and vi- 
gor. Take from it this central luminary, and the glory :s 
departed — its holy harmonies are broken — the elements 
rush to chaos — the light of salvation is extinguished for 
ever!'^ 

§ 8. If Christ be not the true and living God, then again 



Let. 1.3 CONSEQUENCES IF HE IS NOT GOD. 209 

it follows that many of the most learned Christians in for- 
mer ages, as well as at the present day, are guilty of idola- 
try for believing the divinity of Christ. Dr. Grotius says, 
" There were always very many amongst the worshipers 
of Christ who were men of good judgment and of no small 
learning; such as (not to mention Jews) Sergius, the pre- 
sident of Cyprus, Dionysius the Areopagite, Origen, Ter- 
tullian, Clemens Alexandrinus, Justin, Polycarp, Irenaeus, 
Athenagoras, and others." Dc. Verit. Christ. B. 2, sec. 3. 

" Socinus himself acknowledges, that from the infancy 
of the church there had been very many pious learned, 
men, martyrs too, who had embraced this grievous error ; 
viz. that Jesus Christ is that one God who created all 
things, or certainly begotten of his proper substance." 
Epist. 3. ratecius. 

Ignatius, bishop of Antioch at the close of^ the first cen- 
tury, suffered martyrdom. He begins one of his epistles 
in the following manner : " I glorify Jesus Christ our God, 
who has given unto you this wisdom." Epist. ad Smyr. 
Polycarp, bishop of Smyrna, who suffered in the year one 
hundred and sixty-seven, joins God the Father and the Son 
together in his prayers for grace and benediction upon 
man ; " the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, and 
Christ himself, the eternal High Priest, the Son of God, 
build you up in faith and truth — and to all them that are 
under heaven, that shall believe in Jesus Christ our Lord, 
and in his Father, who raised him from the dead." Epist. 
at. Phil. sec. 12. And when he was brought to the stake, 
he concluded his last prayer wnththis doxology to the bless- 
ed Trinity: " I bless thee, I praise thee, I glorify thee for 
all things, together with the eternal and heavenly Jesus 
Christ, thy beloved Son, with whom, unto thee and the Holy 
Spirit, be glory both now and for ever, world without end." 
Polycarp. apud Coteler. Patres Apostol. T. 2, p. 189. 

Justin Martyr, Avho lived about the middle of the second 
9* 



210 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part 4. 

century, declared to the Pagans, that the object of divine 
worship was the whole Trinity. " We worship and we ad- 
mire," says he, " the God of righteousness, and his Son, and 
the Holy Spirit of prophecy." Yet a little after he tells tha 
emperor, " We hold it unlawful to worship any but God 
alone." Justin, Apol. 2. 

Orige/i, who lived in the former part of the third centu- 
ry, says, '' We worship and we adore no creature but the 
Father, Son, and Holy Ghost." Comment, in Epist. ad Rom. 
lib. 1. Now could such men as these be mistaken in the 
capital article of the Christian religion and object of divine 
worship? Impossible. If they had considered Jesus as 
any thing less than the true God, how would they have an- 
swered the heathens, when charged that they worshiped 
a man that had been crucified ? They did not deny that 
fact, and yet declared that they worshiped God alone. By 
this practice, therefore, they showed their belief of Christ's 
true divinity. They worshiped him only upon the ground 
that he is one with God the Father and the Holy Spirit ; and 
had they done it upon any other supposition, they would 
have been guilty of idolatry by their own confession. 

§ 9. If these wise and pious men had been idolaters, be- 
cause they believed Christ to be the true and living God, 
and therefore worshiped him as such, then they were led 
into this fatal error by simply believing the scripture ac- 
count of Christ ; but who can believe that the Scriptures, 
both the Old and the New Testament, whose chief end is to 
deliver men from idolatry, and to bring them back to the 
knowledge, service, and enjoyment of Jehovah — a revela- 
tion which was propagated by men the most exemplary 
for piety and uprightness, and which has produced effects 
the most blessed and glorious, should lead men into such fa- 
tal and abominable errors? Whilst the volume of nature, 
ransacked by the most energetic powers of reason, cannot 
afford the least information relative to the character of the 



Let. 2.] CONSEQUENCES IF HE IS NOT GOD. 211 

Messiah, the sacred Scriptures describe him in the clearest 
and fullest manner possible, as the true and living God. 
We have already seen that they attribute to him all the 
divine criteria ; and I will, in my next letter, select but a 
few plain scriptures on the subject. Farewell. 



I^cUer If. 



THE SUBJECT CONTINUED. 

Beloved Benjamin, 

I will now invite your attention to a few select scrip- 
tures, to show to what fatal errors they lead, if Christ be 
not God. 

§ 1. Our blessed Lord, in his solemn prayer just before 
his death, says, " Now, O Father, glorify thou me with 
thine own self, with the glory which I had with thee before 
the world was." John, 17:6. " Were there no intimation," 
says Dr. Harwood, " in the whole New Testament of the 
pre-existence of Christ, this single passage would irrefra- 
gably demonstrate and establish it. Our Savior here, in a 
solemn act of devotion, declares to the Almighty that ho 
had glory with him before the world was ; and fervently 
supplicates that he would be graciously pleased to reinstate 
him in his former felicity. The language is plain and 
clear. Every word has great moment and emphasis. Up- 
on this single text I lay my finger. Here I rest my sys- 
tem." Of the Socinian Scheme, p. 47. 

§2. The next passage is that in 2 Cor. 8:9. "Ye 



212 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part 4. 

know the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, that, though he 
was rich, yet for your sakes he became poor, that ye 
through his poverty might be made rich." Now, my dear 
Benjamin, if Christ was not the true and living God, but a 
mere creature, with what propriety can this be said of 
our Lord ? When and where was our Savior rich in this 
world ? His whole history contradicts this assertion. On 
the contrary, he was so poor that he was obliged to work 
a miracle to satisfy the demands of some tax-gatherers. He 
lived solely on the benevolence of his friends : he had no 
place where to lay his head. But upon the hypothesis that 
our Lord enjoyed the most exalted station before his incar- 
nation, every thing is consistent and natural. In his pre- 
existent state, he was rich in glory, honor, and happiness, 
with a greatness and benevolence of soul that can never be 
sufficiently exalted. He abdicated all this and became 
poor, that we, through his poverty, might become rich. 
The apostle's argument, to excite the liberality and bene- 
volence of the Corinthians, from this stupendous act and 
instance of our Lord's condescension and benevolence, upon 
this scheme only, is cogent and apposite, and very elegant 
and persuasive. '' This passage is, in my opinion," says 
Dr. Hawker, "no inconsiderable argument to prove thai 
the earliest Christians, and in the days of the apostles them- 
selves, were not unbelievers in our Lord's divinity, but or- 
thodox in the great article of our faith ; for the apostle 
writes to the Corinthians with all the confidence of one 
who was mentioning, not a novel thing, but a truth long 
since received and acknowledged. For had this point been 
at all questionable, or not fully credited, he surely would 
not have said " ye know " what they absolutely did not 
know, had never heard of before, or perhaps denied. A 
presumptive evidence at least is this, that the Corinthians 
were believers in this important doctrine. It is impossible 
to reconcile the apostle's expression in this passage, even 



Let. 3.] CONSEQUENCES IF HE IS NOT GOD. 2l3 

with common sense, upon any other terms than the suppo- 
sition that he was writing to a hody of men who were be- 
lievers in the divinity of Christ." Serm. p. 55. 

^ 3. Further : the apostle, in writing to the Galatians, 
begins his epistle thus: "Paul, an apostle, not of men, 
neither by man, but by Jesus Christ and God the Father, 
who raised him from the dead." Now, if Paul did receive 
his apostleship neither of man, nor by man, but by Jesus 
Christ, then Jesus Christ must be superior to man and equal 
with the Father. 

§ 4. Again, in chap. 4 : 4, 5, he says, " When the full- 
ness of time was come, God sent forth his Son, made of a 
woman, made under the law, to redeem them that were 
under the law, that we might receive the adoption of sons." 
Now this language is perfectly proper on the supposition 
of Christ's pre-existence, but very improper on the contra- 
ry supposition ; for how could a mere man be otherwise 
made than of a woman, and under the law ?" 

§ 5. In the Epistle to the Ephesians, chap. 3: 19, the 
apostle speaks of the love of Christ, which passes know- 
ledge; but where was the extraordinary love of Christ, if 
he existed not before he was born of the virgin, and had no 
nature higher than mere humanity ? To talk of this love 
as surpassing knowledge, is to burlesque it — seeing many 
of our fellow-mortals have displayed equal affection with 
motives infinitely inferior. 

^ 6. Permit me, my dear Benjamin, to call your atten- 
tion to another scripture testimony in favor of the true di- 
vinity of my dear Lord and Savior. " Let this mind be in 
you, which was also in Christ Jesus : who, being in the form 
of God, thought it not robbery to be equal with God ; but 
made himself of no reputation, and took upon him the form 
of a servant, and was made in the likeness of men; and be- 
ing found in fashion as a man, he humbled himself and 
became obedient unto death, even the death of the cross. 



214 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part 4. 

Wherefore, God also hath highly exalted him, and given 
him a name which is above every name : that at the name 
of Jesus every kn-ee should bow, of things in heaven, and 
things in earth, and things under the earth; and that every 
tongue should confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glo- 
ry of God the Father." Phil. 2 : 5-U. In the introduc- 
tion to this celebrated text the apostle is exhorting to uni- 
ty and brotherly love, with various other christian graces, 
among the most conspicuous of which are humility and 
self-denial. And in order to prevail with the people to 
whom he wrote more effectually, he sets before them the ex- 
ample of Jesus ; showing them how great he was originally ; 
how low he condescended for the salvation of mankind ; 
and what were the happy consequences respecting himself. 
So that Jesus Christ is evidently spokea o(, in these words, 
as existing in three very different conditions — before his 
inoarnation, in his state of humiliation, and his state of ex- 
altation. And these three conditions of our blessed Re- 
deemer are essentially necessary to the apostle's argument. 
Take away any one of them, and the propriety of the ex- 
ample is destroyed, and the force of the argument utterly 
enervated. If we take away his natural and original dig- 
nity, then there was no humiliation in becoming man, nor 
was there any propriety in God's bestowing upon him a 
reward so infinito^ly superior to every thing he could have 
deserved. But if he was by nature the Son of God, if he 
was originally in the form of God, and then humbled him- 
self to the lowest pitch of poverty and distress to work out 
salvation for the sons of men, then there was the strictest 
propriety and decorum in exalting him to the head of the 
universe. 

§ 7. "I have often considered carefully," says Dr. Price, 
" the interpretation which the Socinians give of these 
words, and the more I have considered n, the more con- 
firmed I have been in thinking it forced and unnatural. 



Let. 2.] CONSEQUENCES IF HE IS NOT GOD. 215 

Indeed, the turn and structure of this passage are such, that 
I find it impossible not to believe that the humiliation of 
Christ, which St. Paul had in view, was not the exchanging 
of one condition on earth for another, but his exchanging of 
the glory he had with God before the world was, for the 
condition of a man, and leaving of that glory, to encounter 
the difficulties of human life, and to suffer and to die on the 
cross. This was, in truth, an event worthy to be held forth 
to the admiration of Christians. But if the apostle means 
only that Christ, though exalted above others by working 
miracles, yet consented to suffer and die as other men ; if, 
I say, St. Paul means only this, the whole passage is made 
cold and trifling; no more being said of Christ than might 
have been said of St. Paul himself, or any other of the 
apostles." Simpson. Deity of Christ. 249. 

§ 8. Another author says, " I have taken the pains to ex- 
amine nearly all the fathers of the three first centuries who 
referred to this text ; and now I declare, upon the whole, 1 
have not the smallest doubt remaining upon my mind that 
it is justly translated in our English Bible." Burgh's Enq. 
&c. p. 299; see also pp. 9 and 144-156. "I believe," says 
Dr. Doddridge, " this scripture may be left to speak for it- 
self The being, of whom all these things are predicated, 
must be divine. To suppose otherwise, is to throw an im- 
penetrable cloud over all language, and to render the Bible 
the most dangerous book in the world. How any serious 
and honest mind can be satisfied with the Socinian inter- 
pretation, is hard to conceive." 

^ 9. The last passage to which I would invite the atten- 
tion of my dear Benjamin, is that in the Epistle to the He- 
brews; an epistle originally addressed to our beloved peo- 
ple. The pious and learned Dr. Simpson says, " There is 
no part of the writings of this apostle which speaks more 
excellent things of our Savior than the first chapter of his 
most learned Epistle to the Hebrew^s. The whole is an ad- 



216 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part 4. 

zTiirable piece of reasoning, and eloquent at the same time 
in a very high degree. I verily believe there is not in the 
Avorld a piece of writing equally elegant and argumen- 
tative, equally persuasive and conclusive." Deity, p. 258. 
Dr. Buchanan told me, many years since, that, whilst tra- 
veling in India, he heard of a learned Jew who had com- 
menced writing a refutation of this epistle, but, before he 
had proceed'ed far in his work, he dropped his pen and ex- 
claimed, " The Benjamite is too strong for me," and em- 
braced the Christian religion. To return to our subject. 

§ 10. The passage to which I refer is chapter the first, 
1-3. "God, who at sundry times, and in divers manners, 
spake in time past unto the fathers by the prophets, hath in 
these last days spoken unto us by his Son, whom he hath 
appointed heir of all things, by whom also he made the 
worlds; who, being the brightness of his glory, and the ex- 
press image of his person, and upholding all things by the 
word of his power, when he had by himself purged our 
sins, sat down at the right hand of the Majesty on high." 
Upon these words Dr. Whitby remarks, " I believe it is as 
impossible to understand how a man should have this empire 
over all things in heaven and in earth, and over death it- 
self, and yet be a mere man, as it is to understand any mys- 
tery in the sacred Trinity." 

Now, my dear Benjamin, from the account w^hich is here 
given of the Son of the Highest, we may well say that hu- 
man language wants terms to convey ideas of a more exalt- 
ed kind. What could have been said to elevate his character 
that is not said ? We can know of nothing higher, nothing 
greater, nothing better, nothing more sublime than this 
description. Every thing is said that implies equality. He 
is the Son of God ; the heir of all things ; the constitutor 
of all ages; the brightness of his Father's glory ; the ex- 
press image of his person; the sustainer of the universe. 
From all these considerations united, it is very evident v.-e 



Let. 2.] CONSEQUENCES IF HE IS NOT GOD. 217 

cannot think of our blessed Savior too highly, love him too 
intensely, or expect too much from his fullness. 

§ 1 1. From what has been observed in the whole of this 
paragraph, am I not justified, my dear Benjamin, in draw- 
ing the conclusion that if Jesus Christ be not essentially 
God, then the Bible is either unintelligible, even in its 
plainest expressions, or it contains the most inconsistent 
scheme that was ever invented. If our Savior be not, in the 
highest sense, God, those writings must lead us into the 
most fatal errors ; for no words can be plainer, as has been 
shown, and there are many others which affirm him to be 
so. Besides, it was foretold, that in the days of Messiah 
idolatry was to be abolished. " The loftiness of man shall 
be bowed down, and the haughtiness of man shall be made 
low ; and the Lord alone shall be exalted in that day ; and 
the idols he shall utterly abolish ; in that day a man shall 
cast his idols of silver, and his idols of gold, which they 
made each one for himself to worship, to the moles and 
to the bats." Isa. 2: 17, 18, 20. Idolatry is the reverse 
and direct opposite to Christianity, or the day of Christ. 
To destroy this was the great end of Christ's coming into 
the world, 1 John, 3:8; and the design of Paul's com- 
mission to the Gentiles. Acts, 26 : 17, 18. But unless Christ 
were God, the true, living, and eternal God, of one sub- 
stance with the Father, his religion would be so far from 
destroying idolatry, that it would only be a more refined 
and dangerous species of it. 

^ 12. My conclusion on this subject is corroborated by 
many of the most pious and learned writers. I will select 
but one from the pen of Dr. Macknight. " I would observe 
here, once for all, that if the Socinian explication of the 
texts which attribute unto Jesus the names, perfections, 
and actions of the true God is admitted, it will be very 
difficult to clear the evangelists and apostles from the im- 
putation of having laid in men's way a violent temptation 



218 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN, [Part 4. 

to idolatry. For it is well known that as in all ages 
men have been exceeding prone to worship false gods, so 
it was the prevailing vice of the world when the New Tes- 
tan>ent was written, that the grossest corruption of the mo- 
rals of mankind had ever flowed from this poisonous spring, 
(Prov. 1 : 14;) and that to destroy idolatry, and to bring 
mankind to the worship of the true God, was the great end 
proposed by God in all the revelations he made of himsek 
to men^ This being the case, Is it to be imagined that ei- 
ther Christ himself^ who brought the last and the best re- 
velation of the divine will, or his apostles, who committed 
that revelation to writing, would, on any occasion, have used 
such expressions as in their plain and obvious meaning 
could not fail to lead, at least the bulk of mankind, to think 
that the names, perfections, and actions of the true God 
were ascribed to a creature, and that the worship due to the 
true God was due to him, (Heb. 1 : 6,) while in reality they 
mean no more than that he was miraculously formed, was 
commissioned to deliver a new religion to the world, was 
endowed with power of miracles, and in consideration ot 
his exemplary death, was raised from the grave and had 
divine honors conferred upon him ? Instead of reforming 
the world, this was to have laid in their way such a temp- 
tation to idolatry as they could not well resist. Nor has the 
effect been any other than was to be expected, for the gene- 
rality of Christians, moved by these expressions, have all 
along considered Christ as God, and honored him accord- 
ingly." Harm. sec. 2, p. 5, note. 

Having now pointed out a few of the awful and perni- 
cious consequences which must inevitably follow if Christ 
be not the true and living God, I will, in my next letter, 
mention a few of the happy results if Christ be truly God. 

Farewell. 



Let. 3.] CONSEQUENCES IF CHRIST BE GOD. 219 



liCUer III. 



CONSEQUENCES IF CHRIST BE OOD. 

My Dear Benjamin^ 

Agreeably to my promise, I will now proceed to show, 
Secondly, the happy consequences if Christ be truly God. 
§ 1. We see then that God is love. The incarnation, 
obedience, sufferings, and death of Christ are, every where 
in the sacred Scripture, mentioned as the highest manifes- 
tation of God's love, and of the compassion of the Savior to 
man. When our blessed Savior, in his conversation with 
Nicodemus, had mentioned the fact that the Son of man 
should die, that whosoever believeth in him should not per- 
ish, but have everlasting life, he exclaims: "For God so 
loved the world," &c. John, 3 : 14, 15, 16. Here is a sic with- 
out a sicut, i. e. a love without a parallel, a love that sur- 
passes all understanding. What an astonishing act of love 
was this, for the Father to give the delight, the darling of 
his soul out of his very bosom for poor and miserable sin- 
ners I All tongues must needs pause and falter that attempt 
the expression of his grace. Who would deliver a child, the 
child of his delight, an only child, to death, for the greatest 
inheritance in the world 1 what tender parent can endure 
the parting with such a child ? When Hagar was taking 
her last leave (as she thought) of her Ishmael, " And she 
went and sat down over against him a good way off, as it 
were a bow-shot, for she said, Let me not see the death of the 
child ; and she sat over against him and lifted up her voice 
and wept." Gen. 21 : 16. O ! it was painful to part. How 



220 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. fParl 4. 

lieart-piercing was the language of David, even for a rebel- 
lious son: "And the king was much moved, and went up 
to the chamber over the gate and wept, and as he wept, 
ihus he said : O my son Absalom, my son, my son Absa- 
lom, would God I had died for thee ! O, Absalom my son ! 
my son!" 2 Sam. 18 : 33. What a rent has the death of 
some children made in the heart of some parents, which 
will never be closed up in this world ! Yet surely did ever 
any child lie so close to any parent's heart as Christ did to 
his Father's, and yet he willingly parts with him and de- 
livers him up to death, a cursed death for sinners, yea, even 
the chief of sinners. Millions of angels were nothing com- 
pared with the Son of God. The nearer the relation was 
between God and Christ, th« greater was his love shown to 
us. Christ, God's own Son, his first born, his only begot- 
ten Son, the Son of his love, who lay in his bosom, and had 
been his delight from everlasting — for him to be sent to re- 
cover and save man, vile, sinful, and undone man — the Son 
to be employed for the servant, the slave, the enemy ! O, 
my dear Benjamin, how astonishingly great is the love of 
God! Jehovah himself declared that it was the highest 
manifestation of Abraham's love to him when, upon his 
command, he was willing to offer up his only son Isaac ; 
but O how infinitely short did that come of his own love, in 
sending his only begotten Son to suffer and to die to save 
guilty men. Well might the apostle say, " Hope maketh 
not ashamed, because the love of God is shed abroad in our 
hearts by the Holy Ghost which is given unto us. For 
when we were yet without strength, in due time Christ died 
for the ungodly. For scarcely for a righteous man will one 
die, yet peradventure for a good man some would even 
dare to die; but God commendeth his love towards us, in 
that, when we were 3^et sinners, Christ died for us." Rom. 
5 : 5-8. Again says the same apostle, praying for the Ephe- 
eians that they might " be able to comprehend with all 



Let. 3] CONSEQUENCES IF CHRIST BE GOD. 221 

saints what is the breadth, and length, and depth, and height ; 
and to know the love of Christ, which passeth knowledge," 
Eph. 3: 18, 19. How expressive the language of the 
apostle John : " God is love. In this was manifested the 
love of God towards us, because that God sent his only be- 
gotten Son into the world, that we might live through him. 
Herein is love, not that we loved God, but that he loved us, 
and sent his Son to be the propitiation for our sins." 1 John, 
4 : 8, 9, 10. Now consider, my dear Benjamin, that upon 
the hypothesis that Christ was mere man, all these Scrip- 
tures lose all their force and significance. For what is 
there so remarkably endearing in the consideration thai 
God gave up a man like ourselves to extreme sufferings 
and disgrace, when he had already acted in a similar man- 
ner in every instance where virtuous characters had fallen 
into the hands of unreasonable and wicked men ? Or what 
was there so condescending in the conduct of Jesus, when 
he knew the infinite reward that was set before him ? But 
if Jesus was the real and proper Son of God, then the love 
of God in not sparing him, and the condescension of Christ 
in leaving the infinite beatitude of heaven, taking upon him 
human nature, and dying to redeem the apostate sons of 
Adam, are conspicuous; and the declarations of Jesus and 
his apostles are inexpressibly proper, tender, and pathetic. 
§ 2. Further: let it be noticed, that if Christ be not tru- 
ly God in the highest and strictest sense, then the argu- 
ment urged by our Savior and his apostles will be incon- 
clusive and vain ; and God, by thus giving and sending 
his Son, showed more love to Christ than to the worid: 
for the opponents of the divinity of Christ tell us "that he 
who is but a creature, is, after a short obedience and suffer- 
ing upon earth, made a god, receives divine honors, not only 
from men but from the angels and archangels, and has 
universal empire and dominion over all other creatures." 
For the same reason, if Christ be but a creature, his own 



222 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part 4. 

love to mankind, in coming into the world, and doing and 
suffering what he did, (which is so highly magnified in 
Scripture,) does not appear to be very extraordinary, because 
he himself was the greatest gainer imaginable. But upon 
the supposition that Christ is truly God, his love to man- 
kind was indeed transcending, amazing, and surpassing 
knowledge ; which leads me to notice, 

^ 3. That if Christ be truly God, then his example of 
love and obedience to his Father, and love and compassion 
to man, is indeed unparalleled. 

The Scriptures speak frequently in terms of high com- 
mendation on this subject ; and even those who deny his 
real divinity and his atoning sacrifice, speak in exalted 
terms of his example. But, if he was not truly God before 
his incarnation; if he was not rich before he became poor; 
if he had no glory with the Father before he became a man 
of suffering ; if he was not equal with God before he became 
a servant and was made in the likeness of men ; I ask, with 
reverence indeed, wherein did his example exceed the ex- 
amples of that cloud of witnesses presented to our view in 
the Epistle to the Hebrews, chap. 1 1 ? But on this particu- 
lar I shall not enlarge, and I refer you, my dear Benja- 
min, to what I have said in a former letter (p. 362.) I 
proceed to observe, 

^ 4. That if Christ be truly God, then sin appears in- 
deed in its most odious manner. 

One of the most common and most successful devices of 
Satan to lead men into sin and misery, is to hide the evil of 
sin from their eyes. Hence he persuaded our first parents 
that they should not die, even if they should break God's 
law, and he succeeded ; and every sin committed, is com- 
mitted upon the same principle, viz. although 1 do wrong, 
yet I shall escape punishment. But God, who has no plea- 
sure in the death of the sinner, says, " O do not this abo- 
minable thing that I hate." Jer. 44 : 4. He has indeed man- 



Let. 3.] CONSEQ.UENCES IF CHRIST BE GOD. 223 

ifested his hatred of sin, and determination to punish it, by 
awful judgments inflicted on individuals, families, and na- 
tions. Myriads of angels have been cast out of heaven, our 
first parents banished from Paradise, a world destroyed by 
the flood, the cities of Sodom and Gomorrah consumed by 
fire from heaven, Pharaoh and his host drowned in the 
Red Sea, the holy city of Jerusalem and our beautiful tem- 
ple laid in ruins, and our whole nation scattered among al I 
people under heaven, &c. &c. But O, my dear Benjamin, 
what is all this, yea, and even the torments of hell, when 
compared with the manifestation of God's wrath and indig- 
nation against sin, when he sent his own Son into the 
world, who knew no sin, to be made a sacrifice for sin ? 
2 Cor. 5: 21. In the former we may see much of the evil 
of sin, but not so much as we see in the sufferings and death 
of the Lord Jesus Christ ; here is the clearest and most 
awful discovery and fullest representation of it — for the 
Son of God, the only-begotten of his Father, to become a 
son of man, a man of sorrows and acquainted with grief; to 
be smitten and stricken ; to tread the wine-press of the wrath 
of God ; to be obedient unto death, even the death of the 
cross ; to cry out. My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken 
me? And all this to atone for sin. This is indeed a mani- 
festation of its infinite evil which the world never saw be- 
fore, and never will see again. The numberless sacrifices 
which were slain to atone for sin, taught something of its 
evil nature and consequences ; but the blood of Christ, shed 
for the remission of sins, speaks much louder. What the 
apostle said of the love of God, we may apply with equal 
propriety to his holiness and the evil of sin. Now we know 
that God is holy, and sin an abomination, because that God 
sent his only-begotten Son into the world to be the propitia- 
tion for our sins. 1 John, 4 : 9, 10. 

§ 5. If Christ be truly God, then we also see the propri- 
ety of honoring him as we do the Father* 



224 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Parl 4 

We ought to love him supremely, believe in him cordi- 
ally, and obey him unreservedly ; the dignity of his person 
calls for the highest esteem, reverence and veneration which 
angels or men can possibly give unto him. Besides, it is 
the absolute will of the Father that all men should honor 
the Son even as they honor him. John, 5 : 23. For, having 
the same essence and nature with the Father, the Father 
will have him receive the same honor which he himself re- 
ceives; and whoever denies it to the Son, reflects dishonor 
on the Father, who will not suflfer any thing derogatory to 
the glory of his Son. 

There is a story related of Bishop Amphilochius, who, to 
convince the emperor of the importance of honoring the Son 
as we honor the Father, one day coming into the presence 
of the emperor and of his son Arcadius, (who now ruled 
jointly wnth his father,) made his humble obeisance to the 
emperor himself, but slightly noticed his son. The empe- 
ror was greatly offended, and sharply reproved the bishop 
for his neglect of his son. The bishop, instead of making 
an apology, justified his conduct by saying he considered it 
indeed his duty to pay the greatest respect to the emperor 
but did not think it either necessary or proper to pay the 
same homage to his son. The emperor became the more 
enraged, and ordered him to be driven from his presence. 
Whilst they were laying hands on the bishop, he turned 
to the emperor and said, O Emperor, thou being but a man, 
canst not bear the contempt or disparagement of thy son, 
how canst thou think the great God can bear the contempt 
of his Son which men cast upon him? The emperor was 
much affected at this, begged the bishop's pardon, and com- 
mended his ingenuity. Nicephor. b. 12, c. 9. Sozom. I,. 
7. c. 6. 

§ 6. Jesus Christ requires supreme love, Matt. 10. 37, 38, 
and the apostle says, " If any man love not the Lord Jesus 
Christ, let him be Anathema, Maran-atha." 1 Cor. 16-22. 



Let. 3.] CONSEQUENCES IF CHRIST BE GOD. 225 

A believing", experimental knowledge of the unparalleled 
love of Christ compels to supreme love. Hence, says one 
apostle, " the love of Christ constraineth us, because we thus 
judge, that if one died for all, then were all dead ; and that 
he died for all, that they which live should not henceforth 
live unto themselves, but unto him which died for them 
and rose again." 2 Cor. 5:14, 15. And another apostle 
says, " We love him because he first loved us." 1 John, 4 : 
19. There is an invincible force in love itself, " for love is 
strong as death, jealousy is cruel as the grave: many waters 
cannot quench love, nor can the floods drown it ; if a man 
would give all the substance of his house for love, it would 
be utterly contemned." Canticles, 8 : 6, 7. 

§ 7. Love is of a nature so powerful that we can no more 
resist it and break the force of it, than we can resist death 
or fire. Nothing but the thing loved can quench or satisfy 
it. So vehement a love is there kindled in the heart of be- 
lievers towards Christ, it makes so strong and mighty im- 
pressions on the heart, that they cannot endure any separa- 
tion from him. No opposition can extinguish it, no other 
satisfaction can bribe it and entice it away from Christ. 

As death conquers all, kings and peasants, high and low, 
rich and poor, bond and free, young and old, weak or strong, 
there is no disputing of his authority or counteracting of his 
power ; for all ranks and degrees of men must, whether 
they will or not, be subject to him, the king of terrors ; so 
the believer's love to Christ overcomes all things, and sur- 
mounts all difficulties which oppose his enjoyment of him. 
He can part with all, and bear all, or any thing, for the sake 
of Christ ; father, mother, wife and children, houses and 
land, a good name, credit and reputation, are nothing to the 
believer, in comparison with Christ ; and he cheerfully quits 
them when they stand in competition with him. " I count 
all things but loss for the excellency of the knowledge of 
Christ Jesus my Lord ; for whom I have suffered the loss of 
Vol. II. 10 



226 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part 4 

all things, and do count them but dung, that I may win 
Christ, and be found in him, not having my own righteous- 
ness, which is of the law, but that which is through the faith 
of Christ, the righteousness which is of God by faith." 
Phil. 3 : 8, 9. 

§ 8. Further : as we are to honor and love Christ be- 
cause he is the true God, so also we are commanded to be- 
lieve in him, " Ye believe in God, believe also in me." 
John, 14 : 1, One great design of divine revelation is to 
exhibit Christ as the object of faith. That the promised 
Messiah was the object of faith and foundation of hope to 
the saints under the Old Testament, from the righteous 
Abel down to Zechariah, who was slain between the tem- 
ple and the altar, we are assured by the apostle in his Epis- 
tle to the Hebrews, chap. 11. And for the same end and 
purpose the New Testament was written. Let me recom- 
mend to your attention, my dear Benjamin, the following 
passages : " These are written that ye might believe that 
Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God ; and that believing, ye 
might have life through his name." John, 20: 31. "Who- 
soever denies the Son, the same has not the Father ; but he 
that acknowledgeth the Son, hath the Father also — whoso- 
ever shall confess that Jesus is the Son of God, God dwell- 
eth in him, and he in God — who is he that overcomes the 
world, but he that believeth that Jesus is the Son of God V 
I John, 2: 23. 4: 15. 5: 5. 

Again, I would observe that Jesus Christ also requires 
universal and unreserved obedience, and makes it a charac- 
teristic mark of his disciples. He not only requires that 
they shall be baptized in his name, as well as in the name 
of the Father and of the Holy Ghost, but also that they 
shall observe all things he has commanded. Matt. 28 : 19, 
20. Again he says, " Ye are my friends, if ye do whatsoever 
I command you." John, 15 : 14. And when the voice from 
heaven, in the presence of Moses and Elijah, proclaimed 



Let. 3.] CONSEQUENCES IF CHRIST BE GOD. 227 

Jesus to be the Son of God, Matt. 17:5, which was doubt- 
less in allusion to Deut, 18 : 19, that Jesus Christ was the 
prophet therein promised, whom men were to obey on 
peril of being cut off, and all the calamities which have 
come upon our dear people since the destruction of Jeru- 
salem by Titus, have been on account of not obeying him, 
as has been fully proved in a former letter, (p. 290.) 

§ 9. If Jesus Christ be the true and living God, then 
what shall we say concerning them who deny his real di- 
vinity, and refuse to honor him with the same honor they 
profess to give unto the Father ? My dear Benjamin, I 
tremble when I think on their awful condition, and almost 
hesitate to write my thoughts on the subject, lest I should 
be considered uncharitable or intolerant. God forbid ! for 
I myself have been a blasphemer ; but God has had mercy 
upon me, called me by his grace, and revealed his Son in 
me ; and I pray, my dear Benjamin, that all who refuse to 
honor Jesus may obtain like mercy. Nor would I say or 
do any thing that should have even the appearance of pre- 
venting any one from thinking or speaking on any reli- 
gious subject more than any other. But remember, my 
dear Benjamin, that our thoughts and words must be guid- 
ed by the unerring word of God. And as it would be 
false charity not to tell a man that he is off of the right 
road, merely to prevent him from some momentary unplea- 
sant feelings by discovering to him his mistake, how much 
worse and more blamable would be my conduct, were I to 
deceive you, or any person else, by saying " it is of no im- 
portance whether we believe Jesus is the true God or not ,• 
it will only be an error of the mind, and if Ave are but sin- 
cere in what we believe, that is all which God requires of 
us ;" when I know that the sacred Scriptures teach other- 
wise, as appears from the following passages : •' He that 
believeth on the Son hath everlasting life, and he that be- 
lieveth not the Son shall not see life, but the wrath of God 



228 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part 4. 

abideth on him." John, 3 : 36. Again, " If ye believe not 
that I am he, ye shall die in your sins." John, 8 : 24. " If 
we receive the witness of men, the witness of God is great- 
er ; for this is the witness of God which he has testified of 
his Son. He that believeth on the Son of God, hath the wit- 
ness in himself; he that believeth not God, has made him a 
liar, because he believeth not the record that God gave of 
his Son. And this is the record, that God has given to us 
eternal life; and this life is in his Son. He that hath the Son, 
hath life ; and he that hath not the Son of God, hath not life. 
These things have I written unto you that believe on the 
name of the Son of God, that ye may know that ye have 
eternal life, and that ye may believe on the name of the 
Son of God." 1 John, 5 : 9-13. 

§ 10. I am aware, my dear Benjamin, that there are 
those who, whilst they deny that Jesus is equal with God, 
yet say *• Christ ought to be honored and worshiped viore 
or less, for some reason or others But all this is unscriptu- 
ral, irrational and fatal. " According to the doctrine of the 
Socinians," says Dr. Trapp, " our blessed Savior is natu- 
rally a mere man, but by the will of the Father advanced 
to the dignity of a God ; and being so advanced, he is truly 
and properly God. Now I desire to be informed how this 
notion differs from that of the ancient heathen concerning 
their deifying their heroes and turning men into gods ? It 
is just the same notion, and is clothed with the same absur- 
dity and impiety. To suppose such a fictitious God is gross 
polytheism, and to worship such an one is gross idolatry." 
Again he says : " If the Son and the Holy Ghost be God, 
ought they not to be honored, adored, prayed to, and glori- 
fied as such? And if they be not God, ought they to be hon- 
ored, adored, and prayed to, and glorified as such? If they 
be not God, we who call ourselves orthodox are idolaters ; 
if they be God, those whom we call heretics upon this ar- 
ticle are blasphemers." p. 5, 6, and 166. "Socinus," says 



Let. 3.] CONSEQUENCES IF CHRIST BE GOD. 229 

the learned Dr. Sdllingfleet, "was a strenuous advocate for 
the worship of Christ, for he says that to deny invocation to 
him is not a simple -error or mere mistake, but a most per- 
nicious error, an error that leads to Judaism, and is in effect 
the denying of Christ, and tends to epicurism and atheism." 
Smalcius says, " There are no Christians which refuse 
to give divine worship to Christ.^' Trinity, p. 150. " The 
foreign Socinians," says the pious Mr. Simpson, "deny any 
to be Christians who refuse divine adoration and invoca- 
tion to Christ; hence they have excluded all our English 
Unitarians (as the Socinians here call themselves) from be- 
ing Christians, who deny this to Christ." Plea for the De- 
ity of Christ, 227. " These are the men," says Mr. Trapp, 
^' who ridicule orthodoxy on the one hand, and heresy on the 
other, as absurd and ridiculous notions, and are for having 
all persons think freely for themselves. God forbid that any 
body should be denied that liberty, but nobody that thinks 
truly for himself will think as they do. These are the me-a 
who are so accurate in their thoughts and writings, so 
careful to avoid contradiction, and so very forward to 
charge them upon others; as if all the regular arguing, all 
the clear and distinct ideas in the world belong to them. 
Whereas, in fact, there never was upon the face of the 
earth a more senseless and self-contradicting scheme than 
theirs — nothing more irrational and absurd, as well as im- 
pious and profane." Trinity, p. 186. " The Socinians," 
says Dr. Young, " have been very unfortunate in the exe- 
cution of their main design, for they have not purged m3''s- 
tery out of the Scriptures, they have only changed its 
place — they have taken mystery out of the doctrines of the 
sacred Scripture where it was venerable and worthy the 
majesty of God, and have placed it in the phrase of the 
Scripture, where it is opprobrious and repugnant to God's 
sincerity." Serm fol. 2, p. 78. 

Now, my dear Benjamin, I will close this paragraph 



230 .'OSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part 4 

by recommending to you most affectionately the advice of 
the Psalmist, *' Be wise now therefore, O ye kings ; be in 
structed, ye judges of the earth : serve the Lord with fear 
and rejoice with trembling : kiss the Son, lest he be angry 
and ye perish from the way, when his wrath is kindled 
but a little: blessed are all they who put their trust in 
him." Psa. 2 : 10-12. 

§ 11. If Christ be the Son of God, how great the en- 
couragement for poor sinners to put their trust in him for 
pardon, peace, acceptance, and eternal salvation! We may 
be sure that there is an infinite value, worth, and effi- 
•cacy in Christ's obedience and suffering ; that he was 
-able to accomplish the work which the Father had given 
him to do, and is now able to save to the very uttermost all 
that come unto God by him. What can be too hard for 
the power of the Son of God to effect, or too high for his 
obedience and sufferings to merit ? Had Christ been only 
the Son of man, then indeed faith could not have borne up 
with such confidence ; but he being the Son of God also, 
and having the nature, essence, and attributes of God, faith 
may triumph as to the efficacy and meritoriousness of his 
work. It was the blood of God that was shed as the price 
of our redemption. Acts, 20 : 28. 

What a fullness of grace, merit, and efficacy must there 
be in the sacrifice of Him in whom " dwells all the fullness 
of the Godhead bodily ?" Col. 2 : 9. "For if the blood of 
jbulls and of goats, and the ashes of an heifer sprinkling 
the unclean, sanctifieth to the purifying of the flesh, how 
much more should the blood of Christ, who, through the 
eternal Spirit, offered himself without spot to God, purge 
your conscience from dead works, to serve the living God." 
" Seeing then we have a great High Priest that has passed 
into the heavens, Jesus the Son of God, let us hold fast our 
profession ; for we have not an high priest which cannot be 
touched with the feeling of our infirmities, but was in all 



Let, 3.] CONSEQUENCES IF CHRIST BE GOD. 231 

points tempted like as we are, yet without sin. Let us 
therefore come boldly unto the throne of grace, that we 
may obtain mercy, and find grace to help in time of need." 
Heb. 4 : 14-16. 9 : 13, 14, 

^12. If Christ be the tru€ and living God, O how happy 
and blessed are true believers. What can there be too 
great for God to do, or too good to give, after having given 
his own Son to die for them ? *' He that spared not his own 
Son, but delivered him for us all, how shall he not with 
him also freely give us all things ?" Rom. 8 : 32. — all 
things for time and eternity ; " for godliness is profitable unto 
all things, having the promise of the life that now is, and 
of that which is to come," I Tim. 4 : 8. — all things for 
body and soul ^ "Seek ye first the kingdom of God and 
his righteousness, and all these things shall be added unto 
you," Matt. 6 : 33. — all things that are for our real advan- 
tage; "for all things are yours, whether Paul, or Apollos, 
or Cephas, or the world, or life, or death, or things pre- 
sent, or things to come ; all are yours; and ye are Christ's ; 
and Christ is God's." 1 Cor. 3 : 21-23. O believer, raise 
your expectation ever so high, and it will not be a castle 
built in the air. Your faith rests upon a sure and solid 
foundation. What greater security could God himself have 
given than the gift of his own Son ? This is a sure pledge 
of great love ; and what will not love, gr-eat love, such 
love ("for God so loved the world") do for those whom 
he loves ? With the apostle, ye may be confident of this 
very thing, "that he who has begun a good work in you, 
will perform it until the day of Jesus Christ;"Phil. 1:5; 
and with the same apostle you may say triumphantly, 
" Who shall lay any thing to the charge of God's elect ? It 
is God that justifieth. Who is he that condemneth ? It is 
Christ that died ; yea rather, that is risen again, who is 
even at the right hand of God, who also maketh inter- 
cession for us. Who shall separate us from the love of 
Christ?" &c. &c. Rom. 8 : 33-39. 



232 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part 4. 

§ 13. Lastly. If Jesus Christ is the true and living 
God, then the friends of Zion may take courage in God 
their Savior. Whoever meets with disappointment, the 
cause of Christ must increase, extend, and triumph. Glori- 
ous things are spoken of Zion, the city of our God. The 
conversion of the Gentiles which are afar off, and of our 
dear people scattered every where, is foretold by the mouth 
of all the holy prophets. These promises are all yea and 
amen in Christ Jesus ; the signs of the times, too, are most 
pleasing and encouraging ; never was there such a variety 
of religious and benevolent institutions of different names 
and denominations, and yet all united under the banner of 
King Jesus, all aiming at the extension of his kingdom, 
which is an everlasting kingdom. True, Satan seems to 
be more active, his emissaries more numerous, bold and 
persevering than formerly ; yet even this is a good sign. 
When the people of God were inactive in the cause of 
Christ, and quietly left the Gentiles and the Jews in the 
power of Satan, (the " god of this world, who blinds the 
minds of them which believe not, lest the light of the glo- 
riou9 Gospel of Christ, who is the image of God, should 
shine unto them," 2 Cor. 4 : 4,) his goods were at peace, 
he was comparatively inactive ; but, now they are disturbed, 
and in danger of being taken from him, he is enraged, 
sounds the alarm, fills up his ranks with new recruits from 
all classes of men, and defies the armies of the living God, 
saying, " I will pursue, I will overtake, I will divide the 
spoil ; my lust shall be satisfied upon them ; I will draw my 
sword, my hand shall destroy them." Exod. 15 : 9. ''But 
who art thou, O great mountain? before Zerubbabel thou 
shalt become a plain ; and he shall bring forth the head- 
stone thereof, with shoutings, crying, Grace, grace, unto it." 
Zech. 4:7. " Why do the heathen rage, and the people 
imagine a vain thing ? The kings of the earth set them- 
selves, and the rulers take counsel together against Jeho- 



Let. 3.] CONSEQUENCES If CHRIST BE GOD. 233 

vah, and against his anointed, saying, Let us break their 
bands asunder, and cast away their cords from us. He that 
sitteth in the heavens shall laugh, Jehovah shall have them 
in derision: then shall he speak unto them in his wrath, 
and vex them in his sore displeasure. Yet have I set my 
King upon my holy hill of Zion." Psa. 2 : 1-6. " The 
Lord said unto my Lord, sit thou at my right hand, until 
I make thine enemies thy footstool." Psa. 110: 1. "Thy 
throne, O God, is for ever and ever," Psa. 45, 6. *' It is the 
throne of God. He who sitteth on it is the Omnipotent ; 
universal being is in his hand. Revolution, force, fear, as 
applied to his kingdom, are words without meaning. Rise 
up in rebellion, if thou hast courage. Associate with thee 
the whole mass of infernal power ; begin with the ruin of 
whatever is fair and good in the little globe ^ pass from 
hence to blot the sun from out of his place, and roll the 
volume of desolation through the starry world, — what hast 
thou done unto him ? It is the puny menace of a worm 
against him whose frown is perdition." Dr. J. Mason's 
Messiah's Throne, 

§ 14. Antichrist may fall, superstitious observances may 
cease, religious institutions may be tumbled into ruins, em- 
pires and kingdoms may be overturned, princes and govern- 
ors may be deposed, the wise men of the world may take 
part with the enemies of truth, error and delusion may run 
like wild-fire among the thickest ranks of the people, unbe- 
lievers may rage, and minute philosophers imagine a vain 
thing — but the Bible shall rise out of its present obscurity, 
and being stripped of all human appendages, shall be uni- 
versally had in honor. The method of redeeming a lost 
race, therem revealed, shall be generally seen and embrac- 
ed ; the enemies of evangelical religion shall be confounded 
world without end. Jesus shall reign triumphant over all 
opposition, in his glorious human body, at the right hand 
of the majesty on high, till all the ends of the earth have 
10* 



234 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part 4 

seen bis great salvation, and every opposing power is 
brought into complete subjection. " Blessed be the Lord 
God, the God of Israel, who only does wondrous things ; 
and blessed be his glorious name for ever ; and let the whole 
earth be filled with his glory. Amen and Amen." Psa. 
72 : 18, 19. " Now unto him that is able to keep you from 
falling, and to present you faultless before the presence of 
his glory with exceeding joy, to the only wise God our Sa- 
vior, be glory and majesty, dominion and power, both now 
and ever. Amen." Jude, 24, 25. 



L.etter IV. 



DEITY OF THE HOLY SPIRIT. 



Dear Benjamin, 

Having proved, I hope to your satisfaction, the divinity 
of the Lord Jesus Christ, I will now also briefly show the 
divinity of the Holy Ghost. But let it be observed, that 
although we have not so great a variety of proofs of the 
divinity of the Holy Spirit as we have of the blessed Jesus, 
yet those which we have are as satisfactory as those of tho 
Father and of the Son. This will evidently appear if wo 
consider. 

First, that all the divine criteria are ascribed to the 
Holy Spirit as well as to the Father and to the Son, and 
therefore he must be truly God. 

L The names peculiar to Deity. 

§ 1. The Holy Spirit is called God in the strict sense of 



Let. 4.] DEITV OF THE HOLY SPIRIT. 235 

the word The Psalmist informs us that our fathers " pro- 
Toked the Most High in the wilderness, and tempted God 
in their heart." Psa. 78 : 17, 18. The Prophet Isaiah ap- 
plies this to the Holy Spirit, chap. 63 : 10, and so did the 
apostle, sa3ung, " Wherefore, as the Holy Ghost says, To 
day, if ye will hear his voice, harden not your hearts, as in 
the provocation, in the day of temptation in the wilderness, 
when your fathers tempted me, proved me, and saw my 
works forty years." Heb. 3 : 7-9. Hence it is evident that 
the Holy Spirit is God the Most High. 

§ 2. Further : the Holy Spirit is called by the incom- 
municable name of Jehovah, and therefore must be truly 
God. Moses informs us that it was Jehovah alone that did 
lead the children of Israel, " and there was no strange god 
with him;" Deut. 33 : 12; which work the Prophet Isaiah 
applies to the Holy Ghost. Isa. 63 : 11, 12. He therefore 
is Jehovah, the true and eternal God. Jehovah, whom Isaiah 
saw sitting upon the throne, high and lifted up, ^nd whose 
train filled the temple, and whom the seraphim adored, say- 
ing, " Holy, holy, holy, Lord of hosts, the whole earth is 
full of his glory," is Jehovah the Spirit, according to 
the testimony of St. Paul, who, preaching at Rome to the 
mixed multitude of Jews, some of whom believed ^nd some 
believed not, says, " Well spake the Holy Ghost by Isaiah 
the prophet unto our fathers, saying, Go unto this people 
and say, Hearing ye shall hear, and not understand, and 
seeing ye shall see and not perceive," &c. Seeing then that 
these are the very words which Jehovah spake by Isaiah, 
and yet these words spake the Holy Ghost, says St. Paul, 
the Holy Ghost therefore must be Jehovah. 

It is no solid objection to say that the Evangelist John 
calls this a vision of the glory of Christ ; so it was ; but 
this only proves that the glory of Jesus, and the glory of 
the Holy Ghost as Jehovah, are one and the same. Hence 
the works of creation, the resurrection of Christ, &c. &>c^ 



236 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part 4. 

which are the works of Jehovah, and not the w^orks of any 
particular person in the blessed Trinity as belonging to the 
economy of redemption, are ascribed alike to the Father, 
the Son, and the Holy Ghost. Hence it has been observed 
by the judicious Mr. Nelson, that " the glory which appear- 
ed to Isaiah, is the glory of the Father, Rev. 4:8; and of 
the Son, John, 12: 41 ; and of the Holy Ghost, Acts, 28: 
26. Now since three persons are manifested in one glory, 
and the manifestations are designed to bring us into the 
knowledge of the things manifested ; it is a great probabil- 
ity that the one glory teaches us the unity, or identity of na- 
ture, of the persons manifested in it." Script. Doct. on the 
Trinity, page 1 1 5. 

n. The incommunicable attributes of God are attributed 
to the Holy Spirit, and therefore he is truly God. 

^ 3. Eternity and unchangeableness. 

Jesus Christ is said "to have offered himself unto God, 
through the Eternal Spirit." Heb. 9:14. The Holy Spirit 
created the world, as will be shown hereafter, and therefore 
must have existed before any thing was made. 1 have al- 
ready shown that the Holy Spirit is called by the incommu- 
nicable name Jehovah; and as that word signifies self-exis- 
tent, eterjial, and unchangeable, therefore the Holy Spirit 
must be the same as the Father and the Son, the same yes- 
terday, to-day, and for ever; he that was, and is, and is to 
come, the Lord God Almighty. " The Holy Spirit," says 
one of the fathers, " always was, is, and always will be : he 
had no beginning, nor shall have any end, but is always 
joined with the Father and the Son." Gregor. Naci. Orat. 
44. fo. 1, p. 711. 

^ 4. Omnipresence, which is an essential attribute of God, 
is also ascribed to the Holy Spirit. " Whither shall I go 
from thy Spirit, or whither shall I flee from thy presence ? 
If I ascend up into heaven, thou art there ; if I make my 
bed in hell, behold thou art there ; if I take the wings of 



Let. 4.] DEITY OF THE HOLY SPIRIT. 237 

the morning, and dwell in the uttermost parts of the sea, 
even there shall thy hand lead me, and thy right hand shall 
hold me." Ps. 139: 7 — 10. Now here, as the Jehovah to 
whom the Psalmist addresses himself is acknowledged to 
be every where present and immense ; so also, and in a sense 
as unlimited, is his Spirit and his presence ; for that presence 
from whom none can go, as well as that presence from 
whom none can flee ; they from whom neither heaven, nor 
hell, nor the uttermost part of the sea can hide ; they from 
whom no place in the universe can exclude, must surely 
be present in all places alike ; and consequently the Son 
and the Holy Ghost must be as strictly omnipresent as the 
Father. "By the word presence in this passage I under- 
stand," says Mr. Wheatly, " the divine word or person of 
the Son, whom God calls his presence, and promises to 
Moses, upon his earnest intercession, to send before him, to 
lead the people, and to give them rest ; and whom accord- 
ingly Isaiah calls the Angel of his presence, who was afflict- 
ed in their affliction and saved them ; who in his love and 
his pity redeemed them, and bare them, and carried them 
all the days of old. Isa. 63 : 9. Agreeable with this are 
the words of Moses, Because the Lord loved thy Father, 
therefore he chose their seed after him, and brought thee 
out in his sight, (or rather by his presence, as the word 
Bephanav signifies,) with his mighty power, out of Egypt. 
This is that presence or face of the Lord before whom John 
the Baptist was to go and prepare his way ; and who, as it 
appears from the prophet Malachi, was himself no less than 
Jehovah." On the Creeds, p. 165. How consoling, my dear 
Benjamin, is the truth to the believer in Christ, that he can 
never be cast out from the presence, grace, or protection of 
the Holy Ghost. Wherever his lot is cast, in the darkest 
dungeon or in a cave, in the uttermost ends of the earth, 
far distant from all fellow Christians, yet the Holy Spirit, 
who is every where present, is with him, to lead and teach, 



238 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Parti 

to support and comfort him, and bring him through into the 
presence of God the Father ; for by this immense omnipre- 
sent Spirit, both those that are nigh, and those that are afar 
off, have access to the Father. Eph. 2:16. 

§ 5. Omniscience is an attribute peculiar to the true God, 
and is ascribed to the Holy Spirit ; therefore the Holy Spirit 
is the true God. He not only knoweth the hearts of men, 
but also the secrets of Jehovah. 1 Cor. 2: 10, 11. Nothing 
in the Father, however profound, or however sublime, sur- 
passes the knowledge of his Holy Spirit. He is inwardly 
conscious of the things of God, as the spirit of man is of the 
things of man ; for, in knowing the mind of the Father who 
creates, he must know the things comprehended in him, 
viz. the nature, and powers, and operations of all things ; 
for the knowledge of God is equal to his power, and no- 
thing was made which he does not comprehend. If then 
the secrets of the creature and the depth of God are searched 
and understood, and the things past and the things to come 
known and foretold by the Spirit of God ; (for the econo- 
my of providence relating to man, to the end of the world, 
and contained in the writings of both Testaments, was re- 
vealed to the prophets by the Holy Spirit:) it will then fol- 
low that the Holy Ghost knoweth all things, is every where 
present, and is true God — for the knowledge of all things 
is a Scripture argument of the truth of the Godhead of the 
subject knowing. When our blessed Lord and Savior 
promised his disciples that he would send another Com- 
forter, even the Holy Ghost, he describes one part of his 
office to be *' to show them things to come." Now this is 
a power which he himself declares that none can exert but 
he alone who is truly God ; for when he challengeth the 
idols to plead their cause, and to give convincing proof of 
their divinity, " Produce your cause, saith the Lord, bring 
forth your strong reasons, saithlhe King of Jacob : let them 
brinor them forth and show us v.hat shall happen ; let them 



Let. 4.J DEITY OF THE HOLY SPIRIT. 239 

show the former things what they be, that we may consider 
them and know the latter end of them ; or declare us things 
to come ; show the things that are to come hereafter, that we 
may know ye are gods." Isa. 41 : 21-23. Hence the Lord 
Jesus Christ himself appeals to his foretelling of future 
events, as one test of his own divinity. " I tell you," says 
he, (i. e. that Judas should betray him,) "before it come, 
that when it come to pass, ye may believe that I am," John, 
13 : 19; i. e. I am the true God, which knows all things be- 
fore they happen, even those which none but the true God 
can foresee. The amazing gift of prophecy, declaring the 
end from the beginning, and foretelling particular events 
long beforehand as exactly as they came to pass, with the 
particular circumstances of them, was from the Holy Spirit, 
and plainly shows his infinite knowledge. '' He that teaches 
man knowledge, shall not he know?" Ps. 94 : 9, 10. Of 
all kinds of knowledge, prescience, or knowledge of things 
to come, seems to be the hardest ; of all the acts of prescience, 
the foreknowledge of things which depend upon the v/ills 
of free agents seems to be the most difficult. But is any 
thing too hard for the Spirit to do, or too difficult for him to 
know ? A remarkable instance of the prescience or fore- 
knowledge of the Holy Spirit we have recorded in that 
history, where we find a prophet uttering these words : " O 
altar, altar, thus saith the Lord, Behold, a child shall be 
born in the house of David, Josiah by name, and upon thee 
shall he offer the priests of the high places that burn in- 
cense upon thee ; and men's bones shall burn upon thee." 
This prophecy was delivered some hundreds of years be-, 
fore its accomplishment : the certain birth and name of the 
prince, of what family he should be, and some remarkable 
things he should do, are foretold as exactly as if they had 
then been done ; and yet these events seemed to be very 
contingent and uncertain ; there were ten or eleven kings 
in David's line after the prophet and before Josiah ; afnd 



240 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part 4. 

what might happen among them, the birth of this prince 
and his name, his destroying of the altar and burning of the 
priests' bones thereupon, seemed to depend upon the volun- 
tary acts of men ; but God the Spirit, as well as the Fa- 
ther, understands the thoughts afar off, and foresees the end 
from the beginning ; a knowledge too great for any crea- 
ture, and peculiai to the only true God." 

§ 6. Omnipotence, or almighty power, is also the peculiar 
attribute of Jehovah, and is ascribed to the Holy Ghost 
This is evident from the works which are ascribed to him 
as will be shown hereafter. I shall sum up what has been 
said in a few words. He who is omnipresent, omnipotent, 
eternal, unchangeable, infinitely, sovereignly gracious, and 
omniscient, is no creature, but is true and real God, of the 
same nature and perfections with the Father and the Son. 

ni. From the attributes of God, ascribed to the Holy 
Spirit, I proceed to notice, 

§ 7. The works which he performs. 

Creation, which is the exclusive work of God, is ascrib- 
ed to the Holy Spirit, and therefore he is truly God. Psa, 
33 : 6 ; 104 : 30. Job, 26 : 13 ; 33 : 4. The Prophet Isaiah 
describes the almighty power and exalted majesty of the 
Holy Ghost as Creator, in the following passage : " Who 
hath measured the waters in the hollow of his hand, and 
meted out the heavens with the span, and comprehended 
the dust of the earth in a measure, and weighed the moun- 
tains in scales, and the hills in a balance ? Who hath direct 
ed the Spirit of the Lord, or being his counsellor, hath 
taught him? With whom took he counsel, and who in- 
structed him, and taught him in the path of judgment, and 
taught him knowledge, and showed to him the way of un- 
derstanding ? Behold, the nations are as a drop of a bucket, 
and are counted as the small dust of the balance : behold, he 
taketh up the isles as a very little thing ; and Lebanon is 
not sufficient to burn, nor the beasts thereof sufficient for a 



Let. 4.] DEITY OF THE HOLY SPIRIT. 241 

burnt-offering. All nations before him are as nothing- ; 
and they are counted to him less than nothing, and vanity." 
Isa. 40 : 12-17. Now let it be observed, my dear Benja- 
min, that these things are ascribed to the Holy Spirit, not 
in exclusion of the Father and the Son, but in conjunction 
with them ; for the three in heaven are one, one in essence, 
and one in operation. There is a joint concurrence of all 
the three persons in the Godhead in the works of nature 
and Providence, as Christ says : " My Father worketh 
hitherto, and I work; and whatsoever the Father doeth, 
the Son doeth likewise." The same may be said of the 
Spirit, who, with the Father and the Son, is the Creator and 
Maker of all things. The glorious luminaries that adorn 
the heavens are the product of the Holy Spirit's almighty 
creating power, and with the same power all the decays 
of nature are repaired, and the face of the earth is renew- 
ed, as it were, by a continual new creation, performed by 
the Spirit who at first moved upon the face of the waters, 
and gave being, order, and beauty to the several creatures 
formed out of the first confused chaos. The Holy Spirit, 
being one in nature with the Father and the Son, is also 
one with them in power and operation ; and as creation is 
the work of the Father and of the Son, so it is equally 
the work of the Holy Spirit. This accounts for the plural 
form of expressions made use of in respect to the works 
of creation. " In the beginning God," according to the 
Hebrew, Gods, " created the heavens and the earth." '' Let 
us make man." " Remember thy Creators in the days of 
thy youth." " Let Israel rejoice in his Makers." " Where 
is God my Makers ?" " The gods that have not made the 
heavens and the earth, even they shall perish from the 
earth, and from under the heavens. He hath made the 
earth by his power, he hath established the world by his 
wisdom, and hath stretched out the heavens by his discre- 
tion," says the prophet Jeremiah. This is the work of 



242 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part 4. 

the great God, and of none else ; and being the work of 
the Holy Spirit, as is proved, it follows that he is the 
great God, otherwise he must be of the number of those 
gods who shall perish from the earth, and from under 
these heavens, which it were blasphemy once to imagine. 

§ 8. Besides the creation of the world, it is to be noticed 
that the formation of the human nature of Christ is the 
peculiar work of the Holy Ghost. Luke, 1 : 35. " The 
Holy Ghost shall come upon thee, and the power of the 
Highest shall overshadow thee. Therefore also that holy 
thing which shall be born of thee, shall be called the Son 
of God." By the Holy Ghost, Ave are to understand a 
Person ; and by the Highest, the same Person. (See Pool's 
Annot. in Loco.) He might well be called the Highest, 
as performing a work peculiar to the Most High God. 
The word overshadowing, it has been justly observed, may 
allude to the work of the Holy Ghost in the first creation, 
when he moved Merachepheth, i. e. brooded upon the wa- 
ter ; or gave prolific virtue to them, as fowls do to their 
eggs, by sitting upon them. (See Patrick in Loco.) The 
Holy Spirit, by a secret almighty power, formed Christ's 
body, animated it with a living soul : the same as is said 
of the first Adam, '' And God breathed into Adam the 
breath of life, and he became a living soul." Thus, then, 
we see that the Holy Ghost is the Highest, the Creator, 
and Maker of man, and particularly of Christ's human 
nature, and therefore true and real God. 

From the consideration of the creation of the universe, 
I proceed to notice the New Creation as the peculiar work 
of the Holy Spirit, which proves him to be truly God. 
The remainder of the subject will be considered in the 
next letter. 

Farewell. 



Let. 5.1 DEITY OF THE HOLY SPIRIT. 243 

Letter V. 

CONTINUATION OF THE SUBJECT. 



My Dear Benjamin, 

I will now invite your attention to another work of the 
Holy Spirit, which proves his true divinity, viz. 

§ 1. The wonderful work of regeneration, which is as- 
cribed to him. Believers are said to be born of the Spirit, 
quickened and renewed by the Holy Ghost. This is a 
new creation, and requires the same almighty power to 
effect as the first creation did. " We are God's workman- 
ship, created in Christ Jesus to good works." " It is God 
that works in us, to will and to do." The same almighty 
power is put forth in working faith, as was exerted upon 
Christ, in raising him from the dead. The Holy Ghost, 
therefore, has manifested his eternal power and godhead, 
in working faith and holiness in the hearts of sinners. 

The new creation seems to be a work of greater diffi- 
culty and power than the old. As in the old creation 
there was nothing to work upon, so there was nothing to 
oppose : but in the new creation there are strong holds to 
be pulled down, high thoughts to be brought low, blindness, 
enmity and obstinacy to be subdued, as well as divine 
powers and principles to be infused ! Hence the regene- 
rate are said to be "born, not of flesh, nor of blood, nor of the 
will of man, but of God." It requires the efficiency and 
power of God to make a man a new creature, to cause "old 
things to pass away, and all things to become new." 

The progressive work of sanctification, or the renewing 
of the soul day by day, is the work of God ; hence the 
Apostle Paul said, " The very God of peace sanctify you 



244 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part 4. 

wholly." But as it is well known that sanctification is an 
eminent work of the Holy Spirit, God chose men to salva- 
tion through sanctification of the Spirit ; and he actually 
doth his work ; for the Scripture says, " You are sanctified 
by the Spirit of our God, and transformed into the same 
image, from glory to glory, by the Spirit of the Lord, or by 
the Lord the Spirit. 

§ 2. To raise the dead requires the same almighty power 
as at first created man. Hence it is ascribed to God. 
" Why should it be thought an incredible thing with you, 
that God should raise the dead ?" Acts, 26 : 8. 

It might indeed be thought incredible, that any creature 
should do it : but cannot the same almighty power that 
formed the body out of the dust at first, and breathed into 
it the breath of life, raise it out of the dust a second time, 
and re-infuse the same vital spirit ? But the resurrection of 
Christ, as well as of Christians, is expressly ascribed to 
the Holy Spirit in these words of the Apostle Paul : " If 
the Spirit of him that raised up Jesus from the dead 
dwell in you; he that raised up Christ from the dead 
shall also quicken your mortal bodies by his Spirit that 
dwelleth in you." Rom. 8 : 11. The same almighty power 
was put forth upon the body of Christ in his resurrection, 
as was exerted in his conception and formation in the 
womb of the virgin. 1 Pet. 3:18. 

Christ's resurrection is ascribed to the Father, and to 
Christ himself; but this does not exclude the agency and 
concurrence of the Holy Spirit therein ; and from this 
work of his we may well conclude that he is true and 
real God. The apostles, indeed, healed the sick and raised 
the dead ; but they did it not by their own power or holi- 
ness, but by the power of the Holy Spirit, which was 
poured out abundantly upon them. A mighty power, or 
an exceeding greatness of power, was exerted upon Christ 
in raising him from the dead, even the almighty power of 



Let. 5J DEITY OF THE HOLY SPIRIT. 245 

God : the Holy Spirit raised him from the dead as we 
have seen, therefore he is God Almighty. 

§ 3. There are a great many other works of the Spirit 
which might be insisted on, and from which his deity 
might be proved, but I shall close this part of the subject 
with the words of an ancient father — " Christ," says he, 
" is born, the Spirit is his forerunner ; Christ is baptized, 
he bears his testimony ; Christ is tempted, he leads him 
away ; Christ works miracles, he is with him ; Christ as- 
cends, he succeeds ; what is so great and divine that he 
cannot do ? What is so divine a name, except that of unbe- 
gotten and begotten, that he may not be called by it ? He is 
the Spirit of God, the Spirit of Christ, the Mind of Christ, 
the Spirit of the Lord, and himself Lord, the Spirit of 
adoption, the Spirit of truth, the Spirit of liberty, the Spirit 
of wisdom and prudence, of counsel and strength, of know- 
ledge, piety, and the fear of the Lord : as the efficient 
cause of all these, he fills all things with his essence, con- 
tains all things, fills the world, and is greater than the 
world, greater in power and energy than the world can 
comprehend: he is goodness, righteousness and truth by na- 
ture, not by gift ; he sanctities, is not sanctified ; he mea- 
sures, but is not measured ; he gives, but does not receive ; 
he fills, but is not filled ; he contains, but is not contained ; 
he knows and teaches all things ; blows where he will ; 
is angered, tempted ; is the Spirit of light and life, who 
builds temples and dwells in them as God ; he does all 
things that God himself does ; he appeared as cloven 
tongues of fire, he distributes his gifts, made apostles, pro- 
phets, evangelists, pastors and teachers; he is almighty, 
all-seeing, penetrating into all spirits at the same moment 
of time, though far dispersed from each other ; which 
plainly shows that he is limited to no place." Therefore 
he is the true God. 

^ 4. Divine worship is another of the divine criteria. 



246 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN". [Part 4. 

and is ascribed to the Holy Spirit, and proves him to be 
truly God. 

He is said to dwell in the saints as his temple, which 
implies his dignity and greatness, and to be obeyed and 
worshiped. 

He, as God, sits in the temple of God, showing himself 
that he is God, for he receives the adoration and worship 
of the saints. He dwells in this temple, not as a priest 
or servant, but as God, as it is written, " The Lord is in 
his holy temple." Psa. 11:4. 

That the seraphims and cherubims, those glorious 
creatures with six wings, the highest created spirits of 
heaven, ascribe the same homage to the Holy Spirit as 
they do to the Father and the Son, I have shown before 
from the testimony of the apostles. Acts, 28 : 25-27. 

An oath has always been esteemed an act of religious 
worship; it being, a solemn appeal to God, as the searcher 
of hearts, a witness of the truth, or an avenger of the false- 
hood of what we testify. And yet St. Paul appeals, by an 
oath, both to the Son and the Holy Ghost. " I say the 
truth in Christ, I lie not, my conscience also bearing me 
witness in the Holy Ghost." Now, here he makes as 
solemn an acknowledgment of the divinity of the Son and 
the Holy Ghost, and their privacy to his conscience, as 
he does of the Father's in those other appeals, where he 
says, God is my witness, or God is my record ; or I call 
God for a record upon my soul ; or the God and Father of 
our Lord Jesus Christ, which is blessed for ever, knoweth 
that I lie not ; or, before God, I lie not. All of them ex- 
pressions of the same import, and therefore, when com- 
pared the one with the other, they show that the apostle 
revered each of the divine persons alike, and believed them 
to be all of the same knowledge and might. 

§ 5. Baptism is an institution of the Lord Jesus Christ, 
in which he commands that all nations be baptized, not in 



Let. 5<] DEITY OF THE HOLY SPIRIT. 247 

the name of the Father only, but in the name of the Fa- 
ther, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost. As the Son 
and the Holy Ghost, therefore, are placed in the same rank 
with the Father himself, they must consequently be deem- 
ed of the same nature and dignity, and as much divine as 
the Father is: for God and creatures can never be made the 
joint object of religion ; not a single instance in all Scrip- 
ture can be produced, where any creature is joined with 
God in an act of worship ; much less in so solemn a 
rite as baptism, wherein we dedicate and devote ourselves 
to the worship of the persons in whose name we are 
baptized. 

I would have m}'- dear Benjamin to notice particularly, 
that if the Holy Spirit were a property only, could a pro- 
perty be thus joined with the Father and the Son ? They 
are not properties, they are persons certainly. If the Son 
and the Spirit were creatures, could they be joined with the 
Father in this solemn act of baptism ? Baptism is the con- 
secration of him who is baptized to the service, of whom ? 
of God and two creatures ? No, surely ; but of the Father, 
of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost. And whether St. John 
has said it or not, if there be any meaning in words, these 
three are one, they are the one object of our faith and 
our love, of our prayers and our praises. And while this 
form continues to be used in the church, the doctrine of the 
Trinity cannot perish from it. 

In Paul's valedictory blessing to the Corinthians we 
have a solemn prayer addressed to the blessed Trinity: 
" The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, and the love of 
God, and the communion of the Holy Ghost, be with you 
all. Amen." 2 Cor. 13 : 14. This is not a more direct 
prayer to God for his love, and to Christ for his grace, 
than it is to the holy and sanctifying Spirit for a com- 
munion of his divine gifts. 

Thus, my dear Benj-imin, I have endeavored to prove 



248 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part 4. 

that all the divine criteria are ascribed to the Holy Spirit, 
as well as to the Father and the Son. I will now, 

Secondly, mention some passages of Scripture which also 
prove the divinity of the Holy Ghost. 

^ 6. In the first and second epistles to the Corinthians 
the apostle says that believers are the temple of God. 
*' Know ye not that ye are the temple of God, and that the 
Spirit of God dwelleth in you ? If any man defile the 
temple of God, him shall God destroy ; for the temple of 
God is holy." 1 Cor. 3 : 16, 17. Now he who dwells in 
the saints, as in his temple, is the living God. '' Ye are the 
temple of the living God, as God hath said, I will dwell in 
them." 2 Cor. 6 : 16. The Holy Ghost dwells in the 
saints as in his temple. '' Your body is the temple of the 
Holy Ghost." 1 Cor. 6 : 19. Therefore the Holy Ghost 
is the living God. None but God dwells in his saints as 
in his temple, but the Holy Spirit of God dwells in his 
saints as his temple, therefore he is God. 

" If we are the temple of God," says Theophylact, 
" because the Spirit of God dwells in us, then the Spirit 
is God." 

" We know no other reason," says Bishop Pearson, 
'* why we are the temple of God, when the Spirit of God 
dwells in us, but only because the Spirit of God is God." 
Again, "I understand no other way by which we can be 
said to be the temple of God, but by the inhabitation of 
God, as it is written, ye are the temple," &c. On the Creed, 
p. 320. 

" How impudently," says Ambrose, " do you deny the 
deity of the Holy Ghost, when you read that the Spirit is 
a temple ; for it is written, ye are the temple ; but the Spirit 
has a temple when he dwells in you." De Spir. sanct. L. 
3. c. 12. p. 263. 

" In this place," says Calvm, " we have a clear testimony, 
asserting the divinity of the Holy Ghost ; for if he were a 



Let. 5.] DEITY OF THE HOLY SPIRIT. 249 

creature or a gift only, he would not have made them the 
temple of God, by dwelling in them." In Loco. 

Ananias was struck dead for lying. Acts, 5 : 7. Lying 
to the Holy Ghost is lying to God, because the Holy 
Ghost is God. The offence was a tempting, or an endea- 
vor to deceive the Holy Ghost, a trial of skill whether he 
knew and would punish the fraud. The great Dr. Owen 
observes, " The Holy Ghost is expressly called God ; and 
having the name of God properly and directly given to 
him, with respect to spiritual things, or things peculiar to 
God, he must have the nature of God. Ananias is said to 
lie to the Holy Ghost ; this is repeated and interpreted, 
*Thou hast not lied to men, but unto God;' the decla- 
ration of the person intended by the Holy Ghost is added 
for the aggravation of the sin; for he is God, the same 
person, the same object of the sin of Ananias, is expres- 
sed in both places ; and therefore the Holy Ghost is 
God." 

§ 7. The blasphemy against the Holy Ghost is an un- 
pardonable sin ; " Wherefore I say unto you, all manner 
of sin and blasphemy shall be forgiven unto men : but the 
blasphemy against the Holy Ghost shall not be forgiven 
unto men." Matt. 12:31. Therefore the Holy Ghost 
must be God, for sin against a creature cannot have such 
heinous aggravation. 

§ 8. Further, the inspiration of the Scriptures is ascrib- 
ed to God. " All Scripture is given by inspiration of God, 
and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, 
for instruction in righteousness." 2 Tim. 3:16. " God, who 
at sundry times, and in divers manners, spake in time past 
unto the fathers by the prophets," Heb. 1:1; but this 
is the work of the Holy Spirit, " For the prophecy came 
not in old times by the will of man, but holy men of God 
spake as they were moved by the Holy Ghost." 2 Pet. 1 : 
21 ; therefore the Holy Spirit is God. 
Vol. H. U 



250 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part 4. 

To what has been said, it may not be improper, my dear 
Benjamin, to add, 

Thirdly, a few testimonies from our ancient Rabbins, who 
considered the Ruach Hackodesh, i. e. the Holy Spirit, as 
truly God. 

^ 9. Because Jehovah has said by the prophet, that his 
•• hand laid the foundation of the earth, and his right hand 
spread the heavens." Isa. 48 : 13. Our Rabbins say that 
these two hands refer to the secand Sephirah, called Chock- 
via, i. e. wisdom, and to the third, called Binah, i. e. under- 
standing, and that these two Sephireth made the world. 
Bechai. Gen. fo. 3. c. 2. They acknowledge that the 
Spirit which moved on the face of the abyss was not a 
created mind, but the divine Spirit, the same that David 
speaks of Psa. 33 : 6. Leo. Hob. Dial. De Amore. M. 
B. Israel. Gen. 2. 2. § 7, and many others. 

They consider the Binah a distinct person, and call him 
the Mouth of God ; because he inspired the prophets to 
make known the will of God, agreeable to Isaiah, 48 : 16, 
•^' The Lord God and his Spirit hath sent me ;" and that the 
angels were created by him. R. Menachem, fo. 34. c. 2. 56, 
1. 122. c. 2. 127,4. 143, 3. 

The author of Zohar, and also the author of Sepher 
ITabbachir, say that the third Sephira, Binah, proceeds 
from the first by the second. See also R. Men, fo. 1. c. 3. 

The name Jehovah is ascribed both to the second and 
the third Sephirah. Zohar in. R. Men. fo. 3. c. 3. fo. 10. c. 4. 

They consider the two cherubims over the ark each dis- 
tinct from the other, and both distinct from the ark, and 
yet all three united as a similitude of the three distinct 
persons united in the one Jehovah. Re. Menach. fo, 74. 
c. 3. 

And now, my dear Benjamin, having proved the divinity 
of the Holy Spirit from the divine criteria ascribed to him» 
from several passages of Scripture, and from the testimony 



Let 5.] DEITY or THE HOLY SPIRIT. 251 

of our ancient Rabbins, I will close this subject with the 
following observation : 

^ 10. We see that the Holy Ghost is called Jehovah 
in the Old Testament, and often God and Lord in the 
New Testament. The Most High God, whom the Israel- 
ites provoked in the wilderness, is, by Isaiah and Paul, de- 
clared to be the Holy Ghost. The Lord Jehovah, who alone 
led the people, was the Holy Ghost, as Isaiah explains it. 
The King, Jehovah of hosts, who sent the Prophet Isaiah to 
the people, was the Holy Ghost. It was Jehovah who pro- 
mised to write his laws in the people's hearts : but, accord- 
ing to the apostle, it was the Holy Ghost who said, I 
will write my laws in their hearts. The Holy Ghost is 
also that person who is the highest, and manifested an al- 
mighty, creating power in forming Christ's human nature. 
The Holy Ghost is that God, of whom believers are born ; 
that God to whom Ananias lied ; that God, whose temple 
believers are ; that God, who works faith in the heart; that 
God, by whose inspiration the Scriptures were given ; he 
is that God in whose power the believer's faith stands; that 
God who sets officers in the church; that God who works 
in Christians to will and to do ; that God who works all 
in all, in the diversity of gifts bestowed on men ; he is the 
God of patience and consolation ; that God who deals to 
every man the measure of faith ; that God who writes his 
laws in the heart ; he is that God of whom is all our suffi- 
ciency, and who made the apostles able ministers of the 
New Testament ; that God who comforted the apostles, 
and enabled them to comfort others. The Holy Ghost is 
that Lord who gives liberty, and changes men into the 
image of Christ ; he is that Lord who directs our hearts 
into the love of God, and the patient waiting for Christ ; 
he is that Lord who makes us to increase and abound in 
love one toward another. Now, ray dear Benjamin, if this 
is the Scripture doctrine concerning the Holy Spirit, which 



1^ JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN, [Part 4. 

I verily believe it is, we may then safely conclude that he, 
as well as the Father and the Son, is the true and real 
God ; those high titles before mentioned being applied to 
him in as full and unlimited a sense as to either of the other 
persons in the Godhead ; for it cannot be showed that any 
one of these names or titles of God was ever given in such 
a manner, and with such circumstances, to any being be- 
low the true and living God. 

To God the Father, God the Son, 
And God the Spirit, three in one, 
Be honor, praise and glory given, 
By all on earth, and all in heaven. 

Farewell. 



FART V. 

SECOND ADVENT OF THE MESSIAH. 



LiCtter I. 



INTRODUCTION, 



Dear Brother Benjamin^ 

§ 1. Agreeably to my promise in a former letter, (p. 178,) 
i now proceed to consider the second advent of Christ. 

In entering on this subject, my feelings are very different 
from those with which I wrote my former letters : I can 
only compare them to the different feelings of a person, who, 
having traveled for a considerable time in a plain and plea- 
sant road, where every by-path was supplied with a direc- 
tion-post to prevent him from turning out of the right way, 
and his progress known by a succession of regular mile- 
stones, and where he was frequently met by fellow-passen- 
gers, but is now entering an extensive forest, where few have 
traveled before him, and most of them had missed their 
way without the supply of a proper map, but wholly left to 
be directed by now and then a marked tree; how different 
must be his feelings, how trembling his steps, how slow his 
progress, and how great his anxiety lest he also should miss 
his way and be lost in a labyrinth, out of which he may not 
be able to extricate himself without danger ! Such are my 
feelings, and such my fears. 



254 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part 

In my former letters I explained prophecies by plain and 
attested facts which have already come to pass ; now I am 
to describe future events by past prophecies. This is a task 
in which many have labored in vain, and spent their strength 
for naught ; for it is allowed by all, that prophecies were 
never intended to be fully understood until near the time 
of their accomplishment, and sometimes not till after the 
events had taken place. The remarkable circumstances of 
Messiah's birth, his life and character, his sufferings and 
death, his resurrection and ascension, the destruction of Je- 
rusalem, the dispersion of our nation, &c. all were clearly 
foretold, as has been fully shown in my former letters, yet 
few understood them till after their accomplishment. The 
real design of prophecy is, that when they are fulfilled we 
might have additional evidence of the truth of the sacred 
Scripture, admit the wisdom and goodness of the author, and 
thereby our faith and confidence might be strengthened, that 
those yet unfulfilled will surely be accomplished in God's 
own time. 

^ 2. Under these considerations I assure you, my dear 
Benjamin, that, were it not for the promise I made to consi- 
der the second advent of the Messiah, and your expectation 
excited thereb}^, I should gladly omit it. For, after much 
research, and close examination of what has been written 
on both sides of the question, I find myself in the same pre- 
dicament as he who said, " Before I entered college I thought 
I might fill the professor's chair ; after a year's study 1 
found I had been mistaken, but still thought I might sup- 
ply the place of an assistant teacher ; after the second year 
I was sure I was only fit to be a scholar ; but at the close 
of the third year I was so convinced of my ignorance that 
1 considered myself unfit to be a student." Just so, my dear 
Benjamin, the more I consider the conflicting and opposite 
opinions of writers on the subject, the more reluctant I feel 
to enter on the discussion ; for " who is to decide when doc- 
tors disagree ?" 



Let. 1.] INTRODUCTION. 255 

That Jesus Christ shall come again the second time is 
expressly taught in the Scriptures, and disputed by none; 
but in defining the nature and designs of his coming, they 
widely differ. Some understand by it his last appearance 
unto the judgment day, while others are of opinion that he 
will come a second time at the commencement of the mil- 
lennium, and a third time to judgment. 

Again : those who are agreed that Christ will appear 
at the commencement of the millennium, are disagreed with 
respect to the nature of his appearance, whether it is to be 
understood literally or figuratively. The same division of 
sentiment prevails with respect to the nature of the first re- 
surrection and the millennium itself With these interest- 
ing and important, but difficult subjects, several other topics 
are intimately connected, which have equally divided the 
opinions and sentiments of the most learned and pious men 
of different denominations. The restoration of our beloved 
nation, the overturning of the Ottoman empire, the destruc- 
tion of the Western Antichrist, &c. &c. are events which 
must take place before the second coming of Christ, w^hether 
that be to judgment or to commence the millennium, whe- 
ther it be understood literally or figuratively. 

§ 3. It is difficult indeed, if not altogether impossible, to 
fix the exact time or year when these events are to take 
place; for, although certain periods of time are mentioned 
in the sacred Scriptures, yet as we are not sure when these 
periods commenced, we cannot of course be certain when 
they will end. 

To lay before you, my dear Benjamin, all that has been 
written on this subject, would not only be inconsistent with 
the nature of our epistolary correspondence, but v/ould also 
fill too many volumes. Perhaps the following extracts from 
Bishop Newton and the Rev. George Stanley Faber, on the 
Prophecies, are the most judicious as well as the most 
concise. 



256 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part 5. 

^ 4. Bishop Newton, on the book of the Revelation to 
St. John, chapter 21, says, " It appears, then, that this anti- 
christian power was to arise in the latter times of the Ro- 
man empire, after an end should be put to the imperial pow- 
er, and after the empire should be divided into ten king- 
doms : and it is not only foretold when it should prevail, but 
moreover how long it should prevail. Here we cannot but 
observe, that the very same period of time is prefixed for its 
continuance both by Daniel and by St. John. Wonderful 
is the consent and harmony between these inspired writers, 
as in other circumstances of the prophecy, so particularly 
in this. In Daniel, 7 : 25, ' The little horn ' was to • wear 
out the saints of the Most High, and think to change times 
and laws ;' as it is said expressly that they * shall be given 
into his hand, until a time and times, and the dividing of 
time ;' or as the same thing is expressed in another place, 
Daniel, 12 : 17, 'for a time, times, and a half.' In the Re- 
velation it is said of the beast, 13 : 5, 'to whom, in like man- 
ner, it was given to make war with the saints, and to over- 
come them, that power also was given unto him to continue 
forty and two months ;' and ' the holy city,' 1 1 ; 2, * the Gen- 
tiles should tread under foot forty and two months ;' and 
' the two witnesses,' ver. 3, ' should prophecy a thousand 
two hundred and three-score days, clothed in sackcloth;' 
and the woman, the true church of Christ, who fled into 
the wilderness from persecution, 12 : 6, 14, should be fed 
and nourished there ' a thousand two hundred and three- 
score days,' or, as it is otherwise expressed in the same 
chapter, • for a time, and limes, and half a time.' Now, all 
these numbers you will find, upon computation, to be the 
same, and each of them to signify one thousand two hun* 
dred and sixty years. For a time is a year, and a time and 
times, and the dividing of time, or half a time, are three 
years and a half, and three years and a half are forty-two 
months, and forty-two months are twelve hundred and sixty 



Let. l.J INTRODUCTION. 257 

days, and twelve hundred and sixty days, in the prophetic 
style, are one thousand two hundred and sixty years. From 
all these cases and characters it may be fairly concluded 
that the time of the Church's great affliction, and of the 
reign of Antichrist, will be a period of one thousand two 
hundred and sixty years. 

^ 5. " To fix the lime exactly when these twelve hun- 
dred and sixty years begin, and consequently when they 
will end, is a matter of some niceness and difficulty ; and 
perhaps we must see their conclusion before we can pos- 
sibly ascertain their beginning. It is plain, however, that 
these twelve hundred and sixty years of the reign of Ami 
christ are not to be computed from his birth, or infancy, or 
youth ; but from his coming to maturity, from his coming to 
the throne: and in my opinion the beginning cannot be 
fixed consistent with the truth of history, either sooner or 
later than the eighth century. Several memorable events 
happened in that century. In the year 727, the pope and 
people of Rome revolted from the exarch of Ravenna, 
and shook off their allegiance to the Greek emperor. In 
the year 755, the pope obtained the exarchate of Ravenna 
for himself, and thencefor wards acted as an absolute tem- 
poral prince. In the year 774, the pope, by the assistance 
of Charles the Great, became possessed of the kingdom of 
the Lombards. In the year 787, the worship of images was 
fully established, and the supremacy of the pope acknow- 
ledged by the second council of Nice. From one or the 
other of these transactions it is probable that the beginning 
of the reign of Antichrist is to be dated. What appears to 
be most probable is, that it is to be dated from the year 727, 
when Rome and the Roman dukedom came from the 
Greeks to the Roman pontifT. Hereby he became, in sorne 
measurC; a horn or temporal prince ; though his power was 
not fully established till some years afterwards ; and before 
he was a horn at all, he could not answer the character of 
11* 



2^6 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part 5. 

the little horn. If, then, the beginning of the 1260 years of 
the reign of Antichrist is to be dated from the year 727, their 
end will fall near the year 2000 after Christ ; and at the end 
of the six thousandth year of the world, according to a ve- 
ry early tradition of the Jews and Christians, and even of 
heathens, great change and revolutions are expected, both 
in the natural and moral world; and 'there remaineth,' 
according to the words of the apostle, * a Sabbatism, or holy 
rest for the people of God.' Heb. 4 : 9." 

^ 6. On Revelation, 19 : 11-21, he says, •' In a word, 
the design of this sublime and figurative description is to 
show the downfall of popery and the triumph of Christian- 
ity ; the true word of God will prevail over superstition 
and idolatry ; all the powers of Antichrist shall be com- 
pletely subdued ; and the religion of Rome, as well as 
Rome herself, shall be destroyed." Again he says, " After 
the destruction of the beast and the false prophet, there still 
remains * the dragon,' who had delegated his poAver to them, 
that old serpent, which is the devil and Satan, he that is 
bound by ' an angel,' an especial minister of Providence ; 
and the famous millennium commences, or the reign of 
saints upon earth for a thousand years. Wickedness being 
restrained, the reign of righteousness succeeds, and the ad- 
ministration of justice and judgment is given to the saints 
of the Most High; and the martyrs and confessors of Je- 
sus, not only those who were beheaded or suffered any 
kind of death under the heathen emperors, but also those 
who refused to comply with the idolatrous worship of the 
beast and of his image, are raised from the dead, and have 
the principal share in the felicity of Christ's kingdom up- 
on earth. But the rest of the dead lived not again until the 
thousand years were finished ; so that it was a peculiar pre- 
rogative of the martyrs and confessors above the rest of 
mankind. This is the first resurrection, a particular resur- 
rection preceding the general one at least a thousand years. 



Let. 4.] INTRODUCTION. 259 

• Blessed and holy, too, is he who hath part in.the first resur- 
rection ;' he is holy in all the senses of the word, holy as se- 
parated from the common lot of mankind, holy as endowed 
with all virtuous qualifications, and none but such are per- 
mitted to partake of this blessed state ; on such the second 
death hath no power." Again he says, " Nothing is more 
evident than that this prophecy of the millennium, and of the 
first resurrection, has not yet been fulfilled, even though the 
resurrection be taken in a figurative sense. For, reckon the 
thousand years, with Usher, from the time of Christ, or 
reckon them, with Grotius, from the time of Constantine, 
yet neither of these periods, nor indeed any other, will an- 
swer the description and character of the millennium, the 
purity and peace, the holiness and happiness of that blessed 
state. That there shall be such a happy period as the millen- 
nium ; that the kingdom, and dominion, and the greatness 
of the kingdom under the whole heaven shall be given to 
ihs people of the saints of the Most High ; Dan. 7 : 27, that 
Christ shall have the heathen for his inheritance, and the 
uttermost parts of the earth for his possession, Ps. 2:8; 
that the earth shall be full of the knowledge of the Lord, 
as the waters cover the sea, Isa. 11:9; ' that the fullness of 
the Gentiles shall come in, and all Israel shall be saved.' 
Rom. 11 : 25, 26; in a word, that the kingdom of heaven 
snail be established upon earth is the plain and express 
doctrine of Daniel and all the prophets, as well as of St. 
John ; and we daily pray for the accomplishment of it ir> 
praying, 'Thy kingdom come.' But of all the prophets, St. 
John is the only one who hath declared particularly, and 
in express terms, that the martyrs shall rise to partake of 
ihe felicities of this kingdom, and that it shall contmue upon 
< arth a thousand years : and the Jewish Church before 
Iiim, and the Christian Church after him, have farther be- 
lieved and taught, that these thousand years will be the 
seventh millenary of the world. 



260 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part 5. 

^ 7. *' Of thp Jewish writers, Rabbi Ketiner, as cited in 
the Gemera,*or gloss of their Talmud, said that ' the world 
endures six thousand years, and one thousand it shall be 
laid waste, (that is, the enemies of God shall be destroyed ;) 
whereof it is said, Isa. 3: 11, 'The Lord alone shall be 
exalted in that day.' Tradition asserts to Rabbi Kenina; 
as out of seven years, every seventh is the year of remis- 
sion, so out of the seven thousand years of the world, the 
seventh millenary shall be the millenary of remission, that 
God alone may be exalted in that day. It was the tradition 
of the house of Elias, who lived two hundred years, or 
thereabouts, before Christ: and the tradition might per- 
haps be derived from Elias the Tishbite, that the world 
endures six thousand years, two thousand before the law, 
two thousand under the law, and two thousand under the 
Messiah. It is also the tradition of the house of Elias, that 
the just, whom God shall raise up, (meaning the first re- 
surrection,) shall not be turned again into the dust. Now 
if you inquire how it shall be with the just in those thou- 
sand years, wherein the holy blessed God shall renew his 
world, whereof it is said, 'and the Lord shall be exalted in 
that day ;' you must know that the holy blessed God will 
give them the wings, as it were, of eagles, that they may 
fly upon the face of the waters ; when it is said in Psa. 44 : 
2, • Therefore we will not fear when the earth shall be 
changed. But perhaps you will say, it shall be a pain and 
affliction to them. Not at all, for it is said, Isa. 40: 31, 
* They that wait upon the Lord shall renew their strength ; 
ihey shall mount up with w ings as eagles.' 

^ 8. " Of the Christian writers, St. Barnabas, in the first 
century, thus comments upon those words of Moses: 'And 
God made in six days the works of his hands, and he fin- 
ished them on the seventh day, and he rested in it, and 
sanctified it. Consider, children, Avhat that sifrnifies, that 
the Lord God will finish all things in six thousand years. 



Let. 1.] INTRODUCTION. SJjSA; 

For a day with him is a thousand years; as he himself tes- 
tified saying, ' Behold, this day shall be as a thousand years.' 
Therefore, children, in six days, that is in six thousand 
years, shall all things be consummated. And he rested the 
seventh day : this signifies that when his Son shall come, and 
shall abolish the season of the wicked ones, and shall judge 
the ungodly, and shall change the sun, and the moon, and 
the stars, then he shall rest gloriously that seventh day, 
St. Barnabas, Epist. chap. 15. 

" Justin Martyr, in the second century, declares the mil- 
lennium to be the catholic doctrine of his time. ' I, and as 
many as are orthodox Christians in all respects, do acknow- 
ledge that there shall be a resurrection of the flesh, (mean- 
ing the first resurrection,) and in a thousand years Jeru- 
salem rebuilt, and adorned and enlarged, (that is in the new 
Jerusalem,) as the prophets Ezekiel, and Isaiah, and others 
unanimously attest.' Afterwards he subjoins, ' A certain 
man among us, whose name was John, one of the apostles 
of Christ, in a revelation made to him, did prophecy that 
the faithful believers in Christ should live a thousand years 
in the new Jerusalem ; and after these, should be the gene- 
ral resurrection and judgment.' Just. Mart. Dial, cum 
Try phone. Pars Secunda, p. 301 et 308, Ed. par. Par. p. 
313 et 315, Ed. Therbii. 

" Tertullian, at the beginning of the third century, pro- 
fesseth his opinion of the kingdom promised to the saints 
on earth, of their resurrection for a thousand years, of their 
living in the new Jerusalem, and therein enjoying all spi- 
ritual delights, and of the destruction of the world and the 
general judgment after the thousand years. Tertul. Ad- 
vers Marcion. Lib. 5, chap. 24. 

" Lactantius, at the beginning of the fourth century, is very 
copious upon this subject, in the seventh book of his divine 
institutions. He saith, ' Because all the works of God were 
finished in six days, it is necessary that the world should 



*^2 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part 5. 

remain in this state six ages, that is six thousand years.' 
And again, because, having finished the work, he rested 
on the seventh day, and blessed it ; it is necessary, at the 
end of the six thousandth year, all wickedness should be abo- 
lished out of the earth, and justice should reign for a thou- 
sand years; he saith, when the Son of God shall have destroy- 
ed injustice, and shall have restored the just to life, he shall 
be conversant among men a thousand years, and shall rule 
them with most just government. At the same time the 
prince of devils shall be bound with chains, and shall be 
in custody the thousand years of the heavenly kingdom, 
while justice shall reign in the world, lest he should at- 
tempt any evil against the people of God. He saith, when 
the thousand years of the kingdom, that is seven thousand 
y€ars, shall draw towards a conclusion, Satan shall be loos- 
ed again, and when the thousand years shall be completed, 
then shall be that public resurrection of all, wherein the 
unjust shall be raised to everlasting torments. And hav- 
ing enlarged upon these topics, he concludes, ' This is the 
doctrine of the holy prophets, which we Christians follow; 
this is our wisdom.' In short, the doctrine of the millennium 
was generally believed in the three first and purest ages ; 
and this belief, as the learned Dodwell has justly observed, 
was one principal cause of the fortitude of the primitive 
Christians ; they even coveted martyrdom, in hopes of being 
partakers of the privileges and glories of the martyrs of 
the first resurrection. 

§ -9. " After the expiration of the thousand years, Rev. 
20 : 7-10, the restraint shall betaken off from wickedness, 
and for 'a little season,' as it is said before, ver. 3, Satan 
shall be loosed out of his prison, and make one effort more 
to establish his kingdom. 

"The nations whom he shall deceive are distinguished 
by the name of • Gog and Magog,' and are said to be as nu- 
merous as the sand of the sea. ' Gog and Magog ' seem to 



Let. 1.] INTRODUCTION. 263 

have been formerly the general name of the northern na- 
tions of Europe and Asia, as the Scythians have been since, 
and the Tartars are at present. In Ezckiel, there is a fa- 
mous prophecy concerning Gog and Magog, and this pro- 
phecy alludes to that in many particulars. Both that of Ezeki- 
el and that of St. John remain yet to be fulfilled; and there- 
fore we cannot be absolutely certain that they may not both 
relate to the same event, but it appears more probable that 
they relate to difTerent events. The one is expected to take 
effect before, but the other will not take effect till after the 
millennium. Gog and Magog, in Ezekiel, are said express- 
ly, 38; 6, 15. 39: 2, to come from the north quarters and 
the north parts ; but in St. John, they come from the four 
quarters, or corners of the earth. Gog and Magog, in Eze- 
kiel, bend their forces against the Jews re-settled in their 
own land ; but, in St. John, they march up against the saints 
and church of God in general. Gog and Magog, in Eze- 
kiel, are with very good reason supposed to be Turks ; but 
the Turks are the authors of the second wo, and the second 
wo, chap. 11 : 14, is passed before the third wo, and the 
third wo long precedes the time here treated of. Ezeki- 
el's prophecy apparently coincides with the latter part of 
the eleventh chapter of Daniel, and presignifies the destruc- 
tion of the Ottoman empire, which includes Gomer and ma- 
ny European, as well as Ethiopia, Lybia, and other nations, 
If Gog and Magog, in St. John, are the same with those in 
Ezekiel, then we must suppose the Ottoman empire to sub- 
sist throughout the millennium, which can hardly be believ- 
ed, as it can hardly be reconciled with other prophecies. It 
may therefore be concluded that Gog and Magog, as well as 
Sodom, and Egypt, and Babylon, are mystic names in this 
book ; and the last enemies of the Christian church are so 
denominated, because Gog and Magog appear to be the 
last enemies of the Jewish nation. Who they shall be we 
cannot pretend to say, with the least degree of certainty. 



264 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part 5- 

Wherever they shall be, they shall come up from the four 
corners of the earth, on the breadth of the earth, and shall 
compass the camp of the saints about, and the beloved city, 
the new Jerusalem, with the saints encamped around it, as 
the Israelites encamped around the tabernacle in the wil- 
derness. But they shall not succeed and prosper in their 
attempts ; they shall not be able to hurt the church and city 
of God, but shall be destroyed in an extraordinary manner 
by fire from heaven ; and the devil himself, the promoter 
and leader of this new apostacy and rebellion against God 
and his Christ, shall not only he confined as before, but he 
shall be cast into the lake of fire and brimstone, where he 
shall be punished, together with the beast and the false pro- 
phet, who were cast in before him, and shall be tormented 
day and night, for ever and ever. 

" After this last conflict, and the final defeat of Satan, then 
follows the resurrection and judgment." Rev. 20 : 11-15. 

In his recapitulation of the prophecies relating to Popery, 
the Bishop says, " Sobriety and modesty are required in the 
interpretations of all prophecies, and especially in the explica- 
tion of things yet future. Only this much it may be proper 
to premise, that having seen so many of the prophecies ful- 
filled, you have the less reason to doubt of the completion of 
those which are to follow. 

§ 10. " According to the method and order wherein St. 
John hath arranged these events, they must happen before 
the end of the second wo, or the fall of the Ottoman empire. 
Ezekiel, 28 and 29, and Daniel, 11 : 44, 45, have given some 
intimation that the Ottoman empire shall be overthrown, in 
opposing the settlement of Israel in their own land, in the lat- 
ter days. In the conclusion of the book of Daniel there are 
also some intimations that the religion of Mohammed shall 
prevail in the east for as long a period of time as the tyranny 
of the little horn in the west. Very remarkable too it is, that 
Mohammed first contrived his imposture in the year 606, 



Let. l."l INTRODUCTION. 265 

the very same year wherein the tyrant Phocas made a grant 
of the supremacy to the Pope; and this might incline one 
to think that the 1260 years of the reign of Antichrist are 
to be dated from this time. But though they might rise to- 
gether, yet they were not fully established together. The 
authority of Mohammed might be fully established in the 7th 
century; but that of the Pope was not till the eighth centu- 
ry ; and therefore as the one was established somewhat soon- 
er, so it may also be subverted somewhat sooner than the 
other. The Pope, indeed, was established supreme in spi- 
rituals in the seventh century, but he became not a temporal 
horn or beast till the eighth century. 

§ 11. " About the time of the fall of the Ottoman empire, 
and of the Christian Antichrist, the Jews shall turn to the 
Lord and be restored to their own land. Innumerable are 
the prophecies concerning the conversion and restoration of 
the people. See Hosea, 3 : 45. Ezek. 38 : 21, 25. 39 : 28, 
29. Rom. 11: 25. Now these and like predictions, we 
suppose, will take effect, and this great revolution be ac- 
complished about the time of the fall of the Ottoman em- 
pire and of the Christian Antichrist. Ezekiel's Gog and 
Magog, 38 : 39, we believe to be the Turks or Ottomans, 
and they shall come up against the children of Israel in the 
latter days, to oppose their resettlement in their own land; 
and they shall fall in some extraordinary manner upon the 
mountains, they and the people that are with them : so the 
house of Israel shall know that I am the Lord their God 
from that day and forward. Daniel too, 1 1 : 45. 12 : 1, pre- 
dicts the fall of the king of the north upon the glorious 
mountain : and at that time shall Michael stand up, the 
great prince who standeth for the children of Israel. The 
restoration of the Jews and the fall of Antichrist shall also 
happen about the same time. In consequence of, and con- 
formity to this doctrine, a tradition hath prevailed among 



266 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part 5. 

the J«ws, that the destruction of Rome and the redemption 
of Israel shall fall out about the same time. 

§ 12. '* When these great events, 1 say, shall come to 
pass, then shall the kingdom of Christ commence, or the 
reign of the saints upon earth. So Daniel expressly in- 
forms us, that the kingdom of Christ and the saints will be 
raised upon the ruins of the kingdom of Antichrist. 7 : 26, 
27. So likewise St. John saith, that upon the final destruc- 
tion of the beast and the false prophet, Rev. 20, Satan is 
bound for a thousand years. It is, I conceive, to these great 
events, the fall of Antichrist, the re-establishment of the 
Jews, and the beginning of the glorious millennium, that 
the three different dates of twelve hundred and sixty years, 
twelve hundred and ninety years, and thirteen hundred and 
thirty-five years, are to be referred : and as Daniel saith, 
12 : 12, • Blessed is he that waiteth, andcometh to the 1335 
years.' So St. John saith, ' Blessed and holy is he that hath 
part in the first resurrection.' Blessed and happy indeed 
will be this period ; and it is very observable that the 
martyrs and professors of Jesus in popish, as well as in 
pagan times, will be raised to partake of this felicity. Then 
shall all those gracious promises in the Old Testament be 
fulfilled, of the amplitude and extent of the peace and pros- 
perity of the glory and happiness of the church in the lat- 
ter days. Then, in the full sense of the words. Rev, 11:15, 
* shall the kingdoms of this world become the kingdoms 
of our I«ord and of his Christ; and he shall reign for ever 
and ever.' According to tradition, these thousand years of 
the reign of Christ and the saints will be the seventh mil- 
lenary of the world: for, as God created the world in six 
days, and rested on the seventh, so the world, it is argued, 
\vill continue six thousand years, and the seventh thousand 
will be the great Sabbatism, or holy rest to the people of 
God; *one day, 2 Pet. 3:8, being with the Lord as a 
thousand years, and a thousand years as one day.' 



let. 2.] INTRODUCTION. 267 

^ 13. '• Prudence, as well as modesty, requires that we 
should forbear all curious inquiries into the nature and 
condition of this future kingdom ; as how Satan should be 
bound for a thousand years, and afterwards loosed again ; 
how the raised saints shall dwell with the living, and judge 
and govern the world ; how Christ shall manifest himself 
to them, and reign among them ; how the new Jerusalem, 
the city and church of the living God, shall descend from 
heaven to earth; how Satan shall at last deceive the na- 
tions, and what nations they shall be. These are points 
which the Holy Spirit hath not thought fit to explain ; and 
folly may easily ask more questions about them than wis- 
dom can answer." Farewell. 



LiCtter II. 



INTRODUCTION CONTINUED. 



DeaY Brother Benjamin^ 

Let me invite your patient attention to a few more extracts 
on the subject of the millennium. 

^ 1. The Rev. G. S. Faber, who published, in the com- 
mencement of this century, " A dissertation on the prophe- 
cies relative to the 1260 years," in two volumes, closes the 
whole with the following recapitulation ; " From what has 
been said, we learn that the 1260 days are the appointed 
hour of the powers of darkness, the space of time allotted 
for the prevalence both of popery and Mohammedanism, and 
for the short-lived triumph of Antichrist. 



268 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. fPart 5. 

*' In the year 606, the saints seem to have been first 
given, by the secular power of the Roman empire, into the 
hand of the papal little horn ; consequently, from this year 
the 1260 days ought most probably to be computed. The 
desolating transgression of the Mohammedan little horn, 
however, is destined to prevail during the same space of 
time that the papal little horn is permitted to reign. Hence, 
in order that the two periods of 1260 years each might be 
made to synchronize together, it seemed necessary that the 
desolating transgression of Mohammedanism should first 
make its appearance in the very year when the saints 
were delivered into the hand of the papal little horn. Ac- 
cordingly we find that it did first make its appearance in 
that year, for the year 606 is the most proper date of the 
Mohammedan imposture, because in that year Mohammed 
first retired to the cave of Hera. 

§ 2. '^ The papal horn arose, as we have seen, at the 
precise time when Daniel predicted that it should rise; 
namely, while the Roman empire \vas falling asunder, and 
while ten independent kingdoms were springing up out of 
its ruins. It arose gradually and almost imperceptibly, 
among and behind the ten horns of the fourth beast ; three 
of which were successively eradicated before it, and, by 
their fall, gave it an opportunity of becoming a temporal, 
no less than a spiritual power. For some time after its 
rise it was only an ecclesiastical kingdom : but that king- 
dom, though small at first, continued perpetually to in- 
crease in size ; till, in the year 606, when the Pope was 
declared universal Bishop and supreme head of the Catho- 
lic church, it became a mighty ecclesiastical empire. At 
this era, which seems to be the proper date of the 1260 
years, an epoch when the old Pagan Roman beast, which 
had been mortally wounded by the sword of the Spirit un- 
der his sixth head, revived, under the same sixth head, by 
setting a spiritual tyrant in the church, and by relapsing 



Let. 2.] INTRODUCTION. 269 

into idolatry. St. John first introduces upon the stage the 
power which Daniel symbolizes by the little horn of the 
fourth beast. The power, however, had now become an 
universal empire, instead of being what it had hitherto 
been, a limited ecclesiastical kingdom. Hence the apostle»^ 
instead of representing the ten-horned beast as having like- 
wise a little horn, describes him as attended by a second 
beast, whose character precisely answers to that of the little 
horn. By the instigation of the corrupt spiritual power, 
the ten-horned beast, or the secular Roman empire, wages 
war with the saints during the period of the 1260 days, 
through the instrumentality either of his last head or his 
ten horns. 

§ 3. " The desolating transgressions of Mohammedanism 
arose in the same year that the papal horn became an uni- 
versal spiritual empire. A few years after its rise, it ac- 
quired its predicted character of a little horn of the Mace- 
donian hegoat ; and soon, agreeably to the prophecy, waxed 
exceedingly great toward the south, and toward the east, 
and toward the pleasant land. In the course of its pro- 
gress, it cast down many of the symbolical stars, or Chris- 
tian pastors, to the ground ; took away the daily sacrifice 
of praise and thanksgiving; polluted the spiritual sanctu- 
ary; and presumed to magnify itself against even the Prince 
of princes. As for its character, it was notorious for tramp- 
ling upon the truth ; for prospering in a wonderful manner ; 
for making its appearance exactly when the transgressors 
were come to the full, by publicly re-establishing idolatry ; 
for teaching dark sentences ; for being mighty not through 
its own unaided power ; for exterminating its opponents 
with the utmost barbarity ; for persecuting with peculiar 
violence the people of the Holy Ones ; for advancing itself 
by craft, and for destroying many while in a state of negli- 
gent security. 

" In the Apocalypse a more full account is given of the 



270 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part 5. 

agents by whom this apostate religion should be propagated. 
A fallen star opens the bottomless pit and lets out the de- 
stroying king of the locusts. These locusts are permitted to 
continue their ravages during the space of five prophetic 
months, or 150 years, which is found from history to be 
the precise period allotted to the continuation of the Sara- 
cenic incursions. The locusts are succeeded by an im- 
mense body of horsemen under four leaders, from the banks 
of the Euphrates, whose commission is limited to an hour, 
a day, a month, and a year, or 391 years and 15 days, and 
who are empowered to kill a third part of men, or the Ro- 
man empire, which their predecessors, the Saracenic locusts, 
had only been permitted to torment. 

" History accordingly teaches us that the Saracens were 
succeeded by the Turks ; who came under four leaders from 
the banks of the Euphrates ; whose armies consisted almost 
entirely of cavalry ; whose career of conquest exactly con- 
tinued 391 years; and who subverted the Constantinopo- 
litan empire, which the Saracens, severely as they harassed 
it, had never been able to effect. 

•'The Mohammedan little horn itself, or the religion of 
Mohammed, is to prevail to the end of 2200 years from the 
invasion of Asia by Alexnnder the Great, which is found to 
bring us down exactly to the year 1866, and thus to allow 
precisely 1260 years for the triumphs of Mohammedanism, 
reckoning from its commencement in the year 606. 

§ 4. '' After the era of the Reformation, and in the last 
days of atheism and insubordination, but previous to the 
commencement of the time of the end, the infidel king, ac- 
cording to the sure word of prophecy, was destined to arise ; 
that Antichrist who was alike to deny the Father and the 
Son ; that audacious tyrant who should magnify himself 
above every god ; who should speak marvelous things 
against the God of gods ; who should neither regard the 
God of his fathers nor the desire of women ; who should 



Lei. 2.J INTRODUCTION, 27t 

nevertheless honor a foreign god, and acknowledge gods 
protectors ; and who should be allowed to prosper till the 
indignation be accomplished. 

" As the contemporary rise and progress of popery and 
Mohammedanism is described in the Apocalypse under the 
two first wo trumpets, so the appearance of the great Anti- 
christ is announced by the third. His full developement, 
however, is to be immediately preceded by the last event 
of the second wo trumpet, a tremendous earthquake, by 
which a tenth part of the great Latin city, or one of the teii 
horns of the Roman beast, is to be overthrown. The last 
wo, which extends beyond the termination of the 1260 
years, at least to the end of the seventh vial, if not to the 
commencement of the millennium, comprehends the periods 
of the harvest and the vintage. 

•' Thus, after the epoch of the Reformation, and imme- 
diately after the French Revolution of the year 1789, we 
have seen the manifestation of a terrific monster which alike 
set at defiance the laws both of God and man. We have 
beheld scenes of carnage and impiety which well deserve 
to be ushered in by a distinct wo trumpet, and which may 
justly claim to themselves the title of the harvest of God's 
wrath. The scenes have at last passed away, like the dis- 
tempered and fantastic vision of a sick man ; and the sun 
of military tyranny has begun to scorch the irreclaimable 
inhabitants of the Papal Roman empire with an intoler- 
able heat. The fatness of the harvest, therefore, is past ; 
and we must expect in due season the commencement cf 
the vintage, in which the enemies of God will be finahy 
destroyed for ever. 

§ 5. '• At present we are living under the fourth vial ; and 
from the great length of time which popery and Mohammed- 
anism have continued, we cannot be very far removed from 
the end of the 1260 days, whatever be the precise yeai 
from which they ought to be dated. The year which I have 



272 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part 5. 

fixed upon for their date, is the year 606, a year marked 
by so singular a combinationof circumstances, that I know 
not how any other can with equal propriety be selected. 
If, then, I be right in my opinion, we are now but removed 
a little more than sixty years from the commencement of 
the time of the end, and of the vintage of God's wrath. Be 
this, however, as it may, we are undoubtedly living in the 
last days of blasphemous infidelity, in that awful period 
which is the peculiar reign of Antichrist. The signs of 
the times all concur to teach us that we are fast approach- 
ing towards the catastrophe of the great drama. We have 
seen the unexpected union of infidelity and popery; an 
union, no doubt, preparatory to the predicted final league 
of the beast, the false prophet, and the kings of the papal 
earth. We have seen measures taken, as it were, towards 
making the atheistical king the last head of the beast. We 
have seen Palestine, the predicted stage on which Anti- 
christ and his congregated vassals are doomed to perish, 
brought forward in a remarkable manner to public notice, 
and becoming at once a subject of political discussion and 
an object of hostile invasion. We have seen the kings de- 
vouring the flesh of the great whore, and making her naked 
and desolate, though her spiritual empire over the minds of 
men still continues. We have seen, and we may now see 
the Avaters of the mystic Euphrates rapidly drying up pre- 
vious to their final complete exhaustion under the sixth 
vial. And we have seen of late years, what I cannot but 
consider at least as one of the minor signs of the times, an 
unusual and humble attention paid in this Protestant coun- 
try to the predictions of the ancient prophets. Although the 
book be sealed, and will not be fully understood till the 
time of the end, yet as the time is now approaching, many 
run to and fro, and knowledge is increased. Of the wicked 
indeed, of those who are either members of the great apos- 
tacy, or have been tainted with the blasphemous impieties 



Let. 2.] INTRODHCTION. 273 

of Antichrist, none shall understand but the spiritually 
wise children of the symbolical manna, they who profess 
the same evangelical principles as those who perished at 
the era of the Reformation, who were tried in purging, and 
in making white their apostate brethren, these shall under- 
stand. 

§ 6. " As yet we have not beheld any signs of the re- 
storation of Judah, nor, to all appearances, shall we behold 
any, till the three times and a half draw very near to their 
termination. 

"But when that famous period shall have expired, then 
.vill commence the wars of Antichrist with the kings of 
the south and the north, and the restoration of the uncon- 
verted Jews through his instrumentality. Then will the 
Lord call unto the land spreading wide the shadow of its 
wings, which are beyond the river Cush, accustomed to 
send messengers by sea, even in quick-sailing vessels, upon, 
the surface of the waters. Then shall the swift messen- 
gers go unto a nation dragged away and plucked, unto a 
people wonderful from the beginning hitherto — a nation 
expecting, expecting, and trampled under foot, whose land 
rivers have spoiled. Then shall all the inhabitants of the 
world, and the dwellers upon earth see the lifting up, 
as it were, of a hammer upon the mountains, and shall hear 
the sounding, as it were, of a trumpet. In spite of the 
opposition of the atheistico-papal confederacy, the great 
maritime pov»'er of the day shall take the lead in the re- 
storation of the converted of Judah, while the enemies ©f 
the Lord, notwithstanding their invasion of Palestine, and 
notwithstanding their temporary success against Jerusa- 
lem, bent only upon the accomplishment of their own 
schemes, and unconsciously subject to the influence of Sa- 
tanical delusion, shall madly rush on to their destruction 
in the valley of Megiddo, in the region between the two 
seas, the region whose limits extend sixteen hundred 
furlongs." Vol. H. 12 



274 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. (_Part &. 

^ 7. It might probably be expected that I should now 
state the sentiments of our own brethren on the subject of 
the coming of the Messiah ; but you know, my dear Ben- 
jamm, that having so often been disappointed in their ex- 
pectation, they have at last pronounced a curse on every 
one who should attempt to calculate the time or the end. 
Tal. Sanhedrim, c. 11, 

There have, however, been many (some of which have 
been referred to before) who have from time to time fixed 
the time of his coming, but have all failed. A full account 
of these calculations may be seen in Wagenseil's Tela 
Ignea Lat. p. 614-629. In Sepkor Avcoth Rochel there 
are ten signs laid down by which Messiah's advent may 
be known. The seventh sign is the rise of one whom 
they call Armillus ; but Christians, they say, call him An- 
tichrist, who shall lead multitudes to worship him as God ; 
and the Jews refusing to do so, will lead to a great battle, 
in which Armillus will lose about twenty thousand of his 
army : his wrath being now kindled more than ever, he 
will gather the forces of all the nations of the world into 
the valley of Decision. Joel, 3:14. 

At that period, all the nations of the world will expel all 
the Israelites out of their provinces, and not suffer them to 
dwell among them any more ; and they will say, Behold 
the despised and abject people, who have rebelled against 
us and appointed themselves a king. And Israel shall ex- 
perience distress, such as had never been known from the 
beginning of the world even to that time : then Michael 
shall stand up to purge out the impious from Israel, as it 
IS said, " And at that time shall Michael stand up, the great 
prince which standeth for the children of thy people ; and 
there shall be a time of trouble, such as there never was 
since there was a nation." Dan. 11 : 1. Immediately all 
the Israelites will flee away into desert places ; and all 
who are hesitating and doubtful in their hearts will return 



Let. 2.] INTRODUCTION. 275 

to the Gentiles, and will say, Is this the redemption which 
we expected, that the Messiah himself has been slain? Of 
that redemption, therefore, will all be ashamed, who shall 
disregard it, and cleave to the Gentiles. Thus will God 
prove all Israel, and purge them like gold and silver ; as 
it is written, " And I will bring the third part through the 
fire, and will refine them as silver is refined, and will try 
them as gold is tried." Zech. 13 : 9. Again: "And I 
will purge out from among you the rebels, and them that 
transgress against me." Ezek. 20 : 38. Again : " Many 
shall be purified, and made white, and tried ; but the wick- 
ed shall do wickedly." Dan. 13 : 10. All the rest of Is- 
rael shall be holy and pure in the desert of Judah — for forty- 
five days' grazing and eating nettles, and plucking the 
leaves of herbs and shrubs. In them shall be fulfilled this 
prophecy: "Therefore will I allure her, and bring her 
into the wilderness, and speak comfortably unto her." 
Hosea, 2:13. That this time will be a period of forty-five 
days, is evident from what is written : " And from the time 
that the daily sacrifice shall be taken away, and the abomi- 
nation which maketh desolate set up, there shall be a thou- 
sand two hundred and ninety days." The words immedi- 
ately following are : " Blessed is he that waiteth, and com- 
eth to the thousand three hundred and five and thirty days." 
Dan. 12 : 11, 12. From the end of the former period to 
the end of the latter are forty-five days : in the interval all 
he impious Israelites, w^ho are net worthy to see the re- 
demption, will die : Armillus will come, and conquer, and 
take possession of Egypt ; for it is said, " And the land of 
Egypt shall not escape." Dan. 11 : 42. Then he shall 
turn his face towards Jerusalem, to lay it waste a second 
lime; for it is said, "And he shall plant the tabernacle cl 
his palace between the seas in the glorious holy mountair) ; 
yet he shall come to his end, and none shall help him." 
Dan. 11 : 45. nagre 51-54, 



276 JOSEPH ANI> BENJAMIN. [Part 5. 

Eighth sign. — Michael shall arise and blow a trumpet 
three times, as it is said : " In that day the great trumpet 
shall be blown, and they shall come which were ready to 
perish." Isa. 27 : 13. It is also written : '' The Lord God 
shall blow the trumpet, and shall go with the whirlwinds 
of the south." Zech. 9:14. At the first blast shall be re- 
vealed Messiah Ben David and Elijah the prophet ; at 
whose sign the just and the pure Israelites, who had fled into 
the desert of Judah, at the end of the forty-five daj'-s shall 
recover their spirits, their hands which hung down shall 
be strengthened, and their feeble knees confirmed ; and on 
hearing the sound of the trumpet, all the rest of the Israel- 
ites throughout the world will know that God has visited 
his people, and granted perfect deliverance. They will, 
therefore, gather together and come, as it is said, '• And 
they shall come which were ready to perish in the land 
of Assyria, and the outcasts in the land of Egypt." Isa. 27 : 
13. But that blast shall cause fear and trembling in the 
Gentiles, and they shall be seized with the most grievous 
diseases. In the meantime the Israelites shall prepare 
themselves to go forth ; and Messiah Ben David and Eli- 
jah the prophet shall come, with the just who shall return 
from the desert of Judah, and with all the assembled Is- 
raelites, and will enter into Jerusalem ; and the Son of 
David going up into the deserted palace, will there fix his 
residence. But when Armillus shall have heard that there 
has arisen a King in Israel, he will say, How long shall 
that most vile and abject nation cause trouble ! and col- 
lecting the forces of all the nations of the world, he will 
come to fight with God's Messiah, whom God will not 
send into the war, but will only say to him, " Sit thou at 
my right hand." Psa. 110 : 1. And he will say to Israel, 
" Stand still, and see the salvation of the Lord, which he 
will show you to-day." Exod. 14 : 13. Immediately God 
himself will fio^ht with their enemies, as it is said, " Then 



Let. 2.] INTRODUCTION, 277 

shall the Lord go forth and fight against those nations, as 
when ne fought in the day of battle." Zech. 14:3, And 
God will rain down fire and brimstone from heaven, as it 
is written, " And I will pl^ad against him with pestilence, 
and with bJood; and I will rain upon him, and upon his 
bands, and upon the many people that are with him, an 
overflowing rain, and great hailstones, fixe an-d brimstone." 
Ezek. 38 : 22. And there shall the impious Armillus 
perish, with his whole army, and all the impious who de- 
stroyed the house of our God and carried us away from 
our own land. In that very hour will Israel take ven- 
geance on them ; for it is said, " And the house of Jacob 
shall be a fire, and the house of Joseph a flame, and the 
house of Esau for stubble." Obadiah, 18. p. 79-81. 

Ninth sign. — Michael shall blow a great blast, by which 
the sepulchres of the dead at Jerusalem shall be opened, and 
the blessed God will restore them to life. Messiah Ben 
David also, and Elijah the prophet with him, will raise 
from the dead Messiah Ben Joseph, Avho was preserved 
under the gates of Jerusalem. Then they shall send Mes- 
siah Ben David to gather together the remainder of the 
Jews dispersed in all countries ; and forthwith all the 
kings of the Gentiles throughout the world will take the 
Israelites upon their shoulders and bring them to God. 
p. 138. 

Tenth sign. — When Michael shall have sounded again, 
the loudest blast, God will bring forth all the tribes from 
the rivers Gosan, Lachlach and Chabor, and from the 
•cities of the Medes, an innumerable multitude, and they 
shall come with the children of Moses. "The land is as 
the garden of Eden before them, and behind them a flame 
burneth." Joel, 2 : 3. And at that time, when the tribes 
shall go forth, the glorious clouds of the divine majesty 
shall surround them : the blessed God himself will go be- 
fore their face, as it is said, " The breaker is come up 



278 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Pari 6. 

before them." Mica, 2:13. He will open to them the foun- 
tains of the tree of life, and he will drink of them in the 
way, as it is said, *' I will open rivers in high places, and 
fountains in the midst of valleys : I will make the wilder* 
ness a pool of water, and the dry land springs of water." 
isa. 41: 18. It is also written: "They shall not hunger 
nor thirst; neither shall the heat nor sun smite them." Isa. 
49: 10. God will make us worthy to see the deliverance 
in a short time ; he will make us worthy to see the house 
of his choice, the temple. He will fulfill in us what is writ- 
ten : " Behold, I will bring again the captivity of Jacob's 
tents, and have mercy on his dwelling-places : and the city 
shall be builded upon her own heap, and the palace shall 
remain after the order thereof." Jerem. 30: 18. And he 
will accomplish in us all his consolations and assurances 
promised by his prophets ; " And at that time will I bring 
you, even in the time that I gather you : for I will make 
you a name and a praise among all people of the earth." 
Zeph, 3:20. p. 142, 143, 

^ 8. On the other hand also, there are ten kinds of con- 
solations and assurances in which God causes Israel to trust : 
and as the root of those consolations, which are as branches 
proceeding from it, the first is — the coming of the Redeemer ; 
for it is said, " Behold, thy King cometh unto thee." Zech. 
9 : 9. The second — the gathering together of the captives ; 
for it is said, " Behold, I will bring them from the north 
country, and gather them from the coasts of the earth, and 
with them the blind and the lame." Jerem. 31:18. What 
is meant by the " lame and the blind ?" This teaches us, 
that every one of the just will return in the same state in 
which he departed out of this life. He who Avas blind, will 
return to life blind; he who was lame, will return to life 
lame : and so they will be raised with all their blemishes 
in order that every one shall be able to recognize his com- 
panion, that no one may say they are other persons : but 



Let. 2.] INTRODUCTIDX. 279 

afterwards God will cure them, according to that passage : 
" Then shall the lame man leap as a hart, and the tongue 
of the dumb sing." Isa. 35 :6. The third — the resurrec- 
tion of the dead, as it is written : " And many of them that 
slept in the dust of the earth shall awake." Dan. 12 : 2. 
The fourth — the building of the temple, according to the 
vision of Ezekiel in his prophecy. The fifth — the reign o'" 
Israel from sea to sea, over the whole earth, as it is said 
*• For the nation and kingdom that will not serve thee shall 
perish," Isa. 9: 12. And the whole earth shall return to 
the judgment of God, and to his law, according to the pro- 
phecy : " Then will I turn to the people a pure language, 
ihat they may all call upon the name of the Lord." Zeph. 
3 : 9. The sixth — that God will destroy all his enemies, 
-and take vengeance upon them, as it is said : " And I 
will lay my vengeance upon Edom." Ezek. 25 : 14. The 
seventh — that God w'ill take away from Israel all disease, 
and every plague, according to the prophecy : " And the 
inhabitants shall not say, I am siek : the people that dwell 
therein shall be delivered from iniquity/' Isa. 23 : 24. Tho 
eighth — that God will prolong the days of the Israelites 
like those of a tree, according to the prophecy: " As the 
<lays of a tree shall be the days of my people." Isa. 45 : 22. 
It is also written : " For the child shall die an hundred 
years old ; but the sinner, being an hundred years old, shall 
be accursed." Isa. 65 : 20. It is also written, " He will swal- 
low up death in victory ; and the Lord God will wipe awav 
tears from off all faces." Isa. 25 : 8. The ninth — that God 
will manifest himself to Israel face to face; for it is said; 
" And the glory of the Lord shall be revealed, and all 
flesh shall see it together." Isa. 40 : 5. He will also make 
all Israelites prophets, as it is said : " And it shall come to 
pass afterAvard, that I will pour out my Spirit upon all flesh, 
and your sons and your daughters shall prophecy." Joel, 
2: 28. The tenth — God will take away from Israel the evil 



280 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part 5. 

principle and all evil language, as it is said : " And I will 
give them one heart, and I will put a new spirit within 
you ; and I will take the stony heart out of their flesh, 
and will give them a heart of flesh." Ezek. 11 : 19. The 
wars of the Messiah are ended. " Harden " not " our 
hearts from thy fear." Isa. 63 : 17, p. 158, 160. 

§ 9. Pardon me, my dear Benjamin, for having detained 
you so long. I will now close this introduction with a very 
brief statement of the sentiments of Joseph Crool, one of our 
nation, and Hebrew teacher at Cambridge University, in 
England: "By sin," says he, "man has become a fallen 
creature, and will continue so for six thousand years, ac- 
cording to the days of the creation of the world, but no 
longer ; at the end, or near to it, the Messiah shall come, 
and there will be a new world. The old world shall be re- 
stored to its former glory, a new heaven and a new earth 
will appear, the former shall pass away, mankind will re- 
cover the primitive glory, and will be above angels ; Satan 
and his band will be destroyed. The seventh day of the 
creation was the Sabbath, and that day only received a 
blessing, and was set apart for ever to be observed as a 
holy day ; which was a type of the great Sabbath, i. e. the 
world of the Messiah, which also will be called the blessed 
world. Restor. Israel, p. 11. 

" God created the world," says he, '' in six daj^s, to teach 
us that each day is to represent a thousand years, i. e. that 
this world shall exist for the space of six thousand years ; 
the seventh day, which is called the Sabbath, represented, 
that after six thousand years, there should be a sabbatical 
time for one thousand years. This present year, 1812, we 
count 5571, and here we find there are yet 137 years to the 
time of his coming : but we know that this time will be 
shortened ; and, according to the opinion of one great and 
learned Rabbi, there are only 29 years more to the time of 
his coming; and when we shall begin to count 5600, all 



Let. 3,] THE RESTORATION OF THE JEWS. 281 

things in this world will be settled." Again he says, " By 
this calculation we may learn that the jubilee of the restora- 
tion of Israel has begun already, these twenty years back, 
L e. just when the Revolution began in France ; at that 
very time the seventy jubilees were at an end. There are 
yet thirty-six years to the end of the jubilee of Israel, and 
before the end of these thirty-six years, Israel will be re- 
stored, and the Messiah will take possession of his empire." 
The Lord will hasten it in his time. Amen. 

Farewell. 



JLetter III, 



THE RESTORATION OF THE JEWS. 

My Dear Benjamin^ 

From the statement in the preceding letters, which com- 
prises the sentiments of many writers, both Jewish and 
Christian, on the subject of the second advent of Christ, or 
the millennium, it appears that a certain chain of lev^iits is 
to take place ; and although the things which relate to the 
circumstances, the time when, and the means and instru- 
ments by which the predicted events are to be brought 
about, cannot be known with certainty, yet when we shall 
see the accomplishment of the first, we may confidently look 
for the appearance of the next event. For more than thirty 
years, my dear Benjamin, I have studied this subject as 
much as my other avocations would permit, and from what 
I have been able to gather, both from the Holy Bible, from 
the writings of man, and from the dispensations of God's 
12* 



282 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part 5. 

providence, I now venture, but with the greatest diffidence 
and deepest humility, to submit to you my feeble thoughts 
on this profound subject ; not for the purpose of entering in- 
to a controversy with any one who may differ, but merely 
for your consideration, to adopt or reject them as you may 
think them most agreeable to the revealed will of God. 
§ 1. The events to follow each other are probably these : 

1. The way will be prepared for the return of our people 
to their own land. 

2. They will return as a nation in an unconverted state. 

3. They will rebuild Jerusalem and the temple, and re- 
establish Judaism for a season. 

4. A considerable number of our brethren will be con- 
verted, but not return with our nation. 

5. These will afterwards be carried in vessels of bul- 
rushes to our people, and be the means of leading them to 
declare themselves an independent nation. 

6. This will cause Jerusalem to be besieged by the east- 
ern and the western antichrist. 

7. Jesus Christ shall then appear personally and visibly. 

8. The effect of this appearance will be two-fold; the de- 
struction of the enemy, or the battle of Armageddon, on the 
one hand, and the conversion of our .lation on the other. 

9. The ten tribes will tke^: return and be re-united with 
Judah. 

10. The first resurrection v/ill take place. 
li. Satan will be bound for a thousand years, 

12. During this period Christ will reign personally up- 
on the earth, and the knowledge of the glory of the Lord 
shall fill the whole earth. 

These twelve events will probably happen within the space 
of 75 years, the portion of time bftvveen the 1260 and the 
1335 years mentioned by Daniel, and about the middle of 
the 75 years the eighth event may be expected. 

13. After this, Satan shall be let loose, make v/ar with 
the saints, and be cast into the lake of fire. 



Let. 3."! THE RESTORATION OF THE JEWS. 283 

14. Then comes the general judgment. 

You see, my dear Benjamin, what a large field for dis- 
cussion these different topics present to our view. It would 
by far exceed my limits to consider each and all of them in 
the preceding order. 

I will therefore select two or three of the principal points, 
and include some of the rest, and will first call your atten- 
tion to the, 

§ 2. Restoration of our people, i. o. both Judah and his 
companions, and Ephraim and his companions. 

An opponent to the literal restoration of the Jewi says, 
*' It is possible, we say, that the Jews may be restored to 
their own land, with very mistaken expectations, retaining 
still their carnal prejudices, rejecting the Son of David, w^ho 
is come, and vainly looking for another ; and that they may 
afterwards, by a fresh pentecostal efrusion,be cured of their 
fatal blindness, and become obedient to the faith. The 
question is, what are the scriptural grounds for such an ex- 
pectation?" Eclectic Review for 1829. (Third series. No. 3.) 

Well, my dear Benjamin, "to the law and the prophets," 
and after I shall have established, from the Scriptures and 
other arguments, the literal restoration of our people to their 
own land in an unconverted state, and their conversion at 
the personal appearance of Christ, &c. &c. I will endeavor 
to answer the principal objections that have been brought 
against the proposed scheme. But there are two methods 
which have been alternately employed to evade the force of 
the arguments in the passages I shall quote, which evasions 
I shall endeavor to notice as I go along. These methods arc, 
either that the prophecy has been already fulfilled, or that 
It is to be understood in an allegorical sense, and to be ap- 
plied either to the spiritual conversion of the Jews, or toth*» 
conversion of Gentiles, the spiritual Israel. 

§ 3. A judicious writer in the Jew^ish Expositor says, 
" They have generally applied the prophecies relating to the 



284 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part 5. 

restoration of the Jews, and the ten tribes, and the conse- 
quent happy state of that nation, and also of the whole 
Christian world, which is to happen in the latter times, 
(and which is frequently styled in Scripture, the reign 
or kingdom of Christ,) to the Church of Christ, as i-t has 
hitherto subsisted in the w^orld; applying the terms Israel, 
the seed of Abraham, the city of Jerusalem, in an allegor- 
ical sense to the Christians, or the Christian church in gen- 
eral, whenever they meet with them with a promise of 
great happiness annexed ; whereas the great happiness, 
which is the principal subject of all the Old Testament 
prophets, appears to me to be no way applicable to any 
state of Christianity that has ever yet existed, but to relate 
to the conversion and restoration of the literal Israel, the 
Jews, and the ten tribes, in the latter times, and to that 
reign of Christ when the Church shall be triumphant." 

Another writer observes, " The Gentile takes up his sta- 
tion on Gerizim, and engrossing all its blessings, consigns 
its original occupants to the possession of the curse of 
Ebal. The Gentile, enjoying the figure, overlooks a liter- 
al fulfillment to the Jews. Canaan is transferred to his own 
bosom, or placed in heaven above, any where but in the land 
of Canaa?i." Christian Spectator, 1826, p. 514. 

Another says, " We would ask our spiritualizing inter 
preters what they woufd have to offer with respect to ih.s 
prophecy?" (alluding to Ezek. 36: 1-5, 8, 12.) "Without 
doubt, spiritualizing will boldly affirm that the prediction 
which Ezekiel addresses to the mountains of Israel, con- 
toins nothing about their return to their own land, — as the 
papists maintain that after the consecration of the wafer, 
nothing of real substance remains, but it is really and sub- 
stantially transubstantiated into the body of Christ, although 
they cannot deny that the outward appearance continues to be 
that of a wafer. So these persons, taking a bold flight in al- 
legory, will tell us that the mountains, hills, rivers, valleys, 



Let. 3.J THE RESTORATION OF THE JEWS. 285 

desolate wastes, and cities of Israel in the prophecy, are to 
be understood of the Christian church among the Gentiles ; 
and that the return of the children of Israel to those places 
only means their conversion to Christ." Ibi 

§ 4. I will now proceed to show from the Scriptures, 
that the Jews, as a nation, will return again to the literal 
Canaan before their conversion. There is scarcely any 
thing more frequently foretold than this glorious event. To 
quote all the passages relating to it would be an endless 
task, I shall therefore select but a few as a specimen. We 
will begin with Moses. " And I will bring the land into 
desolation ; and your enemies that dwell therein shall be 
astonished at it : and I will scatter you among the heathen, 
and will draw out a sword after you ; and your land shall 
be desolate and your cities waste. Then will I remember 
my covenant with Jacob, and also my covenant with Isaac, 
and also my covenant with Abraham will I remember ; 
and I will remember the land. The land also shall be left 
of them, and shall enjoy her Sabbaths, while she lieth de- 
solate without them : and they shall accept of the punish- 
ment of their iniquity ; because, even because they despised 
my judgments, and their soul abhorred my statutes." Lev. 
26 : 32, 33, 42-45. In the preceding verses God threat- 
ens judgments to overtake our nation for their sins and 
disobedience to his law ; and then promises that he will 
not utterly destroy them, but remember his covenant made 
with our fathers Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, which cove- 
nant reads thus : "And the Lord said unto Abraham, after 
that Lot was separated from him, Lift up now thine eyes, 
and look from the place where thou art, northward, and 
southward, and eastward, and westward ; for all the land 
which thou seest, to thee will I give it, and to thy seed for 
ever." Gen. 13 : 14, 15. 

§ 5. The learned Dr. Mede, in his answer to Dr. 
Swift's fourth letter, gives the following explanation of this 



286 josj.pii AND bi:nja:*iix. [Part 6. 

text, which deserves particular notice : " I doubt not," says 
he, " but you have felt some scruple (as well as others) at 
our Savior's demonstration of the resurrection in the Gos- 
pel. Matt, 22; Mark, 13. God said to Moses in the bush, 
' I am the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and 
the God of Jacob : God is not the God of the dead, but of 
the living.' Ergo, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob must one 
day rise again from the dead. How does this conclusion 
follow? Do not the spirits of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob 
yet live ? God should then be the God of the living, 
though their bodies should never rise again. Therefore 
some Socinians argue from this place, that the spirits of the 
just lie in the sleep of death until the resurrection Or, 
might not the Sadducees have replied, the meaning to be 
of what God had been, not of what he should be, viz. 
That he was that God who had once chosen their fathers, 
and had made a covenant with them ; ' I am the Lord that 
brought Abraham out of Chaldea, who appeared to Isaac 
and Jacob whilst they lived,' &c. But how would this then 
make for the resurrection ? Surely it doth. He that could 
not err said it. Let us see therefore how it may. 

" I say, therefore, the words must be understood with a 
supply of that they have reference to, which is the cove- 
nant which the Lord made with Abraham, Isaac, and Ja- 
cob, in respect whereof he calls himself their God. This 
covenant was to give unto them and to their seed the land 
wherein they were strangers ; (mark it) not their seed, or 
offspring only, but to themselves. 

" To Abraham, Gen. 13 : 15, and 17 : 8. To Laac, Gen. 
26 : 3. To Jacob, Gen. 35 : 12. To all three, Exod. 6 : 4, 
8. Deut. 1:8. 11 : 21, and 30 : 20. If God then make 
good to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, this his covenant, 
whereby he undertook to be their God ; then they must 
needs one day live again to inherit the promised land, 
which hitherto they have not done, For the God that has 



Let. 3.] THE RESTORATIOX OT TlIF, JLViS. 287 

covenanted with them, covenanted not to make his promise 
good to them dead, but living. This is the strength of the 
divine argument, and irrefragable ; which otherwise would 
not infer any such conclusion." 

Now, as the essence of the covenant made with our 
fathers and their natural posterity, was the possessing the 
land of Canaan literally, and as the Lord has promised 
he will remember the covenant during their captivity, it 
must mean that he will bring them again into the literal 
Canaan. What else can be the meaning of these words, 
" and I will remember the land," but this, that God would 
put an end to its desolation, by restoring it to its ancient 
inhabitants, to be cultivated and replenished by them. 

§ 6. It is a poor evasion, to say that this promise was 
fulfilled at their return from Babylon, because the restora- 
tion to their own land for a few ages, and a subsequent 
dispersion, for near four times as long a period, among 
all nations, without any hopes of return, can never be the 
true meaning of giving that land to the seed of Abraham 
for ever. Besides, it has justly been observed, " that it is 
not unusual for the same thing (the passover for instance) 
to refer immediately to one event ; and remotely to another; 
so it is common for a prophecy to have a partial fulfillment 
in something at, or near the time, and a more perfect one 
at some distant period. God's works being whole, and the 
end seen from the beginning, there is often a dignified an- 
alogy between them ; system, as it were, within system ; 
one train of events making way for another, and furnish- 
ing an earnest of its fulfillment. Thus the kingdom of the 
Messiah is manifestly predicted in the 72d Psalm, though it is 
mostly under the form of the prosperous reign of Solomon." 

Mr. Faber, speaking of the prophecy in Joel, says, " This 
is applied by St. Peter to the eff^usion of the Holy Spirit 
on the day of Pentecost, though strictly relating to the era 
of the restoration of the Jews, and the glorious period of 



288 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part 5. 

ihe millennium. The first advent of Christ is frequently- 
considered by the inspired writers as a sort of type of his 
second advent; whence we find that predictions which 
properly belong to the one period, are often applied by an* 
ticipation to the other. Thus, in a similar manner, the 
apostles apply the prophecy of David in the second Psalm, 
to the conspiracy of the chief princes with Herod and 
Pontius Pilate against our Lord : yet, if any one will 
compare that second Psalm with the description of the Word 
of God routing his enemies congregated in the 19th chapter 
of the Apocalypse, he will be convinced that it does not 
receive its ultimate accomplishment till the second advent, 
whether literal or spiritual, at the commencement of the 
millennium." 

In like manner in this place, as the calamities threatened 
were not to be inflicted at once, but gradually, and some 
repeatedly, as ver. 29, " Ye shall eat the flesh of your sons, 
and the flesh of your daughters shall ye eat ;'* which has 
literally been fulfilled in the siege of Samaria by Ben- 
hadad, (2 Kings, 6 : 28, 29 ;) in the siege of Jerusalem by 
the Chaldeans, (Sam. 4 : 10,) and in the last siege of Jeru- 
salem by the Romans, as recorded by our own historian 
Josephus; so likewise the promise was to be fulfilled as 
often as needed ; as often as they are banished from the 
land given by the covenant to our fathers, Abraham, Isaac, 
and Jacob, so often shall they be restored to enjoy it, and there- 
fore the promise is yet to be fulfilled. I wish you, my dear 
Benjamin, to remember this observation, as it is applicable 
to many other predictions, which I shall name hereafter. 

§ 7. " The reader who consults the marginal refer- 
ences," says Dr. Scott, '• will in them find the most in- 
structive comment on this chapter ; and be more and more 
convinced as he proceeds, that it is a kind of prophetical 
history of that nation, even to this present timeP 

Again he says, ver. 31-35, " Indeed the dispersed state 



Lei. 3.] THE RESTORATION OF THE JEWS. 289 

of the Jews since the destruction of the temple by the 
Romans, more fully answers the import of the subsequent 
prediction than even the desolations of the Babylonish 
captivity." And on ver. 43-45 he says, " A glorious ac- 
complishment of this part of the prophecy may hereafter 
be expected by the conversion of the Jews to Christ, and 
probably by their restoration to their OAvn land ; and after 
the fulfillment of the previous threatenings, in their pre 
sent dispersion of above twelve hundred years duration, 
they are still most miraculously preserved a distinct people, 
evidently in order to this most desirable event." 

^ 8. I will next call your attention to the prophecy in 
Deut. 30 : 1-6. " And it shall come to pass, when all these 
things are come upon thee, the blessing and the curse, 
which 1 have set before thee, and thou shalt call them to 
mind amongst all the nations whither the Lord thy God 
hath driven thee, and shalt return unto the Lord thy God, 
and shalt obey his voice, according to all that I command 
thee this day, thou, and thy children, with all thine heart, 
and with all thy soul ; that then the Lord thy God will 
turn thy captivity, and have compassion upon thee, and 
will return, and gather thee from all the nations whither 
the Lord thy God hath scattered thee. If any of thine be 
driven out unto the outmost parts of heaven, from thence 
will the Lord thy God gather thee, and from thence will 
he fetch thee. And the Lord thy God will bring thee into 
the land which thy fathers possessed, and thou shah pos- 
sess it ; and he will do thee good, and multiply thee above 
thy fathers. And the Lord thy God will circumcise thine 
heart, and the heart of thy seed, to love the Lord thy God 
with all thine heart and with all thy soul, that thou mayest 
live." Now, that this is a prediction yet to be fulfilled in 
the literal restoration of our beloved people to their own 
land, and that afterward they shall be truly converted to 
God, will evidently appear, if we consider that it has never 



290 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part 5 

had its fulfillment. It is inapplicable to their return from 
the Babylonian captivity, during which time they were 
very far from being scattered among '• all people, from one 
end of the earth to the other." Neither can it be said that 
the hearts of the people were generally circumcised, sc 
that they loved God with all their heart and all their soul, 
during the interval of their return from Babylon and their 
being scattered by Titus. For our Rabbins themselves, as 
well as Josephus, say that our nation, at the time of the 
siege of Jerusalem by the Romans, Avere more wicked 
than ever, and that therefore the coming of the Messiah 
was delayed until they shall repent ; nor has the other pro 
raise been realized, ver. 5, " to do them good, and to mul- 
tiply them above their fathers.'' Consider next, that as it is 
allowed by all, that at least many of the calamities in ch. 
27-30 were inflicted literally on our nation soon after their 
dispersion by Titus, why should not the blessing of deli- 
verance and restoration to the land^Avhich "our fathers pos- 
sessed, and shall possess," be literally fulfilled? 

^ 9. Bp. Newton says, " The design of the work will per- 
mit us only to take notice of such (predictions) only as 
have some reference to the latter ages ; and we will con- 
fine ourselves principally to the 28th chap of Deuteronomy, 
the greatest part whereof we may see accomplished in the 
world at this present time. I know that some critics make 
a division of these prophecies, and imagine that one part 
relates to the former captivity of the Jews, and the calami- 
ties they sufl^ered under the Chaldeans ; and that the other 
part relates to the latter captivity of the Jews, and to the 
calamities they suffered under the Romans : but there is no 
need of any such distinctions; there is no reason to think 
that any such was intended by the author ; several predic- 
tions on the one part, as well as on the other, have been 
fulfilled at both periods, but they have all more amply been 
fulfilling during the latter period ; and there cannot be i 



Let. 3.j THE RESTORATION OF THE JEWS. 291 

more lively picture than they exhibit of the state of the 
Jews at present." And after having pointed out in many 
particulars the literal fulfillment of these predictions, he ob- 
serves, '* Here are instances of prophecies, prophecies de- 
livered above three thousand years ago, and yet we see 
them fulfilling in the world at this very timer 

^10. Dr. Scott says, " All these curses, which were de- 
nounced against the Israelites when disobedient, have in- 
deed uniformly overtaken them, in every situation, and in 
every country, from that day to this ; as must be evident to 
every person who is in the least acquainted with their his- 
tory." And on the prediction under consideration he says, 
*' This psssage evidently refers to the prophetical denuncia- 
tions of the two preceding chapters, which had their main ac- 
complishment in the destruction of Jerusalem by the Ro- 
mans, and in the consequent dispersion of the Jews to the 
present day ; little doubt can therefore remain that these 
prophetical promises are yet unaccomplished, and that 
the relics of the nation shall, in some future, if not very dis- 
tant period, be converted to Christ, and probably be gath- 
ered together and re-instated in Canaan. The language here 
used is in great measure absolute, not containing merely a 
conditional encouragement, but predicting an event which 
would absolutely take place : for the Lord himself engaged 
* to circumcise the hearts ' of the people ; and when regene- 
ration has taken place, and divine love has supplanted the 
love of sin, then certainly they will consider and repent, 
and return to God and obey him." 

§ 11. From what has been said, my dear Benjamin, you 
will perceive that this prediction proves my proposition, 
that our people will return literally to the land which God 
gave to our fathers ; and that they will return in an un- 
converted state ; for the circumcision of the heart, or true 
conversion to God, is to succeed their restoration to the 
land. It is of great importance to remember this order es- 



292 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part 5. 

tablished by God himself; for you must know that there are 
not a few who grant that this prediction has not been ful- 
filled, but will be accomplished in the conversion of the 
Jews wherever they are ; and that to be gathered to the land 
of Canaan, " the land which our fathers did possess," is not 
to be understood literally, but allegorically, of heaven ; of 
which Canaan was a type. True, Canaan was a type of 
heaven ; but does God promise to gather them '• out " of all 
people from one end of the earth to the other, and bring 
them into heaven ?" — what, before their hearts are circum- 
cised to love him ? Has Christ changed the order of things ? 
Has it now become possible for sinners to enter the king- 
dom of God without being born of the Spirit ? Consider 
also, that surely the land which Abraham could " see with 
his eyes," and "in which he was a stranger," the land in 
which Isaac " sojourned," the land on which Jacob " lay," 
must be the very land of Canaan itself, and no other place 
in heaven or earth. But these are the terms which the Lord 
employs to define the promised land, that land which he 
promised to the patriarchs, " and their seed for ever, for an 
everlasting possession." Besides, what does it mean when 
God adds, " I will multiply them above their fathers ?" " And 
the Lord thy God will bring thee into the land which thy 
fathers possessed, and thou shalt possess it ; and he will do 
thee good, and multiply thee above thy fathers." Deut. 
30 : 5. Is this applicable to the inhabitants of heaven ? No, 
my dear Benjamin, it is the Canaan once possessed, which 
they shall possess again. 

§ 12. But let us proceed, to hear what the prophets say 
on this interesting subject. We begin with the 36th chap- 
ter of Ezekiel, which, after you have carefully read over, 
you will perceive that it contains a promise of temporal 
and spiritual blessings. The spiritual blessings consist in 
regeneration and reconciliation with God. " Then will 
I sprinkle clean water upon you, and ye shall be clean ; 



Let. 3.J THE RESTORATION OF THE JEWS. 293 

from all your filthiness, and from all your idols, will I 
cleanse you. A new heart also will I give you, and 
a new spirit will I put within you ; and I will take away 
the stony heart out of your flesh, and I will give you 
a heart of flesh. And I Avill put my Spirit within you, 
and cause you to walk in my statutes, and ye shall keep 
my judgments, and do them," Ezek. 36 : 25-27 ; by the 
power and influence of the Holy Spirit they should be 
quickened and have a new nature implanted, the blood of 
Jesus applied to their hearts to cleanse their guilty con- 
science from dead works to serve the living God ; and the 
purifying and sanctifying influence of grace, to enable 
them to die unto sin and live unto newness of life ; and 
thus God would again be their God, and they should be 
his people. Amongst the temporal blessings promised, is, 
first, their return to their own land, which is to precede 
their regeneration, agreeably to the order, ver. 25 ; then, i. e. 
after having been " gathered out of all countries and brought 
into their own land," ver. 24, then they shall experience 
the change of heart promised. 

^ 13. Now, whatever partial fulfillment this prophecy 
may have had at the return of our fathers from Babylon, 
it is very evident that a far more complete accomplishment 
of it is to take place in future. For in verse II, the pro- 
mise is that God would do better unto them than at their 
beginning; but it is a fact well known, that the outward 
condition of our people was never so prosperous after the 
captivity as it had been before that catastrophe. This re- 
mark is equally true with respect to their spiritual state ; 
for, as has been observed before, that when our fathers had 
returned from Babylon, instead of being regenerated and 
reconciled to God, they rather grew worse, and crucified 
the Lord of glory ; and instead of God's being their God, 
and they his people, they were cut ofl?'; the wrath of God 
came upon them to the uttermost, and others, who were not 



3294 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part 5. 

the people of God, were adopted in their stead. The land, 
instead of being like the garden of Eden, the admiration 
of men, has become the habitation of owls, and the dwell- 
ing-place of wild beasts. Further, the persons to be re- 
stored are repeatedly said to have blasphemed the name 
of the Lord amongst the heathen ; but this character is not 
applicable to our fathers in the Babylonish captivity ; in- 
stead of being profane, they seem to have been so consci- 
entious as not to sing the song of Zion in a strange land. 

Again, m verse 12, &c. it is promised, that the land 
should never be bereaved of its inhabitants ; but, since the 
destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans, very few of our 
people have lived in the land of our fathers. Further, this 
people is to be gathered out of all countries; but the cap- 
tives of Babylon were chiefly confined to one country. 
This prophecy, therefore, my dear Benjamin, is in perfect 
unison with that of Moses, which we have considered be- 
fore ; and they both confirm the sentiment that our nation, 
however scattered in all countries, will return to the land 
which our fathers did possess ; then, as a nation, they will be 
converted to God, and clothe themselves in dust and ashes ; 
then the Lord will do them good, better than heretofore. 

§ 14. On this prophecy Dr. Scott has the following 
notes : " The Lord declared that he would replenish the 
land, and not suffer it any more to be desolated, as it has 
been during the Babylonish captivity; and that he would 
not any more give the heathen occasion to reproach it. 
Though the whole land of Israel was not desolated after 
the destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans, as it had 
been after that by the Chaldeans, yet the slaughter made 
among the Jews was far greater, and they were entirely 
driven out of the land, and have continued in a state of 
exile from it for above seventeen hundred years. It seems 
therefore unavoidable but that we must refer the full com- 
pletion of this prophecy to some future event, when the 



Let. 3] THE RESTORATION OF THE JEWS. 205 

land shall again become fruitful, and be inhabited by the 
nation of Israel to the end of time. 

" In allusion to the divers washings and sprmklings of 
the ritual law, the Lord promised to sprinkle clean water 
upon his people, and make them clean from all their filthi- 
ness and idols. Clean water is the universal purifier of our 
persons, garments, houses, streets, and cities ; and, under 
both the Old Testament and the Christian dispensation, it 
hath been used as an emblem of the cleansing of our pol- 
luted souls from sin. But no water, however clean, or in 
what mode soever it be applied, can do more than take 
away the filth of the flesh ; except as it is used for an out- 
ward sign of the inward spiritual grace of the Gospel. 
Water especially is the sacramental sign of the sanctify- 
ing influence of the Holy Spirit ; yet this is always con- 
nected with the atoning blood of Christ. When the latter 
is applied to the conscience, through faith, to cleanse it 
from dead works, the former is always applied to all the 
powers of the soul, to purify them from the love and pol- 
lution of sin ; and thus the sinner is washed, and sanctified, 
and justified in the name of our Lord Jesus, and by the 
Spirit of our God. But of whom was this spoken ? Doubt- 
less, many of the Jews who returned from Babylon were 
thus renewed and sanctified; yet numbers of them continu- 
ed strangers to such special blessings, though preserved 
from outward idolatry. These promises are pleaded by 
all true believers, in every age, and fulfilled to them ; and 
this may be called the spiritual meaning. But the context 
speaks so expressly and repeatedly of the house of Israel 
being restored to the land which the Lord had given to 
their fathers, that, in the prophetical meaning, I apprehend 
it greatly confirms the opinion of those who suppose, that, 
after the Jews shall be converted to Christ, they shall also 
be restored to their own laud. Then these promises will 
be fulfilled in them, in their fullest meaning ; and the sub- 



296 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part 5. 

sequent part of the prophecy will be literally accomplished 
in the sight of all nations; and the Jews no doubt are pre- 
served a distinct people on purpose to make way for this 
great display of the Lord's power and truth, and thus de- 
monstrate to all the world the divine original of the holy 
Scriptures." 

" In this chapter," says Matthew Henry, " we have two 
distinct prophecies ; the one seems chiefly to relate to the 
temporal estate of the Jews, wherein their present deplo- 
rable condition is described, and the triumph of their 
neighbors in it ; but it is promised that their grievances 
shall all be redressed, and that in due time they shall be 
settled again in their own land in the midst of peace and 
plenty. Ver. 1-15. The other seems chiefly to concern 
their spiritual estate." 

§ 15. There are other prophecies which will be con- 
sidered hereafter, some relating to the restoration of the 
ten tribes, and others speaking both of Judah and Israe-1. 
The two we have now considered relate to Judah, or the two 
tribes dispersed by Titus. I agree, that the spiritual bless- 
ings promised in these predictions are applicable to the 
conversion of every sinner, whether Jew or Gentile ; but 
the circumstances mentioned before and after the spiritual 
change, in ver. 25-27, ought to lead us to be just before we 
are charitable ; i. e. we ought to apply them first literally, 
as a promise to the natural descendants of Jacob, and then 
use them as an illustration of the nature of the conversion 
of every other sinner. The persons to whom the promise 
primarily belongs, are such as have dwelt in the land of 
our fathers, but have been driven out for a season, because 
of their sins ; but, for the covenant made w^ith Abraham, 
Isaac, and Jacob, Jehovah will gather them again and bring 
them into their land, and they are to possess \i for ever. 
This character, therefore, is not applicable to every sinner. 

Farewell. 



Let. 4.] THE RESTORATION OF THE JEWS. 2C' 



L.etter 1\ 



CONTINUATION OF THE SUBJECT. 

Dear Benjamin, 

I will again invite your attention to a few more predic- 
tions which foretell the restoration of our beloved people tc 
their own land, and their conversion unto God, and the 
happy rc-unlon of Judah and Ephraim. I begin with, 
^1. Ezekiel, chap. 37, in which you will observe that 

The prophet sees in a vision a valley of dry bones ; he 
is interrogated with respect to the possibility of their living 
he is commanded to bid them live in the name of the Lord. 
On issuing the proclamation, he perceived a noise among 
the bones ; the bones shook, and came, each to its kindred 
bone ; the sinews, flesh and skin then came upon them, and 
in answer to his prayer, life was communicated to them. 

This allegory may be considered as a partial descrip- 
tion of the state of our people in Babylon, and their unex- 
pected deliverance from it : it may also, in some sense, be 
applied to the conversion of every sinner ; but God himself 
interprets it of the future restoration, conversion, and re- 
union of the ten tribes with the house of Judah. It is evi- 
dent that neither this vision, nor the remainder of the chap- 
ter, can be said to have received its full accomplishment in 
the return of our people from Babylon, or in the conversion 
of any sinner. It is not applicable to the return from the 
Babylonish captivity, for the following reasons: 

The number of the ten tribes that might have returned 
with Judah was too small to contain a full accomplisnment 
of this prophecy, which is expressly applied to the whole 
Vol. II.' 13 



2VB JOSEPH AXB BENJAMIN. , [Part 5, 

house of Israel. Those who v/ere to return, are described 
as an " exceeding great army ;" but those of Judah and of 
the other ten tribes which returned from Babylon, were 
very far from answering this description. The people, to 
whom the promises in this chapter belong, have been scat- 
tered far and wide ; they are said to be gathered " from all 
the heathen," to be gathered on every side ; but during the 
Babylonish captivity our people were not far from each 
other. Again, they are to return to the land which had 
been always desolate^ which is peculiarly applicable to the 
land of our fathers since their dispersion by the Romans. 
The pious character of the people that were to return, and 
the delight and pleasure God would have in the midst of 
them, is not applicable to the character of our people after 
their return from Babylon. Though the company which 
returned with Zerubbabel were many of them godly peo- 
ple, yet the whole history of our nation, from thence to 
the coming of Christ, is far from answering to what is 
said of them in this prophecy, " that they should walk in 
God's judgments, to observe his statutes, and do them ; 
such promises also of "his tabernacle being with them, 
and his sanctuary in the midst of them for evermore," 
seem to be much too strong for the above period. Further, 
Ephraim, and the tribes that joined with him, and Judah, 
together with his associates, are to return and become one 
nation upon the mountains of Israel, which certainly has 
never been fulfilled, but will surely be accomplished. 
Again, it is promised, that, after this union shall have been 
effected, David, God's servant, shall be king over them, 
and he shall be their prince for ever; now it is evident 
that our people, after their return from Babylon, had no 
temporal prince of David's Ime to reign over them, nor 
have they had one since ; but, after their return from their 
present lost condition, Christ Jesus, the Messiah, the true 
David, shall reign over them for ever and ever, as will also 



Let.4.J THE RESTORATION OF THE JEWS. 299 

appear from Hosea, 3d chap, to be considered next. Observe 
also, my dear Benjamin, that it is declared in the strongest 
terms, that God would never again cast them ofT, or disin- 
herit them ; which is surely not applicable to their first 
return ; for in a very few centuries they were again cast 
off and more miserably icasttd than before. The time 
when this prediction is to be fulfilled is called " the latter 
days," an expression which always refers to the time after 
the coming of the Messiah, which shows it was a lonif 
lime after the prophet had spoken, see chap. 38 : 8, 16, 17. 
Lastly, you will please to notice that, in connection with 
this prophecy, mention is made in the next three chapters of 
a war made against the inhabitants of Judea, who had jusL 
returned to their land, and therefore had not had time to 
fortify their cities; the enemy is represented as such a 
numerous army as have never met before Jerusalem ; and 
their destruction, and the deliverance of our people thereby, 
is ascribed to the immediate hand and power of God, or to 
a miracle, and that too of the most extraordinary kind. Bui 
it is evident, that, since the days of Ezekiel to the present 
time, no such event has happened, either to our people 
or to their enemies. 

§ 2. From a consideration of all these things together, 
we may certainly conclude that this prophecy has never 
had its accomplishment, but refers to an event that is still 
future, and is not to happen till after our dear people are 
again settled in their own land of Canaan, and Judah and 
Ephraim united in one nation, under the happy reign of 
David their Lord and King, for ever and ever. 

Neither can this famous prophecy be spiritualized, or 
applied with any propriety to the general conversion of 
sinners from amongst the Gentiles. For the people are 
declared by Jehovah himself, to be Ephraim and the house 
of Israel his companions, and Judah and his companions ; 
and they shall be gathered out of all their dwelling-places, 



300 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part &, 

where they have sinned, " and ihey shall dwell in the land 
that I have given unto Jacob my servant, wherein your 
fathers have dwelt, and they shall dwell therein, even they 
and their children, and their children's children for ever.'" 

A very sensible writer in the Jewish Expositor (vol. 7, p. 
13) has the following observation : " That this chapter is 
not to be applied in an allegorical sense, or applied to the 
Gentile churches, is evident froiPx ver. 21 and 22 : for how- 
can the churches of the Gentiles, or the Christians in 
general, become one nation in the land upon the mountains 
of Israel ? Does not the stick of Judah and the stick of 
Joseph, &c. which are to become one, evidently mean the 
two kingdoms of Judah and Israel which had been divided ? 
These are the true and literal children of Israel which 
are to be taken from among the heathen, and not any alle- 
gorical offspring, as some commentators suppose, in order 
obscure some of the most clear and plain passages of 
the Scripture prophecies. If, then, a literal restoration of 
Israel is here intended, it is plain that the prophecy is not 
yet fulfilled, from ver. 25th, where it is said, that after the 
restoration here spoken of, "they shall dwell in the land 
of their forefathers, they and their children, and their 
children's children for ever." But this we cannot suppose 
to have been verified by any former return, as they have 
since been dispersed among all nations. 

*• This prophecy, therefore, is yet to be fulfilled, though 
not without some powerful opposition, which shall be un- 
successfully made against it by some great and populous 
nations in the latter days ; which is the subject of the two 
following chapters." 

§ 3. M. Henry, in his introduction to this chapter, says, 
*' God has assured them in the foregoing chapter, that he 
would gather the house of Israel, even all of it, and would 
bring them to their own land; but there were two things 
that rendered this very unlikely '• 



liCt. 4.1 THE RESTORATION OF THE JEWS. 301 

" 1st. That they were so dispersed amongst their enemies, 
so destitute of all helps and advantages which might favor 
or follow them on their return, and so dispirited likewise 
in their own minds upon all these accounts. They are 
here, in vision, compared to a valley full of dry bones of 
dead men, which should be brought together and raised to 
life. Ver. l-U. 

"2d. They were so much divided among themselves, too 
much of the old core remaining even in their captivity. 
But as to this, by a sign of two sticks made one in the 
hand of the prophet, is foreshown the happy coalition that 
should be, at their return, between the two nations of Israel 
andJudah." Ver. 15-22. 

" The vision was evidently intended," says Dr. Scott, 
" in its primary meaning, to encourage the desponding 
Jews ; to predict both their restoration after the captivity 
and also their recovery from their present long continued 
dispersion." 

Speaking of the union of the two sticks in the hand of 
the prophet, he says, " This was partially accomplished 
after the Babylonish captivity, when ail the Israelites that 
returned with the Jews from Babylon settled under the 
same government, and formed with them one nation. But 
it is probable that there will hereafter be a more remark- 
able accomplishment of it." 

On ver. 25 he says, " This cannot possibly be interpret- 
ed of any events that took place before the coming of 
Christ; and after his coming, the Jews were soon driven 
from their own land, and have never regained possession of 
it : yet the language is so expressive, that it seems plainly 
to mean that the Jews should dwell in Canaan, under the 
rule of Christ, from the time intended, through all genera- 
tions to the end of the whole." 

^ 4. Mr. Faber having proved the future restoration and 
conversion of Judah, he goes on to say, 



302 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part 5. 

"But the lost ten tribes of Israel are still dispersed 
through the extensive regions of the north and of the east. 
These, according to the sure word of prophecy, however 
they may be now concealed from mortal knowledge, will 
be found again, and will be brought back into the countries 
of their fathers. All nations and all tongues shall come and 
see the glory of the Lord ; for he will set among them a 
sign, even the sign of the Son of man, the sign of the 
illuminated Shechinah ; and will send unto them those that 
have escaped from the slaughter of the antichristian con- 
federacy, that they may declare his glory among the na- 
tions. Convinced, by ocular demonstration, that God doth 
indeed reign in Zion, and at once divinely impelled and 
enabled both to seek out from among them, and to find the 
long lost sheep of the house of Israel, they will bring by 
land, in vast caravans, all the brethren of Judah for an of- 
fering unto the Lord, as the great maritime power had al- 
ready brought the converted Jews for a present unto the 
Lord to his holy mountain. Then shall the stick of Joseph 
be united for ever with the stick of Judah : Ephraim shall 
be no more a separate people, but the whole house of Jacob 
shall become one nation under one king, even the mystic 
David, Jesus the Messiah. 

" The various prophecies, which speak of the restora- 
tion of the ten tribes, certainly cannot relate to the resto- 
ration of those detached individuals out of them, who re- 
turned with Judah from the Babylonian captivity. This 
is manifest, both because their restoration is represented as 
perfectly distinct from the restoration of Judah, and be- 
cause it is placed at once subsequent to that event, and to 
the overthrow of Antichrist. In fact, the converted fugi- 
tives from the armies of Antichrist are described as being 
greatly instrumental in bringing about the restoration of 
the ten tribes. Hence their restoration is plainly future ; 
and hence we cannot with any degree of consistency apply 



L*t. 4] THE RF.sTOTlATIOX 01 THE JEWS. 303 

the predictions which foretell it, to the return of a few in 
dividuals from Babylon with Judah. Of the Jews who 
were carried away captive to Babylon, only a very small 
part, according to Houliegan, not more than a hundredth 
part, returned to their own country. Those who were left 
behind will doubtless, at the time of the second advent, be 
brought back along with their brethren of the ten tribes ; 
just as those individuals of the ten tribes, who returned 
with Judah from Babylon, and (adhering to him notwith- 
standing the Samaritan schism) were afterwards scattered 
with him by the Romans, will be brought back with their 
brethren the Jews. So far, but no farther, the otherwise 
distinct restoration of Judah and of Joseph will in some 
measure be mingled together. This circumstance is very 
accurately noted by Ezekiel, even when predicting the 
twofold restoration of Judah and Joseph, and their subse- 
quent union under one king. He speaks neither of Judah 
nor Joseph simply; but styles the one division Judah, and. 
the children of Israel his companions ; and the other divisioft 
Joseph, and all the house of Israel his companions ; thus 
plainly intimating that some of the children of Israel shall 
return with Judah; but that numbers of all the tribes, not 
of the kingdom of ten tribes only, but of all the tribes, 
shall return with Joseph." 

A similar prophecy of the return and conversion of the 
ten tribes together with Judah we have in, 

§ 5. Hosea, 3 : 4, 5. " For the children of Israel shall 
abide many days without a king, and without a prince, and 
without a sacrifice, and without an image, and without an 
ephod, and without teraphim : afterward shall the children 
o-f Israel return and seek the Lord their God, and David 
their king ; and shall fear the Lord and his goodness in the 
latter days." 

Known unto God are all his works, from the beginning 
of the world; and whatever he has predetermined in his 



304 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part 5. 

eternal counsels, shall surely be fulfilled. Often, indeed, is 
the execution of his purposes delayed, till unbelievers be- 
gin to think that his word has failed of its accomplishment ; 
but " in the evening time it shall be light ;" and when the 
obstacles to his will seem almost insurmountable, he will 
glorify himself in fulfilling it beyond all human expecta- 
tion. Thus he acted, when, according to his promise, he 
brought our fathers out of Egypt. He suffered them to be 
detained till the very last day that they could be consistent- 
ly with the truth of his promise ; and then, when our peo- 
ple themselves were almost reduced to despair, he brought 
them out with a mighty hand and stretched out arm. Thus, 
also, will he act yet once more toward the children of Is- 
rael, his chosen people. They have been for ages "cast 
out," almost beyond hope of recovery ; but there is a period 
when they shall return, and commit themselves to the go- 
vernment of Christ, as ever they did to the direction Oi 
Moses. Of this glorious event the prophecy under consi- 
derntinrj assures US. It consists of two parts. It announces 
the calamities which should befall the children of Israel, 
and foretells their happy deliverance. And as their cala- 
mities had respect both to their civil and religious state, so 
in like manner, their deliverance. 

That this precious prophecy of their restoration to the 
knowledge, service and enjoyment of God, and the happy 
government of the Messiah over them, was not fulfilled at 
the return of our people from the Babylonish captivity, but 
is yet to be accomplished, is evident from the following 
consideration : 

§ 6. That by " David their king," is meant the promised 
Messiah, is acknowledged by almost all our Rabbins, (as 
will be shown hereafter,) and by almost all Christian di- 
vmes. 

This is a title ascribed to him in several other passages, 
Jer. 30 : 9. Ezek. 34 : 23, 24. 37 : 21, 22, 24. The context 



Let. 4.] THE nESTOP.ATION or THE JEWS. 305 

and the manifest scope of them determine them to belong- 
to him. 

He is called David, not only because he was the Son 
and Lord of David, but because David was an eminent type 
of him, in the meanness of his descent, the comeliness of his 
person, his wisdom and prudence, his courage and valor; 
in his holiness and the extraordinary gifts of the Spirit with 
which he was endowed, as also in his kingly office, and in 
the battles which he fought, as well as in the conquests 
which he obtained. 

Now, it is a fact too well known to need proof, that our 
people, after their return from Babylon, were so far from 
*' seeking the Lord their God, and David their king, and 
fearing the Lord and his goodness, that they grew worse 
and worse, till they had filled up the measure of their ini- 
quity in crucifying the Lord of glory, and rejecting the 
offers of mercy through that very precious blood which 
they had imprecated upon themselves and their children, 
and for which the wrath of God has come upon our peo- 
ple and continued to the present day. 

6 7. Hence, I observe further, that the prediction of their 
retain cannot yet have been accomplished, because their 
calamities have not yet ended. How remarkably striking 
has been the fulfillment of the former f)art of this predic- 
tion ! For many centuries past, our dear people have not 
been a body politic, having no rule and dominion among 
themselves ; they have no king nor prince of their own ; the 
sceptre is departed from them ; neither is any sacrifice of- 
fered by them, for their daily sacrifice has ceased ; and 
what is very remarkable, although our people were once- 
very prone to idolatrous worship, as their history shows, 
yet you well know, my dear Benjamin, that there is not 
now an image among them. And for this reason, many ot 
our brethren, who, at their conversion, joined the Roman 
Catholics, as soon as they became acquainted with their 
13* 



306 JOSEPH A>D BENJAMIN. [Part 5. 

image worship, left them and joined the Protestants. Wit- 
ness Joseph Wolf. And for this reason also, when the great 
council of our Rabbins in the valley of Hungaria, after 
many days' controversy with Romish priests, had resolved 
to embrace the Christian religion, but were told by the 
priests that they worshiped saints and their images, our 
people were so disgusted that they exclaimed, ' No idols !'' 
and the council broke up without further discussion. 

Now, since it must be acknowledged, and actually is by 
most divines, that the former part of this prophecy has been 
fulfilled and is still fulfilling, both with respect to Judah 
and Ephraim, it follows that the second part is also to be 
fulfilled, after they return to seek the Lord. Besides, it is 
expressly said that the children of Israel should be, for 
many days, deprived of their privileges, and that they shall 
seek the Lord in the latter days. Both Jewish and Chris- 
tian commentators agree that the latter days refer to the 
coming of the Messiah, and therefore this could not have 
been fulfilled before the coming of Jesus; and I have al- 
ready shown that our people did not receive him as 
" David their king." Permit me now, my dear Benjamin, 
to add the testimony of our Rabbins, of bles.sed memory, 
and of a few Christian writers, 

§ 8. Kimchi says, " These are the days of the capti- 
vity in which vv^e now are; at this day we have no king, 
nor prince out of Israel, and vvc are under the power of the 
nations, and of their kings and princes; and have no sacri- 
fice for God, nor image for idols; nor ephod for God, that 
declares future things; and terapliim for idolatry, which 
show things to come, according to the mind of those that 
believe in them." 

Yarchi speaks much to the same effect : " Without sac- 
rifice in the sanctuary of Judah, u^ithout an image of Baal 
in Samaria for the kings of Israel, without an ephod of 
Urim and Thummim, that declare hidden things, and 



Let. 4.] THE RESTORATION Or THE JEWS. 307 

teraphim made for a time to speak of, and show things 
that are secret." With this agree the words of Aben Ezra 
and Abarbanel; and the Targum paraphrases it thus: 
without a king of the house of David, and without a ruler 
over Israel, without sacrifice for acceptance at Jerusalem, 
nnd without a high place in Samaria, and without an ephod 
in him that shows, i. e. what shall come to pass. 

That the Messiah is meant by David, is acknowledged 
by all our Rabbins. Zohar, Exod. p. 93, c. 3. Jerusalem, 
Talmud, Berachoth, 5:1; Bab. Tal. Megilah, 18:1; 
Abarbanel Mash. Yeshua, 55 : 4. Ab. Ezra, in loco. Chizuk. 
Emuna, 44; Michlal Yophi, Psa. 144:14; Abendana, 
Note in Mich. Yophi, 1 Kings, 11 : 39 ; Hag. 2 : 23. The 
Targum says, " Seek the worship of the Lord their God, 
and obey Messiah the son of David, their king." 

Rabbi Judah Monis, one of our Jewish brethren, who 
made a public profession of faith at Cambridge, Ms. 1722, 
in one of his discourses he says, " The first part of this 
prophecy, we do see, hath been fulfilled to the very last 
tittle, they having been, for the space of above 1650 years, 
(since the destruction of their commonwealth,) deprived or 
all these things mentioned in the 4th verse; and reduced 
from that state they Avere formerly in, which was such as 
could make any nation happy, to such an one as they are 
now in, scattered all over the world, subject to all sorts ot 
nations that are willing to let them live among them, ruled 
by their own enemies ; paying tribute to all nations where 
they live : and finally enduring all the calamities and op- 
probrious treatment that can make them unhappy ; and as 
we have seen the first part accomplished, so I hope the se- 
cond part will be fulfilled also, i. e. they shall return and 
seek the Lord, and David their king, i. e. the Messiah, the 
Lord Jesus Christ, and fear him and his goodness in the 
latter days, and look on him whom they have pierced." 
Zeeh, 12: 10. 



308 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part 5. 

§ 9. The learned Dr. Pocock says, " By the children of 
Israel are meant the ten tribes, for these does the prophet 
peculiarly now prophecy to, and the things more especially 
concern them. This prophecy is not applicable to the 
children of Israel before the destruction of the second 
temple." 

Mr. Fuller, having proved, by the first and second chap- 
ters of Hosea, the future conversion of Judah and Israel, 
proceeds to say, " The third chapter contains another pro- 
phecy on the same subject. Like the former, it is introdu- 
ced under the form of a parable. The case supposed is 
that of a man attached to a woman who is an adultress. 
Go, saith the Lord to the prophet, see if thou canst love 
such an one ; yet such, if any thing, must be my love to this 
people. The prophet is further supposed to go and cove- 
nant with this adultress, engaging her to desist for many 
days from her lewd courses, living, as it were, as a widow, 
by herself, and afterward she should become his wife. Such 
was the love of the Lord to the children of Israel. He 
loved them notwithstanding their idolatry, and intended, at 
a future time, to take them to be his people. He would 
not receive them, however, in their idolatry, nor till a pro- 
per time had elapsed, in which they should live in a state of 
separation ; but in due season he would take them to him- 
self as his church and people, remembering their sin no 
more. 

" The children of Israel shall abide many days without 
a king, and without a prince, and without a sacrifice. Never 
surely has a prophecy corresponded more exactly with 
fact. Nor is this all : the whole of the Israelitish race, 
with whom we have an}'- acquaintance, have also been with- 
out an image, and without an ephod, and without tera- 
phim ; that is, though mixed with the nations of the world, 
and in other respects wicked in the extreme, yet they have 
not been suffered to go into their former idolatrous prac- 



Let. 4.] THE RESTORATION OF THE JEWS. 300 

tices ; and have thus answered to the aduhress ceasing from 
playing the harlot, and abiding for her husband, in a state 
of separation many days. Afterwards shall the children 
of Israel return and seek Jehovah their God, and David 
their king ; and shall fear the Lord and his goodness in the 
latter days. On this no reflection need be made, save this, 
that the superabundant grace of God towards them, in their 
outcast and perishing condition, shall not only fill their 
hearts with gratitude, but inspire them with a holy fear of 
offending him any more." 

§ 10. Dr. Scott says, "Some interpret this almost wholly 
of the kingdom of Israel : but the prophecy seems to re- 
quire us to understand it of the whole people descended 
from Abraham, Isaac and Jacob." Again, " The kingdom 
of Israel was, soon after this, entirely ruined, and the peo- 
ple were incorporated either with the Jews or the nations 
among whom they resided ; and have had neither king, 
prince, priest, sacrifice, nor religious establishment, from 
that day to this. The Jews remained several years with- 
out these advantages, during the Babylonish captivity ; yet 
their civil and religious constitution Vv'as again restored. 
But since the rejection of that nation at the introduction 
of Christianity, and the destruction of their city and temple 
by the Romans, they have continued to this time, for much 
above seventeen hundred years, without a king or prince 
of their own nation; and without priest and sacrifice, or 
any thing substituted in the place of the temple worship . 
and (what is still more remarkable) they have also remain- 
ed without an image, ephod, or teraphim, without any of 
those idolatrous observances and apparatus to which the}'- 
were so generally attached when this prophecy was utter- 
ed." ''It was also predicted that afterwards they should 
return, (from their state of rejection and unbelief,) and seek 
the Lord their God, and David their King :" " This, even 
their own writers explain of the promised Messiah, and 



310 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part 5. 

doubtless it foretold their future conversion to Christ ; for 
which they are evidently preserved a separate people, nei- 
ther a part of the true church, nor yet given up to spiritual 
adultery; but put aside on a separate, scanty maintenance, 
in a debased condition, for a long time, (like Hosea's wife,) 
to be at length received to favor again." 

Now, my dear Benjamin, there are many more predic 
tions of a similar nature with those we have already con- 
sidered, such as Isa. 2 : 1-5. 11 : 11-16. 49 : 14-26. 
Amos, 9 : 11-15. Zephaniah, 3': 8-2U. Zech. 8 : 18-23, 
&c. &c. But I shall solicit your attention only to two 
more, which we shall consider in my next. 

Farewell. 



L.ettcr V. 



THE SUBJECT CONTINUED. 



Beloved Brother Benjamin, 

Permit me now to call your attention once more to two 
passages of Scripture which predict the future restoration 
and conversion of our dear people. I commence with, 

§ 1. Jerem. 31 : 31-40. ''Behold, the days come, saith 
the Lord, that I will make a new covenant with the house 
of Israel, and with the house of Judah ; not according to 
the covenant that I made with their fathers, in the day 
that I took them by the hand to bring them out of the land 
of Egypt ; (which my covenant they broke, although I was 
a husband unto them, saith the Lord :) but this shall be the 
covenant that I will make with the house of Israel ; after 



Let. 5.] THE RESTORATION OF THE JEWS. 311 

those days, saith the Lord, I will put rny law in their in- 
ward parts, and write it in their hearts, and will be their 
God, and they shall be my people. And they shall teach 
no more every man his neighbor, and every man his bro- 
ther, saying, know the Lord : for they shall all know me, 
from the least of them unto the greatest of them, sailh the 
Lord : for I will forgive their iniquity, and I will remem- 
ber their sin no more. Thus saith the Lord, which giveth 
the sun for a light by day, and the ordinances of the moon 
and of the stars for a light by night, which divideth the 
sea when the waves thereof roar ; the Lord of hosts is his 
name: if those ordinances depart from before me, saith 
the Lord, then the seed of Israel aLo shall cease from being 
a nation before me for ever. Thus saith the Lord, if the 
heaven above can be measured, and the foundations of the 
earth searched out beneath, I will also cast off all the seed 
of Israel, for all they have done, saith the Lord. Behold, 
the days come, saith the Lord, that the city shall be built 
to the Lord, from the tower of Hananeel unto the gate of 
the corner; and the measuring-line shall yet go forth over 
against it upon the hill Gareb, and shall compass about to 
Goath ; and the whole valley of the dead bodies, and of 
the ashes, and all the fields unto the brook of Kidron, unto 
the corner of the horse-gate towards the east, shall be holy 
unto the Lord ; it shall not be plucked up, nor thrown down 
any more for ever." 

Although this prediction respecting a New Covenant 
is applied by the aposlle (Heb. 8) to the commencement of 
the New Testament dispensation, and was actually made or 
established by the death, resurrection and ascension of jesiis ; 
and although the blessings of this covenant are the same as 
are enjoyed by every converted sinner, yet literally and more 
fully it respects our nation, with whom the other covenant had 
been made when God brought them out of Egypt. Nor 
was this prediction fulfilled in the conversion of our ore- 



312 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. "Parti 

thren in the apostolic time, for, however many of them may 
have been converted, they have all been mixed with the 
converts of other nations ; but the promise in this prophecy 
is the conversion, not of a few, or many, " but the whole 
house of Israel and the house of Judah," ver. 31, "the 
nation," ver. '66, just as the covenant of Sinai had been made 
with the nation. " They shall all know me, from the least 
of them unto the greatest of them." ver. 34. Further, this 
promise was made to the ten tribes as well as to the house 
of Judah. Long before the giving of this promise, our 
people were divided into two parts. The one of them, in 
a way of distinction from the other, retained the name of 
Israel. These were the ien tribes which fell off from the 
house of David, under the conduct of Ephraim ; whence 
they are often also in the prophets called by that name. 
The other, consisting of the tribe properly so called, with 
that of Benjamin and the greatest part of Levi, took the 
name of Judah, and afterwards was called the Jeics, and 
with them the promise remained in a pecuh'ar manner. 
But, whereas they ail originally sprang from Abraham, 
Avho received the promise for them all, and because they 
vv^rre all equally, in their forefather, brought into the bond 
of the old covenant, they are here mentioned distinctly, that 
none of the s&ed of Abraham might be excluded from the 
tender of this covenant. Hence, unto the whole seed of 
Abraham according to the flesh, it was that this covenant 
was first to be offered. So Peter tells them in his first ser- 
mon, that the promise was unto them and their children 
who were there present, i. e. the house of Judah, and to 
them that are afar off, i. e. the house of Israel, or the teii 
tribes, in their dispersion. Acts, 2 : 39. It appears there- 
fore plainly, that the promise is yet to be fulfilled in the 
conversion of the ten tribes as well as the house of Judah. 
Besides, at that time "the city shall be built, which shall 
not be plucked up or thrown down any more for ever." 
ver. 38, 40. 



Let. 5.J THE RESTORATION OF THE JEWS. 313 

It is evident, therefore, that our people will first retura 
to the literal Canaan, rebuild the city, and after that be con- 
verted as a nation ; and the sure fulfillment of it is more 
certain than the stability of heaven and earth. 

§ 2. " This new covenant," says the learned and judi- 
cious A. McLean, " was promised to be made with the 
house of Israel and with the house of Judah. These, in 
the first place, signify the election among the natural pos- 
terity of Abraham, with whose fathers the old covenant 
was made. ver. 9. To them, in the first instance, belong 
' the covenants and the promises,' Rom. 9:4; and among 
them they had their first accomplishment. Acts, 3 : 25, 26 ; 
and though the bulk of that nation was broken off, inrough 
their unbelief and rejection of the Messiah, Rom. 1 i : 20 ; 
yet this covenant still wears a favorable aspect towards that 
people, when the fullness of the Gentiles shall be come in ; 
for this is God's covenant unto them, when he shall take 
away their sins," ver. 25-27. " When Israel shall be again 
called into the church," says Dr. Scott. " it will not be ac- 
cording to the Sinai covenant; but oy naving the law writ- 
ten in their hearts, and the covenant thus inwardly ratified 
to them. As much as the heavenly bodies will continue 
their settled course to the end of time, so surely wi.. Israel 
be continued a separate people, without being finally ex- 
cluded from the church ; nor will God ever cast them all 
off for all their sins, till it be possible for man to measure 
the height of the heavens, or to search out the foundations 
of the earth." The last prediction I shall name, is that by 
the Prophet, 

§ 3. Zechariah, 12 : 10-14. " And I will pour upon the 
house of David, and upon the inhabitants of Jerusalem, the 
spirit of grace and of supplications ; and they shall look 
upon me whom they have pierced, and they shall mourn 
for him, as one mourneth for his only son, and shall be in 
bitterness for him, as one that is in bitterness for his first- 



0^4 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. {.Part 6 

born. In that day shall there be a great mourning in Je- 
rusalem, as the mourning of Hadadrimmon in. the valley 
of Megiddon. And the land shall mourn, every family 
apart ; the family of the house of David apart, and their 
wives apart; the family of the house of Nathan apart, 
and their wives apart ; the family of the house of Levi 
apart, and their wives apart ; the family of Shimei apart, 
and their wives apart; all the families that remain, every 
family apart, and their wives apart." 

1st. That this is a prophecy respecting the Messiah, is 
acknowledged by our Rabbins, Succah, fo. 52. 1 ; R. S. 
Ben. Melech in loco ; Ber. Rab. fo. 905 ; Yarchi and 
Kimchi in loco ; R. Haddarshan, Gen. 28. Some think 
that part of ver. 10 was spoken by the prophet, viz. "they 
shall mourn for him," because it is spoken in the third 
person, for him ; but no converted sinner, whether Jew or 
Gentile, needs to mourn for him, i. e. Messiah or Christ, 
but they will mourn for the act of having pierced him ; for 
the word alav, translated him, signifies also it, or on ac- 
count of it, concerning it. To return. 

2d. Two things are ascribed to the Messiah. He was to 
be pierced ; and he was to pour upon the house of David, 
and the inhabitants of Jerusalem, the spirit of grace and 
supplications. 

3d. The effect of the operations of the Holy Spirit was 
twofold. Faith in the Messiah, "they shall look unto him," 
by which faith is expressed : great mourning and true re- 
pentance for having pierced him. We have then a descrip- 
tion of the nature and extent of the mourning. The former 
is compared to that of a tender mother, having lost "an 
only son, or a first-born," which mourning is sincere, deep 
and lasting; and the extent is compared to that mourning 
which was occasioned by the death of Josiah, who was 
slain at Hadadrimmon, in the valley of Megiddon ; the 
greatest mourning our people were acquainted with, and 



Let. 5.] THE RESTORATION OF THE JEWS. 315 

on that account it grew up into a proverb, and as that 
mourning was national, so would this be also. 

Such, my dear Benjamin, is the outline of this precious 
promise. Now, thai the person predicted is the Messiah 
Jesus, I have shown in a former letter, (p. 396 ;) and that 
although this prediction may have been partially fulfilled 
in the conversion of many of our Jewish brethren in the 
apostolic times, and however applicable it is to the conver- 
sion of every sinner : yet it must be allowed that its proper 
and complete fulfillment is yet to come. It is evident that 
no such repentance and faith, such general and particular 
mourning for piercing Christ, has ever taken place amongst 
our dear people ; nor has the preceding part of the chapter, 
closely connected with the prediction under consideration, 
been fulfilled. Jerusalem must first be rebuilt, before it is 
besieged by the united power of many kings, who shall 
then be destroyed in a miraculous manner. I conclude, 
therefore, that this is a prophecy concerning the future re- 
storation of our nation to the literal land of Canaan ; that 
they will rebuild the city Jerusalem ; that they will after- 
ward be besieged by many nations, who shall be destroyed 
by God himself; and in that day Judah and Israel shall be 
converted unto God. 

§ 4. " That we may perceive," says Dr. Fuller, " the 
connection of the prophecy, (Zech. chap. 12,) it will be 
proper to observe, that chapter 1 1 contains a prediction of 
the overthrow of the Jewish nation by the Romans; but 
chapter 12 contains a prophecy of their restoration ; and 
this is, therefore, called ' the burden of the word of the 
Lord,' ver. 1. 

'• The events of this and the foregoing prophecy, though 
wide asunder as to time, yet very properly follow each 
other. Paul takes but little notice of the state of the Jews, 
during their long dispersion ; but passing over that chasm, 
as included in their being broken off, proceeds to speak of 
their being grafted in again. Rom. 11. 



316 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part 5. 

" It were presumptuous to be very positive as to the 
meaning of a prophecy which is yet to be accomplished ; 
but, comparing it with other prophecies of the same event, 
the following particulars appear to be conveyed by it: 

" 1st. That the Jews shall be restored to their own land 
prior to their conversion, ver. 6. 

'' 2d. That a grand combination will be formed against 
them, with a view to dispossess them, ver. 2, 9. 

•' 3d. That the nations engaged in this combination will 
be repulsed and sorely punished for their presumptuous 
attempt, ver. 2-6. 

" 4th. That the country and city shall be united against 
the enemy, ver. 5, 7. 

" 5th. That they shall be guarded by Providence, and 
strengthened to encounter the greatest difficulties, ver. 8. 

" 6th. That after these temporal interpositions, the Lord 
will pour upon them a spirit of grace and of supplications ; 
and they shall lament over their sins, and the sins of their 
fathers, particularly in having crucified the Lord of glory, 
ver. 10. 

" Finally, The remedy to all this grief is mentioned, chap. 
13:1. 'In that day there shall be a fountain opened to the 
house of David, and to the inhabitants of Jerusalem, for sin 
and for uncleanness.' By looking to Jesus, they were 
wounded ; and by looking to Jesus, they are healed. The 
first fruits of this great work appeared on the day of Pen- 
tecost, when thousands were pricked to the heart, repented, 
and were baptized in that name which they had despised ; 
but the lump is yet to appear. ' Blessed be the Lord God, 
the God of Israel, who only doeth wondrous things : and 
blessed be his glorious name for ever: and let the whole 
earth be filled with his glory. Amen and amen.' " 

§ 5. Some expositors consider this as predicting the vic- 
tories of the Maccabees over Antiochus ; but that persecu- 
tor never besieged Jerusalem ; " and the language," says 
Bp. Newcomb, " is much too strong to denote the success 



Let. 5.j THE RESTORATION OF THE JEWS, 317 

of the Maccabees." Again he says, " God's signal inter- 
position in behalf of Judah and Jerusalem, at their future 
restoration, having been foretold, the prophet proceeds to 
foretell their conversion to Christianity." 

*' The former part of this chapter relates to an invasion 
made upon the inhabitants of Judah and Jerusalem in the 
latter times of the world, probably after their restoration 
and settlement in their own land." Bp. Lowth. 

" However it may be accommodated," says Dr. Scott, 
" some special events were doubtless intended by the Holy 
Spirit, and it is probable that the grand accomplishment of 
it is yet to be expected. The ancestors of the Jews caused 
Christ to be nailed to the cross, and pierced by the soldier's 
spear ; for they employed the Romans to execute the sen- 
tence which they had denounced, exclaiming, ' His blood 
be upon us and on our children ;' and their posterity have 
ever since been consenting to this deed by their obstinate 
unbelief. But at the predicted period they will know who 
this crucified Jesus was, and then they shall by faith look 
to him, and mourn over him, as pierced and slain by them. 
A partial fulfillment of this took place at and after the day 
of Pentecost, in the conversion of numbers of the Jews who 
had just before crucified Christ, and it is descriptive of the 
conversion of sinners in every age. Yet there can be no 
reasonable doubt but it is an intended prediction of the 
conversion of the Jewish nation, when they shall, as one 
body, embrace the Gospel of Jesus Christ." 

Thus, my dear Benjamin, I hope I have, to your satis- 
faction, established, upon divine testimony, the proposition 
that our dear people, both Judah and Ephraim, will bo 
brought back to their own land, and after that be brought 
to the belief in the Lord Jesus Christ ; yet it may not be im- 
proper to remind you of a few facts, as collateral evidence. 

^ 6. It is the opinion of many eminent writers, that our 
people have never yet possessed rdl the land which God 



318 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part 5, 

promised to our fathers, Abraham, Isaac and Jacob; but 
the time will surely come, when our faithful covenant God 
will fulfill his promises in the fullest extent. See this sub- 
ject ably discussed in the Jewish Expositor, 1822, p. 271- 
ii76. See also the quotation from Joseph Mede, in the pre- 
ceding^ 3d letter, ^ 3. 

§ 7. The wonderful preservation of our people as a dis- 
tinct nation, is another argument in favor of their return to 
their own land. It has been foretold by Moses and the pro- 
phets, that though they shall be dispersed amongst all na- 
tions, yet they should not be totally destroyed, but still sub- 
sist as a distinct people. Read carefully, my dear Benja- 
min, the following passages : Lev. 26 : 44 ; Numb. 23 : 9 ; 
Jer. 30 : 11; Amos, 9 : 8. Our beloved nation, like the 
bush of Moses, hath been always burning, but it is never 
consumed. And what a marvelous thing it is, that after so 
many wars, battles and sieges, after so many fires, famines 
and pestilences, after so many years of captivity, slavery 
and misery, they are not destroyed utterly, and though 
scattered among all people, yet subsist as a distinct people 
by themselves. Where is any thing comparable to this to 
be found in all the histories and in all the nations under 
the sun ? How just and beautiful is the observation of Bp. 
Newton on this subject : " The preservation of the Jews 
through so many ages, and the total destruction of their 
enemies, are wonderful events ; and are still more wonder- 
ful, by being signified beforehand by the spirit of prophecy, 
as we find particularly in the prophet Jeremiah, 46 : 28. 
* Fear not thou, O Jacob my servant, sailh the Lord ; for I 
am with thee; for I will make a full end of all the nations 
whither I have driven thee, but I will not make a full end 
of thee.' The preservation of the Jews is really one of the 
most signal and illustrious acts of Divine Providence. They 
are dispersed among all nations, yet they are not confound- 
ed with any. The drops of rain which fall, nay, the great 



Let. 5.J THE RESTORATION OF THE JEWS. 3i9 

rivers which flow into the ocean, are soon mingled and 
lost in the immense body of waters : and the same, in all 
human probability, would have been the fate of the Jews ; 
they would have been mingled and lost in the common 
mass of mankind : but, on the contrary, they flow into all 
parts of the world, mix with all nations, and yet keep se- 
parate from all. They still live as a distinct people, and 
yet they no where live according to their own laws, no 
where elect their own magistrates, no where enjoy the full 
exercise of their religion. Their solemn feasts and sacri- 
fices are limited to one certain place, and that hath been 
now for many ages in the hands of strangers and aliens, 
who will not suffer them to come thither. No people have 
continued unmixed so long as they have done, not only of 
those who have sent forth colonies into foreign countries, 
but even of those who have abodes in their own country. 
The northern nations have come in swarms unto the most 
southern parts of Europe, but where are they now to be 
discerned and distinguished ? The Gauls went forth in 
great bodies, to seek their fortune in foreign parts ; but 
what traces or footsteps of them are now remaining any 
where? In France, who can separate the race of the 
ancient Gauls from the various other people who from 
time to time have settled there ? In Spain, who can distin- 
guish exactly between the first possessors, the Spaniards 
and Goths, and the Moors, who conquered and kept pos- 
session of the country for some ages ? In England, who 
can pretend to say with certainty which families are de- 
rived from the ancient Britons, and which from the Ro- 
mans, or Saxons, or Danes, or Normans ? The most 
ancient and honorable pedigrees can be traced up only to a 
certain period, and beyond that, there is nothing but con- 
jecture and uncertainty, obscurity and ignorance ; but the 
Jews can go up higher than any nation, they can even date 
their pedigree from the beginning of the world. They 



320 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part 5 

may not know from what particular tribe or family they 
are descended, but they know certainly that they all sprmg 
from the stock of Abraham. And yet, the contempt with 
which they have been treated, and the hardships which 
they have undergone in almost all countries, should, one 
would think, have made them desirous to forget or re- 
nounce their original ; but they possess it, they glory in 
it: and after so many wars, massacres and persecutions, 
they still subsist, they still are very numerous : and what 
but a supernatural power could have preserved them in 
such a manner as none other nation upon earth hath been 
preserved ?" 

§ 8. As another argument, I would simply remind you, 
my dear Benjamin, of the general expectation of our peo- 
ple to return to the land of our fathers. You know that 
this desire is interwoven in all their prayers from day to 
day, and more particularly so in the prayers for the festi- 
vals, especially on the feast of the passover, when it is said 
repeatedly, " This year we are here, at the next year we 
shall be in the land of Israel." Now, my dear Benjamin, I 
cannot but hope that these prayers are " the prayers of 
faith." i. e. believing the many promises of God on this 
subject, just as Joseph, my namesake, who, just before his 
death, said to his brethren, '' I die, and God will surely 
visit you, and bring 3^ou out of this land, into the land of 
which he sware unto Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob." Gen. 
50 : 24. It was this promise that supported our fathers in 
the house of the Egyptian bondage, and encouraged thenri, 
even when every appearance of hope was gone, to groan, 
and sigh, and pray unto the Lord for deliverance: "And 
Jehovah said, 1 have surely seen the affliction of my peopie 
which are in Egypt, and have heard their cry by reason of 
their taskmasters ; for I know their sorrows, and am come 
down to deliver them out of the land of the Egyptians, 
and to bring them up out of that land unto a good land and 



Let 5.] THE RESTORATION OF THE JEWS. 321 

a large, unto a land flowing with milk and honey ; unto the 
place of the Canaanites, and the Hittites, and the Amorites, 
and the Perizzites, and the Hivites, and the Jebusites. Now 
therefore, behold, the cry of the children of Israel is come 
unto me ; and I have also seen the oppression wherewith 
the Egyptians oppress them. Come now therefore, and I 
will send thee unto Pharaoh, that thou mayest bring forth 
my people the children of Israel out of Egypt." Exod. 3 : 
7-10. In like manner our dear people, under their present 
long and unparalleled afflictions, have been supported 
solely by the " full assurance of faith and hope " in God's 
many and precious promises, that he will surely gather 
them again out of every nation, and bring them into the 
land which he gave to our fathers; and they will not be 
disappointed in their expectation. 

^ 9. Let it also be considered, my dear Benjamm, as a 
most remarkable circumstance and strong argument in favor 
of our people's returning again to the land of our fathers, that 
they are so situated that at the shortest notice they are ready 
and able to depart as easily as when they came out of 
Egypt. They have no country they call their own be- 
sides the land of Canaan ; they are strangers and sojourn- 
ers as our fathers were ; they have no landed property to 
dispose of; they do not intermarry with other nations, so 
as to be detained by attachments to relations, friends or 
possessions. Thus God makes *' the wrath of man to praise 
him, and the remainder thereof he will restrain." Nay, their 
former enemies will become their friends, and help them 
in their way to their original possession. " That in all 
the countries where they are," says the Rev. J. Lunn, ''they 
should, generally speaking, have no property, either in 
houses or lands, no heritable possession or share in the 
government, or any thing to detain them from returning to 
their native country, in case an opportunity should happen, 
looks as if Providence intended one day to turn back their 

VOL II. 14 



322 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part 5. 

captivity, and to put them into possession of their ancient 
inheritance. The many disappointments which that people 
have met with, in attempting to obtain a settlement, or the 
privileges of citizens, in different countries, may indeed bo 
looked upon as a punishment, and part of the curse that 
lies upon them for their sin in crucifying the Savior ^nd 
continuing so long to reject his Gospel ; and no doubt so it 
is: but when we consider the kindness of Providence to 
them in other respects, his preserving, supporting, and 
even multiplying them, notwithstanding the numberless 
massacres and persecutions they have sustained, I say, 
when we consider these things, we cannot help thinking 
that Providence, in disappointing them of a settlement, has 
some other end in view besides punishing them for their 
infidelity. If we deny the restoration of the Jews, we will 
find it hard to account for their prosperity. But if we ad- 
mit of their future restoration, then the reason not only of 
their worldly prosperity, but of all the other dispensations 
of Providence towards them, is most apparent. He denies 
them a settlement in the countries where they are, to pre- 
vent their having any attachment to them, and that they 
may be under no temptation to stay still, or look back, 
whensoever they are called in the course of Providence to 
remove: and for this reason, also, he suffers them to be 
hated and persecuted, namely, that they may be the more 
willing to quit the places where they are so used ; and 
lastly, he endows them with riches, that they may have 
wherewith to support themselves on their journey to their 
native country, and to establish themselves therein : for as 
many of them live at a great distance from Palestine, to 
travel so far, and to erect a settlement for themselves in a 
country almost desolate, is a thing not to be done without 
considerable wealth; and their being endowed with such 
wealth, as it renders their return possible, so it adds to the 
probability of it. Thus both the kindness and the severity 



Let. 5.] THE RESTORATION OF THE JEWS. 323 

of Providence towards this people serve to confirm the 
doctrine I have been endeavoring to prove, viz. their future 
conversion and restoration." 

^ 10. Permit me, my dear Benjamin, to mention one 
more argument in favor of the speedy return of our dear 
people to the land which, though it once flowed with milk 
and honey, has for many ages been desolate, but will soon 
become like •' the garden of Eden," viz. the removal of the 
obstacles out of their way. Not only are they prepared 
by the remarkable hand of Providence to return at a mo- 
ment's warning, but the way is also preparing for them. 
The great river Euphrates is drying up; the once terrible 
Turkish empire is crumbling into pieces ; and the deter- 
mined time " for the land to be trodden under foot by the 
Gentiles " is near its close, and kings talk of becoming 
their nursing fathers, and queens their nursing mothers. 
On each of these particulars, my dear Benjamin, I should 
gladly expatiate at considerable length, had not I detained 
you already too long, and greatly exceeded my prescribed 
limits. 

Before I proceed to answer the objections generally 
brought against the preceding proposition, I will endeavor 
to answer a question very frequently proposed, viz. 

^11. If the Jews return to their own land, will they 
rebuild the city of Jerusalem ? Will they have a temple, 
altar, sacrifice, and priest ? 

First, as it respects Jerusalem, there can be no reason- 
able doubt in the mind of those who will be guided by the 
plain word of God. Almost in every passage, Avhere the 
restoration of our people to their own land is mentioned, 
the building of the city of Jerusalem, in its own place, is 
also mentioned. Read only the following predictions; 
Jer. 30 : 8-11, 18. 31 : 38-40. Zech. 12 : 1-8. Nor 
ought we to lose sight of the prediction of the blessed Je^ijs 
himself, who said, '* And Jerusalem shall be trodden dov?a 



324 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part 5. 

of the Gentiles until the times of the Gentiles be fulfilled," 
Luke, 21 : 24; which evidently implies that when the 
times of the Gentiles are fulfilled, Jerusalem shall no 
longer be trodden down, but be rebuilt and inhabited again 
by her own people. Dr. Guise, on this passage, says, 
*' Jerusalem itself shall be sacked and trampled upon with 
indignation and contempt ; and shall be kept under the juris- 
diction of the Gentiles, and never be rebuilt again, with any 
grandeur, suitable to its present state, till the glorious days 
shall come, which are appointed for the general conversion 
of the Jews, and bringing in of the fullness of ihe Gen- 
tiles. Our Lord hereby seems to intimate, that then Jeru- 
salem should be rebuilt, and the Jews gathered to their own 
country and city again ; and that the Gentiles shall then 
no longer lord it over them, but all nations shall flow 
in unto them, and shall walk in their light, rejoicing in 
God's mercy to them, and sharing in all spiritual blessings 
with them." Dr. Doddridge says, " It seems reasonable 
to suppose that here, as in most other places, the Gentiles 
are opposed to the Jews ; and consequently all the period 
between the destruction of Jerusalem and the restoration 
of the Jews to their own land, so expressly foretold in 
Scripture, is here intended." (See Isaiah, 27 : 12, 13. 
Ezek. 11: 17. 20:40.42. 34:13. 36:24,28. 37:21-28. 
39 : 28, 29. Hosea, 3 : 5. Amos, 9:14, 15. and Zech. 
14: 10, 11.) 

Dr. Gill says, " Then the Jews will be converted, and 
return to their own land, and rebuild and inhabit Jerusa- 
lem : but till that time it will be, as it has been, and still 
is, possessed by the Gentiles." My dear Benjamin, I might 
greatly multiply quotations of this nature, but these may 
suffice. 

§ 12. And as it respects the other part of the question, 
about building a temple, and having an altar and sacrifice, 
&c. &c. my answer to the whole is in the affirmative. For» 



LeX.b.} THE RESTORATION OF THE JEWS. 325 

how could I doubt it for a moment, even if the word of 
God were perfectly silent on the subject ? Suppose a com- 
pany of five thousand pious and conscientious Christians 
had gone to Africa to colonize, and had drawn up various 
articles how to proceed when arrived there; viz. to build 
a city of such and such dimensions, to erect so many 
houses, to plant vineyards, to establish certain factories, 
&c. &c. ; but not a word is said in this compact about keep- 
ing the Sabbath and building a place of worship, forming 
a church and administering the ordinances ; and suppose 
also that intelligence has been received, giving an account 
of their safe arrival and establishment according to the 
original agreement, but again not a word is mentioned 
about their religious deportment ; would any one who had 
known these five thousand pious Christians suppose for a 
monient that they kept no Sabbath, that they had no place of 
worship, that they had "Constituted no -church, and conse- 
?juently administered no ordinances, merely because they 
had not expressly covenanted to do so, and because the 
intelligence that has reached us of their perfect establish- 
ment made no mention of these things? Would such a 
supposition not be a stigma on their character? Would it 
not loudly proclaim their former religious professions to 
have been a hypocrisy of the most heinous kind ? Or, must 
it not rather be taken for granted, by all who believe them 
to be sincere Christians, that after their arrival, in imitation 
of the pious patriarchs, who, wherever they pitched their 
tents, erected immediately an altar unto the Lord, the very 
first thing they attended to after their safe arrival, was to 
build a house of worship, and to walk in all God's ap- 
pointed ways ? And now, my dear Benjamin, why should 
it be thought strange to believe that our dear people, who 
have, for nearly eighteen hundred years, most conscien- 
tiously observed all the religious rites which God gave to 
our fathers, in all countries, amongst all people, and under 



326 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part 5. 

all circumstances, as far as the law of God allows them to 
observe them in a strange land, although these observances 
exposed them to reproach, hatred, persecution, and death 
itself, would, when they are brought back by the wonder- 
ful goodness of God, to the land which God gave to our 
fathers, build again a temple for the worship of God, erect 
an altar unto the Lord, and offer up their sacrifices, and 
observe all other ceremonies which they observed before 
their dispersion by the Romans ? Did they not do so after 
their return from the Babylonish captivity ? How strange 
and unaccountable would it appear if our people, who, 
whilst the chastening hand of God was upon them for ages, 
were, notwithstanding, steadfast and immovable in wor- 
shiping that God, should cast off all their religious profes- 
sion, love and attachment to him, when he has performed 
his promises in delivering them out of their captivity, and 
brought them back to the goodly land? Would not such 
a supposition charge them with " having denied the faith, 
and become worse than infidels?" God forbid that they 
should ever act so basely. 

<§ 13. 1 am aware, my dear Benjamin, that this senti- 
ment is not only open to an objection which I hope to meet 
by and by ; but some will even charge me with heresy. 
For a learned and pious author has already thus expressed 
himself: "It will not be denied that the possession of the 
land of Canaan by the natural posterity of Abraham form- 
ed an integral part of that covenant. Accordingly as long 
as that covenant remained in force, Israel retained posses- 
sion of the land ; but when Paul wrote his epistle to the 
Hebrews, that economy had waxed old, and was ready to 
vanish away. Now, to mc,'' he says, "it appears, that 
to contend for the return of the Jews, as a nation, to their 
own land, is in efl^ect to 'build again the things that are de- 
stroyed ;' — it is virtually denying that the Sinai covenant 
has vanished away — it is pleading for its restoration — it is, 



Let. 5.] THE RESTORATION OF THE JEWS. 327 

in a word, denying that Christ is come, or, if come, it is 
denying that his kingdom is not of this world." 

These are hard sayings, my dear Benjamin. Here is 
multum in parvo, A bad spirit, bad theology, and bad rea- 
soning. This is condemning in a lump a host of the most 
eminently learned and pious Christians in every age, who 
have believed that the Jews will return again to their own 
country. Here is a sad confounding of the covenant which 
God made with Abraham, which had the land of Canaan 
for its object, the natural posterity of Abraham for its sub- 
jects, and circumcision for its seal ; and that covenant which 
the Lord made with our fathers when he brought them out 
of Egypt, which had the promised Messiah, and salvation 
by him, for its antitype. The former is called the Abra- 
hamic, the second the Sinaic covenant. Hjnce the latter 
vanished away when Christ came, as the shadow gives 
way to the substance ; but when and where did God say- 
that the Abrahamic covenant should be disannulled, or 
vanish away? On the contrary, "heaven and earth may 
sooner cease than this covenant." Jer. 31 : 35-38. These 
two covenant3 are as distinct in their nature and duration, 
as the covenant made with Noah and that made at the 
foot of Mount Sinai. And although the Abrahamic was in- 
cluded in the Sinaic. yet as the former existed before the 
latter was made, so likewise it continued in force after the 
other waxed old and vanished away. Besides, what has 
the mere restoration of the Jews to their own land to do 
with the coming of Christ ? What difference does it make 
where the Jews reside, whether in Judea or Europe? 
You know, my dear Benjamin, that I have proved that the 
Messiah has come, not from the location of the Jews, but 
from his having fulfilled all that was written of him in the 
Law, in the Prophets, and in the book of Psalms; and 
you will doubtless remember that I have also proved, in a 
variety of particulars, that Christ's kingdom is not of this 



328 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part 5. 

world ; yet I believe that he will reign on the earth for a 
thousand years, but not in a worldly spirit, after the man- 
ner and customs of this world. 

Having", I trust, my dear Benjamin, established the point, 
that our beloved people, both Judah and Ephraim, are to 
return to the literal Canaan before their conversion ; that 
they will rebuild Jerusalem, and establish Judaism for a 
season, and aflerwards be converted, "and seek ihe Lord 
their God, and David their king, and shall fear the Lord 
and his goodness in the latter days:" I will now endeavor 
to answer the principal objections brought against this sen- 
timent. 

§ 14. A writer in the Christian Spectator of 1826, over 
the signature of Aleph, proposes the following question : 
" Will the Jews, after their conversion to Christianity, be 
restored to any of their former peculiar distinctions ?" He 
then goes on to state his imaginary difficulties in a literal 
fulfillment of the prophecies. Now you will easily per- 
ceive, my dear Benjamin, that this writer, by putting "the 
cart before the horse," has run into a slough of despond, 
from which he thought he could extricate himself only by 
making a desperate leap — oi spiritualizing ^\\\\iix.i\\\Q pro- 
phets have said concerning the future condition of our peo- 
ple and nation. Had he put the question thus, " Will the 
Jews be restored to any of their former peculiar distinc- 
tions, and afterwards be converted to Christianity?" all 
would have been plain and easy. This has been the fatal 
mistake of almost all the writers in opposition to the liteml 
restoration of our people that I have seen, viz. putting the 
conversion of Israel before their restoration instead of after it. 

Aleph objects that the New Testament speaks only of their 
spiritual conversion, but is silent respecting the return to 
Canaan, &c. Answer, The reason is plain : the Jews were, 
at that time, still in their own land : the only question agita- 
ted was, whether all Israel was cut off, or only a part. Nor 



Let. 5.] THE RESTORATION OF THE JEWS. 329 

was the literal restoration denied till ages after their dis- 
persion by the Romans. 

Next he says, " that at the time of the conversion of 
the Jews, there will be but one fold, under one shepherd." 
True, this is my belief, but that does not prevent their lite- 
ral return before their conversion, and their re-establishing 
Judaism, and remaining, probably iox forty years, till the 
Lord shall pour out the spirit of grace and supplication, 
agreeably to Zechariah, 12 ; 10-14. 

Again he objects, that " the end for which God kept them 
distinct is answered." How does Aleph know that God 
had but one end to ans\ver, in keeping our people dis- 
tinct from all other nations of the earth? 

If the end has been obtained, why has God kept them 
distinct in so wonderful a manner hitherto ? Does God act 
without design ? May not the Lord have some wise design 
in bringing them back to their own land, and permitting 
them to re-establish Judaism in all its former splendor, and 
afterwards opening their eyes to see infinitely more glory 
in Jesus and his cross than in these things, and thus laying 
aside Judaism, for the establishment of which they had wait- 
ed so long, and trusting only in Jesus Christ, as their Savior 
and their God ? Would not such a mode be a much greater 
display of the power of the Gospel, than if the Jews were 
converted gradually in their dispersed state?- But I must 
forbear. 

He further objects, that because Christ did not comply 
with the repeated wishes of the Jews to restore to them 
the kingdom, therefore he will never restore it. Answer, 
That Christ did not comply with their carnal wishes, was 
because that was not his errand at his first coming ; but 
when did he say that he would never restore them after 
their dispersion, or that he would never reign personally 
on the earth ? 

§ 15. Others have objected, "that their return is pro- 
14* 



330 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. (.Part 5. 

mised upon their repentance, and therefore their conver- 
sion must precede." True, God expects their repentance; 
but repentance and conversion do not always go together. 
There never will be conversion without repentance, but 
there may be repentance without conversion. Surely their 
repentance cannot mean that of a converted soul — such 
godly sorrow, such repentance as flows from a renewed 
heart; for this condition is to be performed before they re- 
turn to their own land, but the change of heart is promised 
as succeeding their restoration. Deut. 30; 1-6; Ezek. 
ch. 36, &c. " It is, however," says a son of Abraham in 
the Jewish Expositor, '* by no means true, that the patri- 
archal promises were conditional. The terms in which 
they were given are as absolute as can possibly be con- 
ceived ; the bltssings are most evidently made to depend, 
not on the conduct of men, but on the sovereign will and 
power, the eternal foreknowledge, and the unchangeable 
faithfulness of Jehovah : he does not say, if thou, or thy seed ; 
but, / have given — by myself have I sworn, I will not 
leave thee, until 1 have done that which I have spoken to 
thee of. It is true that the covenant of Sinai was condi- 
tional : but this was only of temporal duration: even while 
it wns in full force, the prophets foretold that the days were 
coming when the Lord would make a new and an uncon- 
ditional covenant ' with the house of Israel, and with the 
house of Judah ;' (Jer. 36, &c.) and with this, as contra- 
distinguished from the other, the Holy Spirit has explichly 
identified the patriarchal covenant, for he has taught us by 
a prophet of the New Testament, that ' the covenant Avhich 
was confirmed before of God in Christ, the law. which 
was four hundred years after, could not disannul, that it 
should make the promise of none effect: for if the inherit- 
ance were of the law, it would be no more of promise, but 
God gave it to Abraham by promise.' " (Gal. 3.) 

There is but one objection more that I shall notice, viz. 



Let. 5.] THE RESTORATION OF THE JEWS. 331 

*• that if the Jews are to return to Canaan before their con- 
version, then it is needless to make exertions to promote 
their conversion." Does it follow, my dear Benjamin, that 
because we do not expect the national conversion of our 
people till after their restoration to Canaan, that therefore 
no individuals may be converted before that time ? The 
Apostle Paul said and believed that our dear people would 
continue under the influence of spiritual darkness until the 
fullness of the Gentiles be come in, yet that did not prevent 
him from going into the synagogue every Sabbath day, 
and reasoning with them from the Scriptures that Jesus is 
the Christ, the Son of God. " Who hath despised the day 
of small things?" 

But I have already mentioned that a considerable num- 
ber of our brethren will be converted before the nation re- 
turns, and that these will not return with them, but be carried 
thither afterwards, agreeably to Isa. iSth. On this, as well 
as on all the other parts mentioned in the first section of the 
third letter in this part, I intended to have greatly enlarged ; 
but lam compelled to close, at least for the present,* the sub- 
ject of the second advent of Christ, to leave some room for 
the last part proposed, viz. The coming of the Messiah to 
judge the world. Farewell. 



♦ The restoration of the Jews, and other subjects connected with 
the millennium, will necessarily be considered in the future num- 
bers of the Jewish Intelligencer. 



FART VI. 

MESSIAH THE JUDGE OF THE WORLD. 



X<cUer I. 

THE RESURRECTION OF THE DEAD. 

Aly Dear Benjamin, 

Having- in the preceding part given you a brief state- 
ment of the second advent of the Messiah, I will now m- 
Vile your attention to his coming to judge the world, which 
solemn transaction will be preceded by the general resur- 
rection of the dead, and which is proposed as the subject of 
the present letter. 

§ 1. By the resurrection, is meant the restoration, by the 
power of God, of the same identical body which died, in 
all the essential and integral parts of it, rendering it, in a 
reunion of, or with the soul, immortal, or of an eternal du- 
ration in blessedness or misery. 

This doctrine is a fundamental article of faith with our 
people, as well as Christians. You will recollect the 13th 
article, which reads thus: "I believe with a perfect faith, 
that the dead will be restored to life, when it shall be so 
ordained by the decree of the Creator ; blessed be his name, 
and exalted be his remembrance for ever and ever." And the 
apostle placed it among " the principles of the doctrine of 
Christ." Heb. 6 : 2. And we are not so sure to rise out of 
our beds, as we are to rise out of our graves. But as there 
are still some Sadducees amongst our people, and too many 



Let. 1.] THE RESURRECTION OF THE DEAD. 333 

infidels amongst Christians, who do not believe this doc- 
trine, I will endeavor to prove it. 

^ 2. There are probably but few who will deny the pos- 
sihiliiy of a resurrection. Surely all things are possible 
with God. His knowledge is infinite. 

It is easy for God to give to every one his own body. 

If it be possible for a gardener that has 30 several seeds 
in his hand, to be able to distinguish between seed and 
seed ; and for a chemist to extract the elements out of an 
herb and separate them one from the other ; and for a watch- 
maker to take a watch in pieces, and unite the pieces to- 
gether again as before ; much more is it possible for the 
omniscient God to distinguish one particle of dust from the 
other, as well as one man from another, and one stone 
from another. 

§ 3. God is also almighty in power. He can more easily 
raise the body out of the grave, that we can raise a man 
out of sleep. 

He that believeth the first article of the creed, that God 
is almighty, Maker of heaven and earth, will believe this 
article also, viz. that God can raise the dead. For' if he car 
make a body, being nothing, out of the dust of the earth, he 
certainly ran repair it out of the du-et when it is something. 
It is as easy for God to restore a body to a soul at the re 
surrection, as to breathe a soul into the body at the creation. 
God has an unlimited power, and raises the dead, not ac- 
cording to natural laws and measures, but according to the 
efficacy of his own will, which does not stand in need of 
any to accomplish what he pleases. 

Nor is there any thing connected with this subject that 
is absurd or contradictory. Farther, my dear Benjamin, 
consider that a resurrection is not only possible, but highly 
probable. This may be argued, 

§ 4. From analogy of both inanimate and animate ob- 
jects. The constant vicissitudes that are in the world preach 



334 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part 6. 

to us a resurrection ; such as the revolution of seasons, the 
dying and reviving corn, and the various changes in crea- 
tures that have life. Both philosophers and divines write 
of the phoenix, that first she is consumed to ashes by the 
heat of the sun, that afterwards of her ashes arises a young 
one, which is the same phoenix risen from the dead. The 
apostle tells us, that the corn must first be cast into the 
ground, and then die and rot, before it will spring up; 
which showeth that a resurrection from the dead is pos- 
sible even in nature. Add to this, that swallows, flies and 
worms, which lie dead in the winter season, revive again 
in the spring by virtue of the sun's heat. What is every 
night but the grave (as it were) of the daylight, and the 
morning but the resurrection of the day 1 What is the 
winter but the death of the fruits of the earth, and the 
spring but the resurrection of them ? What is death but 
the pulling down of the house of the body? And what is 
the resurrection, but the rebuilding of the same house? 
And why then should any one think it a thing incredible 
for God to raise the dead ? It may further be argued, 

§ 5. From the view of man, as the proper subject of 
reward and punishment. If, therefore, the body did not 
rise, it would have no part either in reward or punishment. 
Hence the justice and the mercy of God require the resur- 
rection of the body. The former requires that the wicked 
should be punished in the same bodies that they sinned in ; 
and the latter makes it necessary that the righteous should 
be rewarded in the same bodies in which they performed 
their good actions ; and therefore, in order to these different 
ends, the bodies of both must rise again. Hence says the 
apostle, "We must all appear before the judgment-seat of 
Christ; that every man may receive the things done in the 
body, according to that he hath done, whether it is good or 
bad." 2 Cor, 5:10, But I will proceed to show that the 
resurrection is not only possible and probable, but, 



Let. 1.] THE RESURRECTlOJf OF THE DEAD. 335 

§ 6 Absolutely certain. 

It is not only a truth which God can make good, but a 
truth which he cannot but make good. As there must be 
a day of judgment, 2 Cor. 5 : 10, so there not only may, but 
there must be a resurrection of the body. But although 
nature and reason may teach us the possibility and the 
probability of a resurrection, yet it is divine revelation 
only that gives us a full assurance of its reality, and a 
satisfactory account of its nature and properties. Hence, 
when our Lord reasoned with the Sadducees on the subject, 
he said, " Ye err, not knowing the Scriptures nor the 
power of God." Matt. 22 : 29. We have several proofs of 
this doctrine in the Old Testament. 

§ 7. We have a very remarkable and explicit declara- 
tion of the resurrection of the dead in the book of Job, 19 : 
25-27; "For I know that my Redeemer liveth, and that 
he shall stand at the latter day upon the earth : and though 
after my skin worms destroy this body, yet in my flesh 
shall I see God : whom I shall see for myself, and my 
eyes shall behold, and not another ; though my reins be 
consumed within me." 

Many sublime and interesting passages in various parts 
of this book arrest our attention, but this is one of the most 
dignified and important. It contains a remarkable decla- 
ration of faith and hope in a divine Redeemer, and of a tri- 
umphant expectation of a resurrection from the dead, to 
the immediate vision and everlasting enjoyment of God. 
That Job is not speaking of a temporal deliverance from 
his present afflictions, is very evident 

From the solemn and impressive manner in which these 
words are introduced. *' O that my words were now writ- 
ten ! O that they were printed in a book ! that they were 
graven with an iron pen and lead in the rock for ever !" 
ver. 23, 24. It was his earnest wish that what he was 
about to utter might be recorded in the most public and 



336 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. (Part 6. 

durable manner, not handed down by oral tradition, but 
writlen, not on a loose leaf, but in a book ; not on perish- 
able materials, but engraven in a rock, and filled out with 
lead, according to the several methods then in use of regis- 
tering remarkable transactions; and observe, my dear Ben- 
jamin; that God granted and exceeded his desire; for being 
written in the sacred Scriptures, his words will continue to 
the end of time, and be made known and useful to multi- 
tudes in all ages and nations. Now, such a passionate pre- 
face would become no other matter so well, as the great 
and all-important truth concerning the Redeemer and a 
future life. 

Further, the word Goail, Kinsman, Redeemer, will suit 
with no person so well as the Messiah, and the spiritual 
redemption by hini. He v*'as promised to be a Redeemer, 
and Christ the Messiah is said to have redeemed us, and 
hence the saints on earth and in heaven bless and praise 
him as their Redeem.er. Read carefully the following pas- 
sages : Isaiah, 49 : 25. 59 : 20. Jer. 31 : 11. Gal. 3 : 13. 
Eph. 1 : 7. 1 Peter, 1:18, 19. Luke, 1 : 68-70. Rev. 
5 : 8. 

Some of our ancient Kabbins understood the Messiah 
by the Redeemer. Targum. R. Hackodesh. Aben Ezra. 
Many of the ancient fathers and most of the modern di- 
vines apply it to Christ and the future resurrection. 

Besides, it is evident, from several declarations of Job 
before he uttered this, that all his hope of a temporal re- 
covery was clean gone. See chap. 6 : 11. 7 : 7, 8. 10 : 20. 
16 : 22. 17 : 1, 14, 15; and chap. 19 : 10, 11. 

We may therefore consider him as saying, I profess and 
believe that, through the merits of the Messiah my Re- 
deemer, I shall after death be restored to life, and that the 
very self-same body shall rise; and that in this my own 
flesh I shall see God my Redeemer ; and these eyes shall 
behold him, and not another ; i. e. I shall appear in my own 



Let. 1.] THE RESURRECTION OF THE DEAD. 337 

person, and in this individual fleshly body ; and though, 
worms shall destroy it, and my reins shall be consumed 
within me, yet by faith I am assured of this great and 
comfortable truth. 

§ 8. The Prophet Isaiah also speaks of the future re- 
surrection of the dead in this manner : " Thy dead men 
shall live, together with my dead body shall they arise. 
Awake and sing, ye that dwell in the dust : for thy dew is 
as the dew of herbs, and the earth shall cast out the dead." 
Isa. 26 : 19. " It appears from hence," says Bishop Lowth, 
♦' that the doctrine of the resurrection of the dead was at 
that time a popular and common doctrine ; for an image 
which is assumed, to express or represent any thing in the 
way of allegory or metaphor, whether poetical or prophet- 
ical, must be an image commonly known and understood ; 
otherwise it will not answer the purpose for which it is as- 
sumed." 

This passage is applied by our Rabbins to the resurrec- 
tion of the dead. Aben Ezra, and Kimchi in loco, Tal. 
Bab. Sanhed. fo. 90. 2. There are several other passages 
of similar import in the Old Testament, some of which are 
referred to in the New Testament, such as Hosea, 13 : 14. 
Daniel, 12 : 2, &c. No wonder, therefore, that the saints 
under the Old Testament believed the resurrection of the 
dead. Hence they took especial Yare about their dead bo- 
dies and their burial, not merely out of respect to natural 
order and decency, but to express their faith of the resur- 
rection. Hence saith the apostle, "By faith Joseph gave 
commandment concerning his bones." Heb. 11 : 22. 

From these passages, and perhaps also from tradition, 
our people, w^ith the exception of the Sadducee.s, were fully 
convinced in the days of our Lord of the resurrection of 
the body. John, li : 24 ; Matt. 22 : 29-32. 

Hence, saith the apostle, " Why should it be thought a 
thing incredible with you, that God should raise the dead ?'* 



338 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part 6. 

Acts, 26 : 8 ; with you, O king Agrippa, and the rest 
that I speak to, who are Jews, and believe the Scriptures, 
and therefore cannot be averse to this doctrine ? On this 
account also he calls the resurrection "the hope of Israel," 
Acts, 28 : 20. because it was hoped for by our people, as 
well as believed. 

^ 9. In the New Testament, the resurrection of the dead 
is taught still more frequently and more explicitly. I will 
cite but a few passages : " Marvel not at this : for the hour is 
coming, in the which all that are in the graves shall hear 
his voice, and shall come forth ; they that have done good, 
unto the resurrection of life; and they that have done evil, 
unto the resurrection of damnation." John, 5 : 28, 29. *' For 
we must all appear before the judgment-seat of Christ ; that 
every one may receive the things done in his body, accord- 
ing to that he hath done, whether it be good or bad." See 
also the whole of the iSth chap. 1 Corinthians. 

^ 10. The resurrection may also be proved from the se- 
veral instances mentioned in the Old and new Testaments, 
of persons raised from the dead. Such as the widow of Sa- 
repla's son by Elijah; the Shunamite's son by Elisha ; the 
man in Elisha's sepulchre ; Jairus' daughter : the widow's 
son ; Lazarus, and many at the death of Christ. 

§ 11. Another proof of the resurrection of the dead is 
taken from the resurrection of Christ. 

This is Paul's great argument to prove the resurrection 
of the righteous. " Now if Christ be preached that he 
rose from the dead, how say some among you that there 
is no resurrection of the dead? But if there be no resur- 
rection, then is Christ not risen. And if Christ be not 
risen, then is our preaching vain, and your hope is alsc 
vain. Yea. and we are found false witnesses of God : be- 
cause we have testified of God that he raised up Christ : 
whom he raised not up, if so be that the dead rise not. 
For if the dead rise not, then is not Christ raised. And i! 



Let. 1.] THE RESURRECTIOX OF THE DEAD. 339 

Christ be not raised, your faith is vain ; ye are yet in 
your sins." 1 Cor. 15 : 12-17. Christ rose as a public 
person, and as the head of his church ; but if the head bo 
risen, all the members must rise also ; and therefore he is 
called " the first fruits of them that sleep," ver. 20. As the 
first fruit is a sure evidence that the harvest is coming, so 
the resurrection of Christ is a sure evidence of the rising 
of the bodies of the saints. Hence Christ is also called the 
"second Adam," ver. 21, 22. Now, as in the first Adam 
all his natural posterity died, not only spiritually but cor- 
poreally, so in the second Adam all his spiritual seed must 
be made alive, both spiritually and corporeally. 

§ 12. Having proved the reality of the resurrection, I 
shall now proceed to point out its nature. 

I observe first, that 

The same identical body that has died, shall rise again. 

This is evident from the very name resurrection ; for if 
it were not the same identical body, but a new body, it 
would be a creation, and not a resurrection. The places 
from whence the dead will be raised prove the same : " All 
that are in the graves shall come forth." See Dan. 12: 2; 
John, 5 : 28; Rev. 20 : 13. " They shall come forth." 
Who? They who are in the graves, i. e. men, with regard 
to their bodies, the same bodies wherein they lived on 
earth, and which were laid in the graves. " He that raised 
up Christ from the dead shall quicken your mortal bodies," 
Rom. 8:11; so that it is this mortal body which is quick- 
ened again; "for this corruptible must put on incorrup- 
tion, and this mortal must put on immortality." 1 Cor. 
15 : 53. Not that another body shall succeed in place of 
this, but this very body shall be changed, not in substance, 
but in qualities. The same argument, derived from the 
justice and the mercy of God, as stated before, proving the 
necessity of the resurrection of the body, proves also that 
it must be the same identical body. As our bodies are par- 



340 JOSliPH AND BENJAMIN. (Part 6 

takers with the soul in good and evil actions, it is just that 
they should be partakers also in rewards and punishments. 
This argument holds good both with respect to the righ- 
teous and the wicked. We cannot think that God gave bo- 
dies to the holy martyrs, only to endure inexpressible tor- 
tures and miseries to death for the sake of Christ, and then 
to perish for ever. Does God require services of the body 
and will he not reward those services ? It cannot be ima- 
gined that the souls of believers should be glorified and 
not their bodies. They have served God with their bodies, 
which have been instruments of holiness. Their eyes have 
ilowed with tears for sin, their hands have relieved the 
poor, their tongues have celebrated God's praises ; there- 
fore justice and equity require that their bodies should be 
crowned as well as their souls ; and how can that be, un- 
less the .same identical bodies are raised from the dead? 
And as the same body that served him well will be re- 
warded, so also the same body that sinned will be punish- 
ed. For a just God will never punish a body that never 
was connected with the first Adam, nor was guilty of ac- 
tual transgression. The identity of the raised body appears 
also from the pattern ; such a body as Christ had in the 
resurrection and ascension shall the saints have; "for 
our vile body shall be made like his glorious body." Phil. 
3 : 21. Now, the body in which Christ rose, was the same 
body which was assumed of the virgin, which was nailed 
to the cross, and laid in the grave ] and with the same body 
he entered into heaven, and there remaineth the same, ac- 
cording to the substance, that was here upon earth, only 
changed in qualities. So our body remains the same in 
substance, only freed from the pollutions, and endowed with 
glorious qualities fit for the heavenly state. As the decays 
and sepv^rations of our bodies do not make them cease to 
be the same bodies we bring with us into the world ; so 
neither does the change they undergo by death, nor the 



La. 1.] THE RESURRECTION OF THE DEAD. 3-11 

glorious qualities wherewith they are endowed when rais* 
ed again, make them other bodies, for substance, than they 
are now. 

§ 13. The bodies of the righteous will be invested with 
unspeakable glory. The greatness of this glorious change 
is inconceivable and indescribable. But although " it doth 
not yet appear what we shall be, yet we know that when 
he shall appear, we shall be like him, for we shall see him 
as he is." 1 John, 3:2; for " he shall change our vile 
body, that it may be fashioned like unto his glorious body,'* 
Phil. 3:21. Of this wonderful change the apostle has 
given us an epitome in the following manner: "Behold, 
I show you a mystery ; we shall not all sleep, but we shall 
be changed. In a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at 
the last trump, for the trumpet shall sound and the dead 
shall be raised incorruptible, and we shall be changed. 
For this corruption must put on incorri]ption,and this mor- 
tal must put on immortality. So when this corruptible 
shall have put on incorruption, and this mortal shall have 
put on immortality, then shall be brought to pass the say- 
ing that is written, death is swallowed up in victory." 1 Cor. 
15 : 51-54. In the morning of the resurrection, all defor- 
mity and imperfections will be left in the grave. 

During the persecution in the reign of Queen Mary, a 
lame and a blind man being brought to the stake to be 
burned to death, the former threw away his crutchj and 
addressing his fellow-sufferer, said, " Be of good comfort, 
my brother, for my lord of London is our good physician ; 
he will heal us both shortly, thee of thy blindness, and me 
of my lameness." They shall also be freed from all the 
necessities of nature : " They shall hunger and thirst no 
more." Rev. 7 : 16. Moses on the mount was so filled with 
the glory of God that he needed not the recruits of nature ; 
how much more will the bodies of the saints be filled with 
the glory and felicity of heaven when raised from the 



342 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part 6 

dead, re-united with their perfect souls, and introduced into 
the presence of Jesus, to dwell with him for ever ! " Then 
shall the righteous shine forth like the sun." Matt. 13 : 43. 
I will now proceed to show, 

^14. That the resurrection of the dead will be general 
and universal. All that are in their graves, whether godly 
or ungodly, whether just or unjust, shall be raised up 
I am aware, my dear Benjamin, that although our people 
believe a resurrection from the dead, as I have shown by 
one of their fundamental articles of faith, yet there is a 
great variety of opinions amongst the Rabbins with re- 
spect to the extent of the resurrection. Some suppose that 
the pious Israelites will be raised at the coming of the 
Messiah, and the rest of the nations at the end of the 
world. According to some, the pious will rise to be re- 
warded, and the wicked to be punished; but those who 
have been neither pious nor wicked will not be raised at 
all. Some expect all Israelites to be raised, except those 
who disbelieve a resurrection, deny the divine authority of 
the law, or become epicureans. Others extend the privi- 
lege to the pious among the Gentiles, who observe the pre- 
cepts which the Rabbins say were given to the sons of 
Noah. But none of the Rabbins allow the resurrection to 
include all mankind. Buxtorf. Synag. Jud. c. 3. p. 31-35. 
Huls. Theol. Jud. p. 173. Hoornpeck contra Jud. p. 433- 
445. 551-553. 

But the sacred Scriptures put the subject beyond all 
doubt. The Lord Jesus Christ himself has taught its uni- 
versality. " For the hour is coming, in which all that are 
in their graves shall hear his voice, and shall come forth; 
they that have done good, unto the resurrection of life ; and 
they that have done evil, unto the resurrection of damna- 
tion." John, 5 : 28, 29. The apostle also declared, that 
♦' there should be a resurrection of the dead, both of the 
just and the unjust." Acts, 24 : 15. And John, in the Re 



Let. 1.] THE RESURRECTION OF THE DEAD. 343 

velation, saith, *• And I saw the dead, small and great, stand 
before God ; and the books were opened ; and another 
book was opened, which is the book of life ; and the dead 
were judged out of those things which were written in the 
books, according to their works." Rev. 20 : 13. The earth 
and the sea are God's stewards, with whom he has intrust- 
ed the bodies of men, and when he shall call them to give 
him an account of their stewardship, they will faithfully 
discharge their trust, and not one shall be left behind. 

§ 15. With respect to the author of the resurrection, I 
scarcely need to inform you that it is the work of God. 
He only who could create the world out of nothing, is able 
to raise the dead out of their graves. Yet it will be proper 
to observe that this work is ascribed to each of the persons 
in the blessed Trinity : to the Father, to the Son, and to 
the Holy Spirit, as will appear from the following pas- 
sages : " For as the Father raiseth up the dead and quicken- 
eth them, even so the Son quickeneth whom he will." John, 
5:21, 27-29. *' For our conversation is in heaven ; from 
whence also we look for the Savior, the Lord Jesus Christ: 
who shall change our vile body, that it may be fashioned 
like unto his glorious body, according to the working 
v/hereby he is able to subdue all things unto himself." 
Phil. 3 : 20, 21. " But if the Spirit of him that raised up 
Jesus from the dead dwell in you, he that raised up Christ 
from the dead shall also quicken your mortal bodies, by 
his Spirit that dwelleth in you." Rom. 8:11. As the re- 
surrection of Christ is ascribed to the Father, so also the 
resurrection of the dead : *' And God hath both raised up the 
Lord, and will raise up us also." 1 Cor. 6 : 14. 2 Cor. 4 : 14. 

Christ is "the resurrection and the life;" i. e. the author 
of the resurrection to life. He is the Prince of life, has the 
keys of hell and death in his hands ; at whose all-power- 
ful and commanding voice, nil that are in the graves shall 
come forth. Christ Jesus is able to perform this glorious 



344 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN, [Part 6. 

work. He formed the universe with all its rich variety. 
John, 1 : 3. Col. 1 : 16, 17. He formed the body of man 
out of the dust of the earth, Gen. 2:7; and surely the 
same power which originally formed man's body, can raise 
it again. Acts, 26 : 8. He has already conquered the 
world, John, 16 : 33 ; and has triumphed over Satan, Col. 
2 : 14, 15 ; and also over death and the grave, Rom. 1:4; 
and he shall finally complete the destruction of both. Ho- 
sea, 13 : 14. 1 Cor. 15 : 52-54. His power, therefore, is 
equal to this grand design, and we are assured that he will 
do it. John, 5 : 28, 29. 

God the Holy Ghost has a joint concern with the Father 
and the Son in this amazing work. The bodies as well 
as the souls of saints are united to Christ ; by virtue of 
which union the Spirit of Christ dwells in them; not in 
their souls only, but in their bodies also." What ! know ye 
not that your body is the temple of the Holy Ghost, which 
is in you ?" Now, as the union between Christ and his 
people is not dissolved by death, so neither does the Spirit 
of God forsake the dead bodies of the saints, or neglect to 
take care of them ; the dust of the saints is under his pe- 
culiar care and guardianship ; and at the last day, the 
spirit of life from God shall enter into them, and they shall 
live and stand upon their feet. Ezek. 37. 

§ 16. The design of the resurrection, my dear Benja- 
min, is worthy of God ; it will greatly display the glory 
of his perfections ; it will advance the happiness of the 
saints, and make way for the just punishment of the wick- 
ed. But, as the resurrection of the dead is inseparably 
connected with the general judgment and its consequences, 
the subject of the following letter, I shall close with a few 
observations. 

^17. After the proofs produced from the Old Testament 
of the resurrection of the dead, we should think it almost 
incredible, my dear Benjamin, that a learned divine should 



Let. l.j THE RESURPwECTION OF THE DEAD. 345 

have asserted *• that there is not so much as a plain hint 
of the resurrection to be found in the Old Testament." 
Surely the Apostle Paul was of a different opinion on the 
subject ; for he declares that many, before the coming of 
Christ, suffered martyrdom, "not accepting deliverance, thai 
they might obtain a better resurrection." Now, as faith 
Cometh by hearing, and hearing by the word of God, it 13 
evident that the word of God must have contained a reve- 
lation of the resurrection of the dead : indeed it is abun- 
dantly evident that it was the faith of Abraham, Heb. 1 1 : 
\7] of Joseph, Heb. 11 : 22 ; of Moses, Deut. 32 : 39 ; 
of David, Psa. 16 . 10, 11 ; of Hannah, 1 Sam. 2:6; as 
well as of Job, Isaiah, Daniel, and others. 

Let us, however, my dear Benjamin, be thankful for the 
clearer revelation of this, as well as of all other truths 
contained in the New Testament ; " for Christ hath abo- 
lished death, and has brought life and immortality to light 
through the Gospel." 2 Tim. 1:10. 

^18. In the next place I would observe, that a firm be- 
lief of this doctrine is calculated to support us under afflic- 
tions, and deliver us from the fear of death. This was the 
sweet and supporting cordial of Job under his afflictions, 
and in the prospect of death : " I know that my Redeemer 
liveth, and that he shall stand at the latter day upon the 
earth : and though after my skin worms destroy this body, 
yet in my flesh shall I see God : whom I shall see for 
myself, and mine eyes shall behold, and not another; 
though my reins be consumed within me." Job, 19 : 25- 
27. And the Psalmist says, *' I had fainted, unless I had 
believed to see the goodness of the Lord in the land of the 
living." Psa. 27 : 13. 

The body, though it drop into the sepulchre, shall re- 
vive and flourish as an herb, in the morning of the resur- 
rection. The grave is a bed of dust where the saints sleep, 
and they shall be awakened by the trump of the archangel. 
VOL n. 15 



346 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Pan 6. 

Our nearest and clearest friends leave us in the grave and 
depart, but God will never leave nor forsake his people, 
even in death. As he said to Jacob, " I will go down with 
thee into Egypt, and I will surely bring thee up again," 
Gen. 36 ■ 14; so the Lord will go down with us, as it 
Avere, into the grave, and will surely bring us up again. 
J. King, the Bp. of London, ordered in his last will that 
nothing but the word Resurgam, I shall rise again, should 
be written on his grave-stone. This was a full and just 
epitaph, because it contains the comfortable doctrine of the 
resurrection of the dead. We shall rise, is sufficient to 
animate and revive us in the anticipation of death. The 
believer may look on death and the grave, as on an enemy 
that lies disarmed and bleeding before his feet; and like 
Abraham, who rescued Lot from the hands of the kings 
and took the spoil, so shall the believer, in the morning of 
the resurrection, receive his body from the grave, to be re- 
united with his soul. Oh, how great \\\\\ be the joy of 
this union ! Great was the mutual joy and felicity when 
good old Jacob embraced his son Joseph ; but infinitely 
greater will be the joy and felicity of the saints, when their 
bodies and souls shall meet each other in the morning of 
the resurrection : then they will rejoice with singing, as 
it was foretold ; " Awake and sing, ye that dwell in the 
dust." Isa. 26 : 19. As our fathers, when they came safely 
out of the Red Sea, but saw their enemies all dead, sung a 
new song; so will the redeemed at the morning of the re- 
surrection. " Then shall be brought ta pass the saying that 
is written, Death is swallowed up in victory. O death, 
where is thy sting? O grave, where is thy victory? The 
sting of death is sin, and the strength of sin is the law 
But thanks to God, which giveth us the victory through 
our Lord Jesus Christ." 1 Cor. 15 : 54-57. 

The consideration of our rising again, my dear Ben- 
jamin, should inspire our minds with invincible courage 



Let. l.J THE RESURRECTION OF THE DEAD. 347 

and magnanimity, and enable us to submit to the greatest 
sufferings for the sake of Christ and his cause. Thus the 
pious sufferers and martyrs of old submitted to be tortured, 
" not accepting deliverance, that they might obtain a better 
resurrection," Heb. 11 : 35, i. e. a resurrection to a better 
life than they were to lose. 

^ 19. But let it be remembered, my dear Benjamin, that 
none can derive comfort from the doctrine of the resur- 
rection of the dead, but those who have evidence that 
they have part in the first resurrection from sin ; that they 
have been quickened by the Spirit of God, regenerated and 
brought to repent towards God, and to exercise faith in the 
Lord Jesus Christ. He who lies buried in sin, can have 
no hope of a joyful resurrection. If your body and soul 
are spiritually dead to sin and alive to God, then you may 
rejoice in the prospect of the resurrection of a glorious 
body, which "shall shine as the stars in the kingdom of 
heaven ;" for " when Christ, who is your life, shall ap- 
pear, then shall ye also appear with him in glory." Col. 
3 :4. 

^ 20. How awful, tremendously awful the state of the 
wicked and their future prospects ! The time will surely 
come, when those who now stop their ears and will not 
hear the voice of God speaking in his word, and by his min- 
isters, shall hear his voice whether they will or not ; and 
shall come out of their graves to the resurrection of con 
demnation, like a malefactor led to the place of execution. 
Happy for such if there were no resurrection, that their 
souls did die as the brute beasts ; but let such be assured 
that there shall be a resurrection of the unjust as well as 
the just ; all in their graves shall come forth, but they shall 
be raised to damnation, John, 5 : 28, 29 ; their terror will 
be great, Rev. 6: 15-17; and their end dreadful. Matt. 
25 : 41. "Knowing, therefore, the terror of the Lord, we 
persuade men" to renounce their evil ways, to repent oi 



348 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part 6. 

their sins, to believe on Jesus Christ, to live devoted to him, 
and their end will be glorious. May you and I, my dear 
Benjamin, upon scriptural evidence and happy experience, 
be enabled to say, •' Blessed be the God and Father of our 
Lord Jesus Christ, who, according to his abundant mercy, 
hath begotten us again unto a lively hope, by the resurrec- 
tion of Jesus Christ from the dead, to an inheritance incor- 
ruptible and undefiled, and that fadeth not away, reserved 
in heaven for you, who are kept by the power of God 
through faith unto salvation, ready to be revealed in the 
last time." 1 Peter, 1 : 3-5. 

Farewell. 



L.ett«r II. 



THE GENERAL JUDGMENT, 



Aly Dear Benjamiur 

Agreeably to promise, I will now invite your attention 
to the Getural Judgment day; an event, beyond all 
others, the most solemn and important: the coming of 
the Messiah to judge the whole world in righteousness, 
and fix unalterably the eternal condition of every individual 
of the human race, either in happiness inconceivably great, 
or misery inexpressibly awful. This truth, however, is 
denied by the scoffer, 2 Peter, 3 : 3, 4 ; dreaded by the 
wicked. Acts, 24 : 25 ; but believed, nay, earnestly desired 
by the saints. 2 Tim. 4 : 8. Titus, 2 : 13. Rev. 22 : 20. 
I will endeavor, 

§ I. To prove the fact, that there will be a general judg- 



Lei. 2.] THE GENERAL JUDGMENT. 349 

ment. This may be proved from the relation men stand 
in to God, as creatures to a Creator, and subjects to a 
King. He has a right to give them a law, and to make 
them accountable for a breach of it. Hence saith the 
apostle, " So then every one of us shall give account of 
himself to God." Rom. 14 : 12. 

§ 2. The certainty of a future judgment appears from 
the justice of God, which requires it ; for it is evident that 
this attribute is not clearly displayed in the dispensation of 
things in the present state. 

Things seem to be carried on in this world with an un- 
equal balance. The candle of God shines upon the wicked. 
They that tempt God are delivered. Malachi, 3:15. The 
wicked and disobedient persons are often as happy as if 
they were rewarded for their iniquity, whilst the innocent 
and religious are often as miserable as if they were punish- 
ed for their innocency. Hence Asaph tells us, in the 73d 
Psalm, that he almost stumbled and fell at the prosperity ot 
the wicked and the adversity of the righteous ; till he 
considered their latter end, their different situations in a 
future life, when Jehovah's message, sent by the prophet 
Isaiah, will be fulfilled : " Say ye to the righteous, that it 
shall be well with him ; for they shall eat the fruit of their 
doings. Wo unto the wicked ! it shall be ill with him : for 
therewardof his hands shall be given him." Isa. 3 : 10,11. 
King Solomon also said in the days of his vanity, " there 
is a just man that perisheth in his righteousness, and there 
is a wicked man that prolongeth his life in his wickedness." 
Eccl. 7:15. But when he had grown wiser by expe- 
rience, he said, "know thou, that for all these thing-s God 
will bring thee into judgment ; for God shall bring every 
work into judgment, with every secret thing, whether it be 
good, or whether it be evil." Eccl. 11:9. 12 : 14. 

Diogenes, seeing Harpalus, a noted thief, going on pros- 
perously, said, '*sure God has cast off the government of 



350 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part 6, 

the world, and minded not how things went on here be- 
low." But the day is coming, when God will vindicate his 
justice. "The saints," says Cyprian, "are put into the 
wine-press, and often the blood of these grapes is pressed 
out : God will therefore have a day of judgment, that he 
may reward all the tears and sufferings of his people ; they 
shall have their crown, and throne, and white robes; though 
they be losers for Christ, they shall lose nothing by him." 

^ 3. The next proof of a general judgment is derived 
from the dictates of conscience. God has implanted a pre- 
sumption and sense of a future judgment in the minds and 
hearts of men by nature, from whence it is absolutely and 
eternally inseparable. " Conscience," says Dr. Owen, " is 
nothing but that judgment which men do make, and which 
they cannot but make, of their moral actions with refer- 
ence unto the supreme future judgment of God. Hence the 
apostle assures us that the heathen, who had nothing but 
the dim light of nature to guide them, had a conscience 
that accused them and forced them to own a judgment to 
come : ' For when the Gentiles, which have not the law, 
do by nature the things contained in the law, these, having 
not the law, are a law unto themselves ; which show the 
work of the law written in their hearts, their conscience 
also bearing witness, and their thoughts the meanwhile 
accusing or else excusing one another ;) in the day when 
God shall judge the secrets of men by Jesus Christ, ac- 
cording to m.y gospel.' " Rom. 2 : 14-16. 

Now, what is this private passion, kept in the court of 
conscience, but a certain forerunner of that general day of 
judgment when all the world shall be summoned to God's 
tribunal ? 

Conscience, awakened by sharp afflictions, by sudden 
dangers, and the approaches of death, makes a sad detec- 
tion of past sins, and forecasts cruel things ; it cites the of- 
fender before the enliofhtened tribunal of heaven, scourges 



Let. 2.] THE GENERAL JUDGMENT. 351 

with remorse, and makes him feel, even here, the strokes 
of hell. Though the sin be secret, and the guilty person 
powerful, not within the reach or cognizance of human 
justice ; yet conscience has a rack within, and causes pain 
and anxiety, by fearful expectations of judgment to come. 
Hence the mere hand-writing on the wall made King 
Belshnzzar tremble, as much as Felix did at the preaching 
of St. Paul. Dan. 5:6; Acts, 24 : 25. 

^ 4. Another proof of a future judgment is to be derived 
from some partial instances of judgment which God has 
already executed. 

It is not without a reason that God has sometimes gone 
out of the usual way of providence. He does it, to intimate 
unto the world that they are not always to pass at their 
present rate, but are one day to be called to another ac- 
count. In great judgments, the " wrath of God is revealed 
from heaven against th^e ungodliness of man," Rom. 1:16, 
and an intimation is given of what he will farther do here- 
after. For as he "leaves not himself without witness," in 
respect of his goodness and patience, " in that he doeth 
good and giveth rain from heaven and fruitful seasons, fill- 
ing men's hearts with food and gladness," Acts, 14 : 17; 
so he gives testimony to hi^ righteousness and holiness, in 
the "judgments that he executes." Psa. 9 : 16. And thus, 
in some particular instances, he has given us a pledge of a 
future judgment. Such was the flood whereby the world 
was destroyed in the days of Noah, which the apostle 
affirms expressly was a type, to shadow out the severity 
of God in the last final judgment, 2 Peter, 2:5, 3 : 5-7. Of 
the same nature was his '* turning the cities of Sodom and 
Gomorrah into ashes, condemning them with an overthrow 
and making them an example unto those that after should 
live ungodly." 2 Peter, 2 : 6. In like manner the apostle 
Jude says expressljr, "they are set forth for an example, 
suffering the vengeance of eternal fire," ver. 7. 



352 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part 6, 

We next appeal for another proof of a general judgment, 

§ 5. To the sacred Scriptures. God has not only im- 
pressed this truth on the minds of men, and written it in 
their consciences, and exhibited it by some extraordinary 
judgments ; but he has also clearly and repeatedly reveal- 
ed it in the word of God. 

Before the flood, Enoch, in the early age of the world, 
foretold it. " Behold, the Lord cometh, with ten thousand 
of his saints, to execute judgment upon all." Jude, ver. 
14,15. Solomon, under the law, repeats this doctrine j 
*' that every secret thing shall be brought into judgment, 
whether good or evil," Eccl. 12 : 14; and God himself 
speaks in the sublimest style of majesty; •' I have sworn 
by myself, the word is gone out of my mouth in righteous- 
ness, and shall not return, that unto me every knee shall 
bow, every tongue shall swear," Isa. 45 : 23 ; from whence 
the apostle infers that " we shall all appear before the 
judgment-seat of Christ." Rom, 14: 10, 11. In the Gos- 
pel we have distinctly described the person of the Judge, 
the glorious attendants of his coming, and the manner ot 
his proceedings in that day. Now, the many predictions in 
Scripture, so clearly and exactly accomplished in the per- 
son of Jesus Christ, and by him, give infallible assurance 
that all his promises and threatenings are equally certain, 
and shall be fulfilled. As sure as our Savior has come in 
his humble state, and has accomplished the prophecies o' 
his sufferings ; so sure will he come in his glory to judge 
ihe world. 

§ 6. It may not be improper, my dear Benjamin, to ob- 
serve that the heathen, although they ridicule the idea of 
the resurrection of the body, yet believed in the day of 
judgment. Hence, when Paul preached at Athens both 
the resurrection and the judgment, they mocked at the for- 
mer, but said nothing against the latter. Acts, 17 ; 32. 
Notable are the words of Lucian, *' God brought men out 



Let. 2.J THE GENEUA.L JLDGMENT. 353 

of nothing to something, ard is in heaven beholding the 
just and the unjust, and writing down in books every man's 
actions ; and he will recompense all men according to their 
deeds, in that day which he himself has appointed." And 
as it respects our own people, you well know that a belief 
of a future judgment constitutes one of their thirteen funda- 
mental articles of faith, which reads thus : " I believe with a 
perfect faith that the Creator (blessed be his name) rewards 
those who observe his commands, and punishes those who 
transgress them," 

^ 7. With respect to the person who is to be judge, it is 
very evident that it must be Jehovah himself: for he alone is 
qualified for the work. For it certainly requires infinite 
knowledge, perfect rectitude, and almighty power. 

^ 8. It is however certain, that Jesus Christ is to be the 
Judge. •' And he commanded us to preach unto the people, 
and to testify that it was he which was ordained of God to 
be the Judge of quick and dead." Acts, 10 : 42. Thero 
are wise and just reasons for this appointment. 

God being invisible in his own nature, has most wisely 
ordained the last judgment of the world to be transacted 
by a visible person ; because men are to be judged, and the 
whole process of judgment with them will be for things,- 
done in the body. The person appointed for this work is 
Jesus Christ the Son of God united to the human nature ; 
"for the Father judgeth no man, but hath committed all 
judgment unto the Son ; that all men should honor the Son, 
even as they honor the Father." John, 5 : 22, 23. 

As there was none found in heaven or on earth who 
could open and reveal the book of redemption but Jesus 
Christ ; so none but He is fit to open the book of judg- 
ment. He only is perfectly qualified to pronounce a just 
or righteous sentence and carry it into execution. His 
wisdom is infinite and his power almighty. 

§ 9. Christ Jesus v/as invested with this high office as a 
15* 



354 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Pari 6. 

reward for his humiliation and sufferings. The Father 
"has given him authority to execute judgment also, because 
he is the Son of man." John, 5 : 27. We must distinguish 
between the essential and economical power and authority 
of Christ. The Son of God, considered in his divine na- 
ture, has an original power and authority of judgment 
equal with the Father; but, considered as Mediator, he 
has a power and authority committed by delegation. 

Now Christ Jesus humbled himself so far as to take upon 
him our nature, endured all the infirmities which that nature 
was capable of, with all the miseries of the present life, en- 
dured all the pains and sorrows due to our sins ; and there- 
fore, in regard of his humiliation, did God exalt him ; and 
part of that exaltation was his appointment of Judge both 
of the living and the dead. Hence saith the apostle, " Let 
this mind be in you, which was also in Christ Jesus : who, 
being in the form of God, thought it not robbery to be 
equal with God ; but made himself of no reputation, and 
took upon him the form of a servant, and was made in the 
likeness of men ; and being found in fashion as a man, he 
humbled himself and became obedient unto death, even the 
death of the cross : wherefore God also hath highly exalt- 
ed him, and given him a name which is above every name : 
that at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, of things 
in heaven, and things in earth, and things under the earth ; 
and that every tongue should confess that Jesus Christ is 
Lord, to the glory of God the Father." Phil. 2 : 5-11. 

§ 10. Another just and wise reason for this appointment 
may be, that Christ might be glorified as much in his 
kingly office as he has been in either of the others as pro- 
phet and priest. We find some few glimpses of his kingly 
office breaking forth during his life-time : such as his 
riding into Jerusalem in the midst of hosannas: his dri- 
ving the buyers and sellers out of the temple : the title 
King of the Jews written on his cross, &c. But these 



Let. 2.J THE GENERAL JUDGMLNT. 355 

were ooly faint beams; on the day of judgment that office 
v/ill shine in its glory, brighter than the sun in the midsi 
of the firmament; for what were the hosannas of little 
children in the streets of Jerusalem, to the shouts and ac- 
clamations of thousands of angels and ten thousands of 
saints? What was the driving of the profane out of the tem- 
ple, to his turning the wicked into hell, and sending out 
of his angels to gather out of his kingdom every thing that 
ofTendeth ? What was the title written by his judge, and 
fixed on the ignominious tree, to the name that shall be 
seen on his vesture and on his thij^-h, " Kin^ of king-s, 
and Lord of lords ?" 

^ 11. The manner in which Jesus Christ will appear to 
judgment, will be glorious, majestic and awful. He will 
appear in the glory of the Father, Matt.. 2G : G4, and his 
o'.vn glor)% Luke, 9 : 26. Matt. 24 : 30, with a glorious 
retinue of all the angels and saints, 2 Thess. 1 : 7. Jude, 
ver. 14, and be seated on a glorious throne. Matt. 19 ; 28 
Ilev. 20 : 11. 

As it is considered the glory of a prince to have many 
follouing him as his train, so it will be the glory of 
Jesus when he comes to judgment, to have all the saints 
and angels, the glory of creation, to be his attendants. 

The Apostle Paul informs us, "that he shall be revealed 
from heaven with his mighty angels." 2 Thess. 1 : 7. Lest 
any should think that the number will be but small, the 
Aposlle Jude informs us that the Lord shall come "with 
ten thousand of his saints ;" and if this be not large enough, 
t!ie Prophet Daniel informs us that " a thousand minister- 
ed unto him, and ten thousand times ten thousand stood be- 
fore him ;" and that each and all of these shall attend him, 
we are assured of by the Lord Jesus Christ himself, who 
said, " When the Son of man shall come in his glory, and 
all the holy angels with him, then shall he sit upon the 
throne of his glory." Matt, 25 :^l. 



356 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part 6. 

When the law was given from Mount Sinai, the moun- 
tain was covered with fire, and the voice of God, as loud as 
thunder, proclaimed it from the midst of the flames, so that 
the whole army of the Israelites was prostrate on the plain, 
struck with a sacred horror and almost dead at the amazing 
sights and sounds; and if the Lawgiver appeared in such 
terrible majesty at the proclaiming of the law, how much 
more when he shall come to revenge the transgressions of 
it ! It is set forth in the Scripture, in the most lofty and 
magnificent expressions. 

The saints shall sit with Christ in judicature, as justices 
of the peace with the judge. They shall applaud Christ's 
righteous sentence on the wicked. This, as it will be a great 
honor to the saints, so it must needs add to the sorrows of 
the wicked, to see those whom they once derided and hated 
sit as judges upon them." 1 Cor. 6 : 2. Jude, 13 ; 14. 

§ 12. The persons to be tried are all men, both good 
and bad ; " for we must all appear before the judgment-seat 
of Christ." 2 Cor. 5 : 10. * . 

" It is appointed for all men once to die, and after this 
the judgment." Heb. 9 : 27. As none can escape death, 
so none can escape judgment — all men, Isa. 45 : 23, 
comp. Rom. 14 : 9, 10. Matt. 25 : 31 ; all the godly, all 
such as have believed and obeyed the Gospel, Luke, 21 : 
36. Rom. 14 : 22. 2 Tim. 4:8; all the ungodly and im- 
penitent sinners, Deut. 32 : 35. 2 Peter, 2 : 3. Jude, 15. 

It will be such an assize as never was seen before ; kings 
and nobles, counsellors and armies ; those who were above 
trial here below, will have no charter of exemption in that 
day; they must appear before Christ's tribunal and be tried 
for their lives. Neither power nor policy can be a subter- 
fuge. They who refused to come to a throne of grace, 
shall be forced to come to a bar of justice. The dead a? 
well as the living must make their appearance. Rev. 20 : 
12. We cannot cite the dead to human tribunals; but at 
t.Sat dnv the dead will also be called to the bar of Jesus. 



Let. 2.] THE GENERAL JUDGMENT. 357 

Fallen angels also will be judged. They are said " to be 
reserved unto the judgment of the great day." Jude, 6. 
They shall receive their final sentence, and be shut up in 
the prison of hell. Matt. 8 : 29. 25 : 46. 1 Cor. 6 : 3. 2 
Peter, 2:4. Rev. 20; 10. 

§ 13. The matter for which men will be judged will be 
their actions, words and thoughts. Prov. 24 : 17. Eccl. 
12: 14. Matt. 12:36. Rom. 2: 16. 1 Cor. 4: 5. Jude, 
ver. 15. 

All sins, whether secret or open and visible, shall be ac- 
eounted for; for "God will judge the secrets of men by 
Jesus Christ." Rom. 2 : 16. The sins of omission as well 
as commission will be charged on the conscience of the 
sinner. Men are generally more sensible of the guilt con- 
tracted by sins committed than by duties omitted ; but in 
that awful day they will be convinced of their error; for 
*' to him who knoweth to do good, and doth it not, to him it 
is a sin." James, 4 : 7. The Judge himself will say, " I 
was an hungered, and ye gave me no meat : I was thirsty, 
and ye gave me no drink : I was a stranger, and ye took 
me not in : naked, and ye clothed me not : sick, and in pri- 
son, and ye visited me not." Matt. 25 : 42, 43. 

The neglect of improving all the means, advantages and 
opportunities of doing or receiving good, will be a great 
part of that judgment. The Lord called his servants to 
an account for the talents committed to their trust, and re- 
quired profit in proportion to their number and worth ; and 
he who had buried his talent, though safely kept and not 
wasted, yet, because he had not improved it, was severely 
punished. 

^14. The rule of judgment is the Divine constitution. 
" We are sure that the judgment of God is according to 
truth against them which commit such things. And think- 
est thou this, O man, that judgest them which do such 
things, and doest the same, that thou shalt escape the judg- 



358 JOSEl'II AND DE.NJAMIN. [Pail 6. 

ment of God ? Or despisest ihou the riches of his good- 
ness, and forbearance, and long-suffering ; not knowing that 
the goodness of God leadeth thee to repentance? But, after 
thy hardness and impenitent heart, treasurest up unto thy- 
self wrath against the day of wrath and revelation of the 
righteous judgment of God ; who will render to every man 
according to his deeds." Rom. 2 : 2-6. 

The heathen will be judged by the light of nature : " For 
as many as have sinned without law, shall also perish 
without law." Rom. 2 : 12. Our people the Jews will be 
judged by the law of Moses: "Do not think that I will 
accuse you to the Father : there is one that accuseth you, 
even Moses, in whom ye trust." John, 5 : 45. " As many 
as have sinned in the law, shall be judged by the law." 
Rom. 2 : 12. Those who are favored with the means oi 
grace will be judged by the Gospel. " He that rejecteth me, 
and receiveth not my words, hath one that judgeth him; 
the word that I have spoken, the same shall judge him in 
the last day." John, 12 : 48. Saints will be judged by the 
book of life. Luke, 10 : 20. Rev. 3 : 5. 20 : 12, 15. 

^ 15. The evidence produced in judgment will be abun- 
dantly clear and convincing. . The temper of divine justice 
is very observable in particular judgments recorded in 
Scripture. In the first process of justice on earth, we read 
that God made inquiry of Adam, " Hast thou eaten of the 
tree whereof I commanded thee that ihou shouldst not 
eat?" Gen. 3; 11; and by palpable evidence convinced 
him before he condemned him. Thus, before the fiery ven- 
geance upon the wicked cities, the Lord said to Abraham, 
" Because the cry of Sodom and Gomorrah is great, and be- 
cause their sin is very grievous, I will go down now and see 
whether they have done altogether according to the cry of it 
that is come unto me." Gen. 18 ; 20, 21. Thus we read of 
the profane king of Babylon, Belshazzar, "that he was 
weighed in the balance and found wanting," Daniel, 5 ; 27, 



Let. 2.] THE GENERAL JUDGMENT. 350 

before he was sentenced to be deprived of his kingdom and 
life. And in the last day the righteousness of God's pro- 
ceedings shall be universally manifest and magnified. It 
is therefore called "the day of the revelation of the right- 
eous judgment of God." Rom. 2 : 5. 

In allusion to the proceedings in human judgments, 
where the information and charges are produced from wri- 
tings for the conviction of the accused, the Scripture in- 
forms us that the evidence is to be produced by opening 
the books. 

We read that God keeps a book of remembrance. Ma) 
3: 16. 

On the day of judgment, contrary to the practice of hu- 
man tribunals; the Judge himself will be a witness against 
the criminals. For thus says the Lord, " I will come near 
to you to judgment; and I will be a swift witness against 
the sorcerers, and against the adulterers, and against false 
swearers, and against those that oppress the hireling in his 
wages, the widow and the fatherless, and that turn aside 
the stranger from his right, and fear not me." Mai. 3 : 5. 
Then shall the Lord Jesus Christ say '' unto them at the 
left hand. Depart from me, ye cursed, into everlasting fire, 
prepared for the devil and his angels : for I was an hun- 
gered, and ye gave me no meat : I was thirsty, and ye gave 
me no drink : I was a stranger, and ye took me not in : 
naked, and ye clothed me not : sick, and in prison, and ye 
visited me not. Then shall they also answer him saying, 
Lord, when saw we thee an hungered, or athirst, or a 
stranger, or naked, or sick, or in prison, and did not minis- 
ter unto thee ? Then shall he answer them saying, Verily, 
I say unto you, inasmuch as ye did it not to one of the leas: 
of these, ye did it not to me." Matt. 25 : 41-45. 

The omniscience of God will give most convincing evi- 
dence to all our works. " All things are marked and open 
to his eyes with whom we have to do " in judgment. Heb. 



360 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Pari G. 

4: 13. He discovered the sacrilege of Achaii, the lie of 
Gehazi, and the deceit of Ananias. Saul's disobedience in 
sparing the spoils of the Amalekites, devoted to destruction, 
had the colorable pretence of piety, and a sacrifice was laid 
on the altar- and David's murder of Uriah was imputed to 
the chance of war as a suificient excuse; but though they 
might have deceived others, they could not deceive God. 
Hence says the wise man, " Doth not he that pondereth 
the heart consider it ? and he that keepeth thy soul doth 
not he know it ? and shall not he render to every man ac- 
cording to his works.'^ Pro v. 24 : 12. 

Another book that will be laid open is every man's own 
conscience. 

Now the records of conscience are often obliterated, and 
the sins written therein are forgotten ; but on the day of 
judgment they will appear in so clear an impression, that 
the wicked will be inexcusable to themselves, and con- 
science will subscribe to the sentence of condemnation, and 
the sinner become speechless. 

§ 16. Other numerous witnesses will appear. Not as if 
God, who knoweth all things, wants information ; but for 
the public conviction of the wicked, many of their own 
friends and ministers will have to appear against them. 

The righteous will bear witness against the ungodly. 
They will rehearse the several circumstances which prove 
their earnest desire and endeavor to reclaim and reform 
them. They will repeat the advice and counsel which they 
once tendered them ; they will relate how often they re- 
proved them, how earnestly they entreated and besought 
them, and how affectionately and importunately they pray- 
ed for them. 

§ 17, Yea, even the wicked will bear witness against 
their wicked companions. Luke, 16 : 27, 28. 

In this world, fellow-sinners usually conceal one ano- 
ther's wickedness, restrained by their own obnoxiousnoss 



Let. 2. THE GENERAL JUDGMENT. 361 

to punishment ; but all that have been jointly engaged in 
the commission of sin will impeach each other. In all sins 
of combinations, the inferior instruments will accuse their 
directors and tempters for their pernicious counsel ; like 
Adam, who laid the blame upon Eve, and Eve upon the 
serpent. This awful subject, my dear Benjamin, reminds 
me of the story about the Lucian Lamp, of which a heathen 
writer relates thus : " That the soul of a very guilty wretch 
was after death arraigned before one of the severe judges 
below. At his trial, because his atrocious crimes were done 
in secret, he stood upon his defence, denying all. The 
judge demanded his lamp to be produced, that was an eye- 
witness of his wickedness. The lamp appeared, and being 
demanded what it knew of him, answered with a sigh, ' O 
that I had been conscious of nothing, for even now the re- 
membrance of his villanies makes me to tremble. I wish 
my light had been extinct, that the oil that maintained it 
had quenched it. But I burned with disdain and cast about 
some sparks to fire his impure bed, and was grieved that 
my little flame was so weak as not to consume it. I said 
within myself, if the sun saw these villanies it would be 
eclipsed, and leave the world in darkness. But I novv per- 
ceive why I was constrained to give light to him, that, be- 
ing a secret spy of his uncleanness, his thefts and cruehies, 
I might reveal them.' " 

§ 18. Devils too will appear as witnesses against the 
wicked. 

As it respects the righteous, Satan, the accuser of the 
brethren^ will be silenced by the Judge himself, who is 
their advocate. This we have represented to the prophet 
Zechariah ; " Joshua the high priest," a type of the 
church, "standing before the angel of the Lord, and Satan 
standing at his right hand to resist him : and the Lord 
said unto Satan, the Lord rebuke thee, O Satan, even the 
Lord that hath chosen Jerusalem, rebuke thee." Zech. 



362 JOSETIl AND BENJAMIN. [Purl 6. 

3 : 1, 2. But he will prevail against the wicked. Per- 
haps this is intimated in the words of David, (which ought 
to be considered more as a prediction than an impreca- 
tion,) " Let Satan stand," or rather Satan shall stand "at 
his right hand; when he is judged, let him be," or he 
shall be, '* condemned." Psa. 109 : 6, 7. 

Devils are able to rehearse long catalogues of their 
crimes ; they can bring to light their secret and unseen 
practices, and they have malice enough to urge them home 
against them. Devils will then accuse those whom they 
now tempt ; and they who now solicit them to vice, will 
appear and prove against them the commission of it. How 
great the madness, my dear Benjamin, to give ear to dia- 
bolical suggestions ! For this false and treacherous friend, 
after ho has prevailed with souls to commit sin, will make 
good the charge which he will bring against them for it, 
and torment them for what they have done. 

§ 19. With respect to the trial itself, we may be sure 
that it will be impartial. Jesus Christ will do every man 
justice; "he will judge the world with righteousness." 
The Thebans represented their judges as blind and without 
hands ; blind, that they might not respect persons ; without 
hands, that they might take no bribes. In human courts, 
the judges sometimes extend and amplify, sometimes con- 
tract or smother the evidence, and are more rigorous or fa- 
vorable in their sentence, as they are biased towards the 
persons before them. But the righteous judge of the world 
is incapable of being inclined to favor or severity upon 
such base motives. Christ's sceptre is a sceptre of right- 
eousness. He is no respecter of persons. Rom. 2: 11. 
1 Peter, 1 : 17. It is not nearness of blood that prevails; 
many of his kindred will be condemned; nor is it a glow- 
ing profession : many will go to hell with Christ in their 
mouth. Matt. 7 : 22. Things will not be carried on in 
that day by parties, but weighed in a most just balance. 



Let. 2.] THE GENERAL JUDGMENT. 363 

There are no fees taken in that court, nor will the judge 
be bribed by a hypocritical tear or a Judas' kiss. " The 
rich and the poor shall then meet together without distinc- 
tion, before God the Maker and Judge of them all." " There 
shall be neither Greek nor Jew, Barbarian nor Scythian, 
bond nor free ;" but he that has done wrong shall receive for 
the wrong he has done ; and there is no respect of persons." 

§ 20. As there will be no partiality to persons, so there 
will be a perfect distinction of causes, and every man be 
judged according to his works, the tenor of good works 
and the desert of bad. The apostle assures us that " what- 
soever a man soweth, that shall he reap : he that soweth to 
the flesh, shall of the flesh reap corruption ; but he that 
soweth to the Spirit, shall of the Spirit reap life everlasting." 
Gal. 6 : 7, 9. " To them who, by patient continuance in 
well-doing, seek for glory, and honor, and immortality, eter- 
nal life : but unto them that are contentious, and do not 
obey the truth, but obey unrighteousness, indignation and 
wrath, tribulation and anguish, upon every soul of man 
that doeth evil; of the Jew first, and also of the Gentile: 
for there is no respect of persons with God." Rom. 
2: 7-11. 

*' It is more rational," says the sweet writer, Dr. Bates, 
" to conceive that things may be congealed by the heat of 
fire, or turned black by whiteness, than that the least act of 
injustice can be done by the righteous Lord. The apostlo 
rejects with extreme detestation the blasphemous charge of 
unrighteousness in God's proceedings: " Is God unrighteous 
that taketh vengeance ? God forbid : for then how shall 
God judge the world ?" Rom. 3 : 5, 6. He may as soon re- 
nounce his nature and cease to be God — for, as such, he is 
necessarily judge of the world — as violate his own perfec- 
tions in his judicial proceedings with us." 

§ 21. Every individual will be perfectly convinced of 
the fairness of the proceedings, and the justice of the sen- 



364 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. (Part 6, 

lence. Not only will " every mouth be stopped, and the 
sinner become speechless," but every one will be convinc- 
ed that the sentence is just. The sinner himself shall clear 
God of injustice; God's taking vengeance is doing justice. 
Sin makes God angry, but it cannot make him unrighteous. 
The wHcked shall drink a sea of wrath, but not a drop of 
injustice. If Christ should say, " Sinner, what apology 
canst thou make for thyself? Are not thy sins written in 
the book of conscience ? Hadst thou not that book in thine 
own keeping? Who could interline it ?" The sinner, being 
self-condemned, would clear his Judge and say, " Lord, 
though I be condemned, yet I have no wrong done me; 
thou ait clear w^hen thou judgest." Psa. 51 : 4. 

^ 22. Thus, my dear Benjamin, I have endeavored m 
as brief a manner as possible to prove the certainty of a 
general judgment, pointed out the Judge in his person and 
in the manner of his appearance, and mentioned some of 
the most important circumstances connected with the trial, 
such as relate to the subject, to the rule and evidence, and 
the nature of the trial itself; you will doubtless be anxious 
to hear of the sentence to be pronounced and its conse- 
quences, which I propose to describe in my next letter. In 
the meantime let me beg of you to read carefully and 
prayerfully the 25th chapter in St. Matthew's Gospel, from 
ver. 31—46. I am aware, my dear Benjamin, that there 
are a variety of questions that present themselves to the 
mind whilst contemplating this all-important subject, such 
as respecting the place, the time, &c. &c. which the limits 
of this letter will not permit me to notice; but as the event 
is certain, and will be universal, decisive and eternal as to 
its consequences, let us rather be concerned for the welfare 
of our immortal interests, flee to the refuge set before us, 
improve our precious time, depend on the merits of the 
dear Redeemer, and adhere to the duties of the divine 
word, that we may be found of him in peace. Farewell. 



Let. 3.] THE MISERY OF THE WICKED. 365 



JLetter in. 



THE MISERY OF THE WICKEI>, 

My Dear Benjamin^ 

^ 1. Agreeably to promise, I will now notice the sen- 
tences pronounced and their consequences. At the close of 
my last letter I recommended to your serious attention the 
25th chapter of the Gospel of Matthew, from 31st verse, 
where you will have observed that our blessed Lord has 
given us a lively description of the solemn process of the 
final judgment and the different sentences that shall be 
passed on the righteous and on the wicked. To the right- 
eous, those at his right hand, he will say, " Come, ye bless- 
ed of my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you 
from the foundation of the world." But to the wicked, those 
at his left hand, he will say, " Depart from me, ye cursed, 
into everlasting fire, prepared for the devil and his angels." 
iMatt. 25 : 34, 41. And these sentences will be immediately 
executed ; for it follows : " these," i. e. the wicked, " shall 
go away into everlasting punishment; but the righteous 
into life eternal." In the present letter I propose to consi- 
der the nature and duration of the misery of the wicked. 

§ 2. With respect to its nature, you must not expect, my 
dear Benjamin, more than some general account. A parti- 
cular and accurate description of that misery can only be 
given by those miserable wretches that already feel it. The 
torments of hell, as well as the joy of heaven, are yet in a 
great measure unrevealed, and we can then only expect 
any accurate notion of them when the veil of mortality is 
rent, and the great objects of an unseen state are presented 
to our view. 



3G6 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part 6. 

The nature of the future punishment and misery of the 
wicked has usually been divided into the punishment of 
loss, and the punishment of sense. In describing the for- 
mer, viz. the punishment of loss, I would observe, 

§ 3. That the wicked will be for ever debarred from 
the blessed presence of God, the only fountain of life and 
light, of joy and blessedness: "Depart,'" says the Judge, 
" from me," in whose *• presence is fullness of joy, and 
at whose right hand there are pleasures for evermore." 
All attempts to reclaim and reform them will cease for 
ever. No invitations to return, no offers of pardon and 
peace, no merciful entreaties to accept of them shall be any 
more addressed to them. All cries for pity and commisera- 
tion (how importunate soever) are now fruitless, and come 
too late, for ever. 

§ 4. Further observe, my dear Benjamin, that as the 
wicked and impenitent will be debarred from the beatific 
vision of God, so likewise they will be for ever excluded 
from his heavenly court, the place where he manifests his 
ravishing glory and communicates his felicitating love to 
all the happy attendants of his exalted throne. 

" They must be for ever shut out," says the silver- 
tongued Mr. Boyce, " from that bright habitation of holi- 
ness, and become perpetual exiles from those amiable man- 
sions of light, into which none but the children of light 
shall be received. And consequently they must be thrust 
out of the society of the saints in light, and excluded from 
the desirable conversations and entertainments, from the 
noble work and the satisfying joys, from the transcendent 
perfections and blessedness of that blessed and holy com- 
munity. The gates of the heavenly Jerusalem shall be for 
ever barred upon them. An unpassable gulf shall cut oflf 
all possibility and hope of returning to these forfeited re- 
gions of endless bliss, Luke, 16 : 26. Rev. 21 : 8, 27. 
While they behold those holy souls, whose serious piety 



Let. 3.] THE MISERY OF THE WICKED. 367 

they here scorned and despised, admitted with honor and 
triumph to sit down with Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, with 
the patriarchs, prophets and apostles, in the kingdom ot 
heaven, they shall see themselves thrust out, to their eter- 
nal shame and confusion. Luke, 13 : 28, 29. Their eyes 
shall never behold the beauties of the heavenly world, their 
ears not hear the triumphant songs of the celestial choir ; 
not one drop from those ever-flowing rivers of divine plea- 
sure and joy shall be afforded to cool their inflamed 
tongue." 

§ 5. The next part of their misery is the punishment of 
sense. This is expressed in the sentence pronounced un- 
der the notion of fire. " Depart from me, ye cursed, into 
everlasting fire." As it is usual for the Scriptures to re- 
present to us the felicity and joy of heaven by what is most 
pleasing and glorious to onr senses, as by a feast, a king- 
dom, a crown, a marriage, &c. so it is no wonder that the 
miseries of hell should also be set forth by what is most 
dismal and terrible ; or what occasions the most exquisite 
pain and torture ; as by the unquenchable fire, the never- 
dying worm, outer darkness, chains of darkness, an infer- 
nal prison. 

The metaphor fire is frequently used to represent the tor- 
ments and miseries of the wicked. " Who among us shall 
dwell with devouring fire? who shall dwell with ever- 
lasting burnings?" Isa. 33: 14. Fire, brimstone, and an 
horrible tempest are said to be the portion of the wicked's 
cup. Psa. 9 : 6. Jude calls it " the vengeance of eternal 
fire," ver. 7 ; and in Revelation it is called •' the lake of 
fire and brimstone, whose torment is for ever and ever." 
Rev. 20: 10. The metaphor fitly represents to us the an- 
guish of an accusing, despairing conscience, the torment- 
ing sense of the inexorable wrath of God, and the rage of 
their own unsatisfied lusts. 

$ 6. The bitter anguish and torment of an accusing and 



368 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part G. 

despairing conscience is that which our Lord chiefly in- 
tended by the "' worm that never dieth, and the fire that never 
goes out." Mark, 9 : 44, 46. Conscience, in its enraged re- 
flections, will be to the sinner as a worm that is perpetually 
gnawing his vitals, like a flame that is incessantly scorch- 
ing his inward parts. And doubtless Christ refers to this 
part of the misery of the damned, when he so often speaks 
of hell as the place where there is '' weeping, and w^ailing, 
and gnashing of teeth," Matt. 13: 42, 50; expressions 
that denote the most piercing grief arising from the utmost 
degree of desperation and rage. And no wonder that this 
should be the wretched condition of the wicked, *• when 
we consider," says Dr. Boyce, " that wherever a condemned 
sinner turns his thoughts, he finds nothing but what ad- 
ministers to his inward vexation and despair. If he look 
backward to this world he has left, and the life he has here 
led, what abundant matter occurs of bitter and grievous 
reflections ; if he reviews his actions, what a scene of per- 
petual and shameful folly appears to his eye; how num- 
berless, detestable and hateful sins stare him in the face, 
the remembrance whereof fills him with horror and con- 
fusion ! If he look back on his earthly enjoyments and 
sensual delight, and especially on the past momentary 
pleasures of sin ; alas ! they are fled and gone, and have 
left nothing but a tormenting sting behind. If he reflect 
on the compassionate ofl^ers of divine grace, and his mer- 
ciful methods to recover and save him ; alas ! these 
slighted offers are now recalled, and shall never be tender- 
ed more; those opposed methods are finally frustrated; 
and the day of abused patience and grace is at an end, and 
the day of final retribution and vengeance has now .suc- 
ceeded it. If he look upioards, what can he there fix his 
thoughts upon but that righteous God, whose long-suflfer- 
ing he has now turned into inexorable fury; that blessed 
society from whose converse he is perpetually banished; 



Let. 3.J THE MISERY OF THE WICKED. 369 

that heavenly Father and glory, which once indeed was 
proposed to his choice, but the proposal being ungratefully 
despised and rejected, he is now by a peremptory sentence 
etern^ally excluded from it ! 

If he look raund about him, whom has he to commune 
with, but those accursed fiends that will now prove his tor- 
mentors, as they were once his tempters ; and those other 
companions of sin here on earth, the very sight of whom 
calls his past guilt to his unwelcome remembrance ? If he 
\oo\i forward, he sees nothing before him that can admin- 
ister any hope of relief; on the contrary, the certain pros- 
pect of a miserable eternity does, above all things, amaze 
and confound him. So that his own uneasy, perplexed 
thoughts are a continual spring of new anguish and ter- 
ror to him. He carries a perpetual hell in his own con- 
science, w^hose unanswerable challenges, and wounding re- 
proaches, and direful lashes are intolerable. Of 4his we 
have some lively representations in the horrid agonies and 
unsupportable fury of some despairing sinners on earth, 
when they had nothing left them but a certain fearful look- 
ing for of judgment and fiery indignation." I mean such 
as Francis Spira and others, that have been driven to the 
utmost desperation ; (not to mention the scriptural examples 
of Cain and of a Judas ;) and we may reasonably suppose 
that these bitter reflections of an enraged, accusing con- 
science, will be more restless and grievous in that future 
state, where wretched sinners will have nothing else to en- 
tertain their busy thoughts. 

§ 7. Another ingredient of the misery of the condemn- 
ed, expressed by the metaphor iire, is the affrighted sense 
of the inexorable displeasure and wrath of an incensed God. 
The Apostle Jude calls it the " vengeance of eternal fire." 
And God is said to be a consuming fire. Deut. 4 : 34. 
Again, the apostle speaks of a " certain fearful looking for 
of judgment and fiery indignation, which shall devour the 

VOL II. 16 



370 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part 6 

adversaries." Heb. 10 : 27. God's wrath against his ad 
versaries is frequently compared to fire, on account of its 
irresistible, tormenting, and devouring nature. How ter 
rifying, my dear Benjamin, must the apprehension of an 
Almighty God be to a condemned sinner that has now 
fallen into his avenging hand, when he considers he can 
no way resist his power, nor escape the utmost effects of 
his tremendous indignation. How, indeed, a just and sin- 
avenging God will execute his wrath, is what we are now 
wholly ignorant of; but sure we are, those must be ex- 
tremely miserable that are remedilessly exposed to it. 
Well might the Psalmist say, "Who knowelh the power 
of thine anger ? According to thy fear so is thy wrath." 
Psa. 90 : 11. Our fears, under the strong alarm of a guilty 
conscience, are next to boundless and infinite; but the 
wrath that is armed with infinite power must needs exceed 
our most unbounded fears themselves. With what deep 
wounds will the sword of justice pierce the sinner's heart, 
when wuelded by an irresistible, omnipotent hand ! How 
inconceivably dismal must be the case of those " vessels of 
wrath fitted for destruction," on whom so terrible a ma- 
jesty resolves " to show his wrath, and to make his power 
known." Rom. 9 : 22. 

§ 8. Permit me, dear Benjamin, to mention one more 
ingredient of the future punishment of the wicked, viz. the 
continued rage of their own unsatisfied lusts. Those impure 
and brutish desires, which in the condemned sinner will be 
as vehement as ever, and must needs create a continual tor- 
ment to one that can find no objects to gratify them with ; 
and their impure flames are fitly compared to a fire, a lire 
that will furiously prey upon the soul itself, when it has no 
external fuel to feed upon. What a torment must it be, to 
burn always in the flames of his own unquenchable desires, 
and to covet perpetually that vile fuel of his former luxury, 
pride, intemperance, lust, covetousness, and other inordinate 



Let. 3.] THE MISERY OF THE WICKED. 371 

affections, tnat are now withdrawn for ever ! m a word, 
to find all those things vanished on which his hopes and 
happiness were placed, and to which his heart yet insepa- 
rably cleaves, yet he despairs ever to enjoy them. This 
will be a most just but truly dreadful part of the sinner's pun- 
ishment. Thus, my dear Benjamin, I have endeavored to 
give you a general scriptural account of the punishment 
and misery of the wicked ; but I must adopt the words of 
the apostle, and say, "Eye hath not seen, nor ear heard, 
nor hath it entered into the heart of man to conceive " the 
terrible things that a righteous God has prepared for 
them who finally hate, and impenitently provoke and dis- 
obey him. 

§ 9. From the consideration of the nature of the pun- 
ishment of the wicked, I proceed to invite your most seri- 
ous attention to its duration. This our Lord himself has 
told us is to be eternal : " These shall go away into ever- 
lasting punishment, but the righteous into life eternal." 
Matt. 25 : 46. The words everlasting and eternal in this 
passage are synonymous, and signify an endless duration. 
It is much to be regretted that the translators used two dif- 
ferent words, when the original word is the same in both 
places. Dr. Doddridge says, •• As the original word 
Aiojiion is the same in both places, I thought it proper to 
use the same word in the translation of both." As none 
disputes the happiness of the saints to be eternal, without 
interruption and without end, so none ought to doubt that 
the duration of the punishment and misery of the wicked 
will be without intermission and without end. Besides, 
we are told that "the smoke of their torment ascendeth 
up for ever and ever," Rev. 14: 11; and our blessed 
Lord also declareth that " their worm dieth not, and their 
fire is not quenched." Mark, 9 : 44, 48. In the greatest 
miseries of this life, God is graciously pleased to allow 
some intervals of rest ; but of those in hell it is said, " they 



372 JOSEPH AND BENJATttlJf. [PaitG. 

have no rest, day nor night." Rev. 14 : 11. The rich man 
in hell asked but a momentary alleviation of his torture, 
when he desired that Lazarus might be sent " to dip the 
lip of his finger in water to cool his tongue ;" but even this 
was denied him. It is the immutability of the future state 
that bespeaks it eternal. They can no more flee from th(» 
bitter reflections of an enraged conscience, than flee from 
themselves ; and no more interrupt the misery that springs 
from them, than extinguish their life itself 

^10. As their misery is without intermission, so also it 
is without end. This ingredient will inconcei\'ably increase 
their anguish. If, Avhen a duration equal to many millions 
of ages were past, condemned sinners might have any 
assurance of redemption from their misery, even that slender 
hope would be some, though a small mitigation of the hor- 
ror of their state. It were some relief to their torments to 
foresee any possible end of them, at however remote a 
distance. 

But oh ! v.-hat an amazing and insupportable thought, 
that all the vast space of time that arithmetic can compute 
or their thoughts measure, is but as a moment in comparison 
to eternity ; and when that is passed, their misery will be 
as far from ending as ever ! Oh ! that solemn and awful 
sound. Eternity ! eternity ! It is related by several authors, 
of a lady who was fond of gayety, that after spending the 
afternoon and evening with a party at cards and other vain 
amusements, she returned home late at night, and found 
her waiting-maid diligently reading a religious book ; 
happening to look over her shoulder, she saw what it was, 
and said, " Poor, melancholy soul, why do you sit so long 
poring upon your book ?" After this she retired to bed, but 
could not sleep ; she lay sighing and weeping for several 
hours. Being repeatedly asked by her servant what was 
the matter, she burst into a flood of tears, and said, "Oh ! 
Mary, it was one word that I saw in your book which 



Let. 4] FUTURE IIAPP/NES3 OF THE RIGHTEOUS. 373 

troubles me; there I saw the woid Eternity." The Lord 
grant, my dear Benjamin, that we may so consider the word 
Eternity, that it may not be a trouble, but a pleasure unto 
us. May we flee for refuge to Jesus, as the man-slayer to 
the city of refuge, and the great High Priest of our pro- 
fession will receive and defend us from the sword of the 
avenger ; " for there is now no condemnation to them that 
are in Christ Jesus, who walk not after the flesh, but after 
the Spirit," Rom. 8:1; and on that day, when the good 
Shepherd shall " divide his sheep from the goats," he will 
say unto us, "Come, ye blessed of my Father, inherit the 
kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the 
world." Then, with all the " righteous, we shall enter into 
life eternal." Matt. 25 : 46. The nature of that felicity 
will be the subject of the next letter. 

Farewell. 



letter IV, 



THE FUTURE HAPPINESS OF THE RIGHTEOUS. 

Beloved Brother^ 

Agreeably to promise, I now invite your attention to the 
happiness of the righteous, or the felicity of heaven. Heaven 
is considered as a place in which the Omnipotent Deity is 
said to afford a nearer and more immediate view of him- 
self, and a more sensible manifestation of his glory than in 
the other parts of the universe. 

§1.1 freely acknowledge, my dear Benjamin, that the 
felicity of the righteous, as well as the misery of the wick- 
ed, far exceeds our comprehension. We are, at present, at 



374 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part 0. 

a great distance from those superior regions of eternal 
light, and there is a thick veil of flesh that hides the glory 
of them from our eyes. We have, indeed, a clear and satis- 
fying assurance of an endless felicity, and some notices in 
general of its nature ; but as to the particulars of it, it is a 
glory yet to be revealed, and we cannot expect a clear and 
distinct view of it till we enter within the veil, and are ad- 
mitted into the heavenly sanctuary. Should the external 
glory of the heavenly state be laid open to our naked view, 
it would be too dazzling a sight for weak mortality to bear. 
If the Israelites could not endure to behold the face of 
Moses when it shone, upon his descent from the mount ; 
and if the disciples of our Lord could not bear the sight of 
his transfigured body without great confusion and fear; 
how much more should w^e be confounded at the view of 
that celestial brightness, of which this Avas but an emblem 
or glimpse. 

Yet, though we cannot here expect any adequate con- 
ception of the heavenly state, we are not left wholly in 
the dark. The Holy Spirit has, in condescension to our 
weakness, described it to us in expressions which allude to 
present and sensible things. Thus the future blessedness 
of the righteous is often represented under the notion of a 
kingdom, a throne, a crown, a house and city ; sometimes 
it is represented as a great treasure, a pearl of great price, 
and a glorious inheritance ; sometimes it is represented un- 
der the emblem of white robes, palms, or under the simi- 
litude of a great supper or marriage-feast : it is called the 
heavenly paradise, full of light, life and glory. By these, 
and other afl?ecting, sensible allusions, does the Spirit ot 
God insinuate to our minds some sensible thought of the 
transcendent honor and dignity, the complete perfection and 
excellency, the ravishing and truly satisfying pleasure and 
joy of that happy state. For method's sake, I will, however 
give you a brief description of the character of the righr 



Let. 4.J FUTURE HAPPINESS OF THE RIGHTEOUS. 375 

tecus, and then consider their happiness both in the nega- 
tive and positive. 

^ 2. With respect to the righteous, the Scriptures de- 
clare " there is none righteous" on earth, " no not one," i. e. 
in himselfl To be righteous, in the proper and strict sense 
of the word, is to keep the law ferfectly, which no mere 
man ever did, and no fallen man ever can; for "all* 
have sinned;" sin being "the transgression of the law." 
The righteous, therefore, who shall enter into life eternal, 
are not such in themselves, but are dealt with by God as 
such, through the righteousness of Christ put to their ac- 
count. This righteousness Christ wrought out by his per- 
fect obedience, even unto death ; and it is revealed in the 
Gospel ; and when the sinner is convinced that he wants it, 
and must perish without it, he comes to God for it, and God 
gives it to him ; he receives it by faith, puts it on and 
wears it, lives and dies in it ; and being " found in Christ," 
he is admitted in this wedding garment to the marriage- 
supper of the Lamb. 

^ 3. I proceed to consider the negative part of the hap- 
piness of the righteous, which consists in an entire exemp- 
tion and freedom from all evils, both moral and natural, 
both those of sin and misery ; they will be freed from all 
inward and spiritual evils, such as the guilt of sin, Isaiah, 
33 : 24 ; the depravity of their nature, the temptations of 
Satan, from divine desertion, Isaiah, 57 : 8 ; from fear of 
the wrath of God and the punishment of sin; from all dis- 
tresses arising from connection with others, such as from 
the sufferings of friends, country, or the church, or from 
the sins of others. Here the relics of indwelling sin make 
our life a tedious warfare, the violent struggles of this body 
of death often extort such bitter complaints of our wretched 
condition as that of the apostle, " O wretched man that I am ! 
who shall deliver me from the body of this death ?" Rom. 
7 : 24. These spiritual enemies within us are like those m 



376 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Pari G. 

ihe Israelites' bodies, " as thorns in our sides and pricks in 
our eyes;" they wound a gracious soul in its most quick 
and sensible part ; but in the heavenly Canaan all these 
cursed remains of sin are entirely extinguished. There 
" the spirits of the just made perfect " have no more occa- 
sion to lament the sinful darkness and distraction of their 
minds, the rebellion of their unruly passions, the irregula- 
rity of their desires, the carnality and dullness of their af- 
fections, the weakness of their graces, and the woful defects 
and failures of their best obedience: happy they whose 
wearisome warfare is ended in perfect victory and eternal 
triumph. 

^ 4. And as the saints in glory are freed from indwell- 
ing sin, the temptations of the world, and the assaults of 
Satan ; so also they are freed from all the evil consequences 
6f sin. All the spiritual doubts, fears and sorrows will be 
buried in the grave of sin, to rise no more. In those re- 
gions of perfect light and purity there are no clouds to in- 
tercept the ravishing beams of divine love ; no spiritual 
storms of desertion to disturb the serenity and calm of an 
innocent soul ; no frowns on the face of our Heavenly Fa- 
ther to awaken our jealous fears; no anguish of an accus- 
ing conscience to alloy our spiritual joy. There we shall 
hear no more such grievous complaints as now sometimes 
drop from the lips of a desponding Asaph : " Will the 
Lord cast off for ever ? and will he be favorable no more ? 
Is his mercy clean gone for ever? Does his promise fail 
for evermore ? Has God forgotten to be gracious ? Has he 
in anger shut up his tender mercies?" Psa. 77: 7-9. Or as 
those of Heman, " Why easiest thou off my soul ? why 
hidest thou thy face from me ? I am afflicted and ready to 
die from my youth up : while I suffer thy terrors I am dis- 
tracted." Psa. 88 : 14, 15. The perfect love of heaven will 
entirely cast out all relics of such disquieting fear. 
1 John, 4 : 18. 



Let. 4.j FUTURE HAPPINESS OF THE RIGHTEOUS. 377 

^ 5. Further, the saints enter those peaceful mansions, 
where " the wicked cease from troubling, and the weary- 
are at rest." Job, 3 : 17. They are freed from the noise of 
this malignant world, where the voice of scoffing Ishmaelites, 
cursing Shimeis, and railing, blasphemous Rabshakehs, is 
heard no more; where there is no terrible inquisitorial 
tribunal, no treacherous and bloody massacres, no fire and 
faggot, no prison or gallies to be dreaded any more ; they 
are landed safe on the shore of eternity, from whence they 
can behold, with a fearless eye, the storms of this tempes- 
tuous sea whereon they have so long been tossed, and 
from which they have now happily escaped. 

^ G. The saints in heaven are freed from evils and suf- 
ferings ; hence heaven is called a place of rest : they are 
freed from all bodily and outward sufferings, from disease 
and pain : " God shall wipe away all tears from their eyes ; 
and there shall be no more death, neither sorrow nor cry- 
ing, neither shall ther^ be any more pain ; for the former 
things are passed away." Rev. 21:4; Isaiah, 25 : 8, 23, 24. 
There will be no more complaint of poverty or want; they 
will have a glorious inheritance, and be as rich as heaven 
can make them. He who has a promise of an estate after 
the expiration of a few years, though at present he is poor, 
comforts himself with this, that he will shortly have his 
estate. "They shall hunger no more, neither thirst any- 
more; neither shall the sun light on them, nor any heat; 
for the Lamb, which is in the midst of the throne, shall feed 
them, and shall lead them unto living fountains of waters ; 
and God shall wipe all tears from their eyes." Rev. 7 : 16, 
17. They shall be freed also from toil and hard labor; 
"all things," says the wise man, ''are full of labor." Eccl. 
1 : 8. God has made a law, " in the sweat of thy brow 
thou shall eat thy bread." But death gives the believer a 
discharge from all his labor. Rev. 14 : 13. Nor shall they 
any more sustain the loss of comforts and enjoyments. In 
16* 



878 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part e 

this present life, many things occasion sorrow, law-suits, 
treachery of friends, disappointment of hopes, and the loss 
of property. The world is a "Bochim," i. e. a place of weep- 
ing : Rachel wept for her children. Some grieve that they 
have no children, others because they are undutiful. Thus 
we spend our years in sighing ; but in heaven all tears will 
be wiped away. Then Christ's spouse will put off her 
mourning ; for how can the children of the bridegroom 
mourn when he is with them ? Thus, my dear Benjamin, 
you will easily perceive that even the negative part of the 
happiness of the righteous, the happiness that flows from 
the absence of the evils of sin and corruption, exceeds all 
the pleasures this world can afford. As none feel more the 
pleasures of health than those just recovering from long 
and painful maladies ; as none prize more highly the sweets 
of liberty than those that are rescued from the miseries 
and hardships of captivity ; so the fresh remembrance oi 
all the afflictions that we have passed through during this 
short scene of mortality and misery will greatly enhance 
the joys of our happy deliverance from them, and give a 
sweeter relish to the positive part of the future blessedness. 
^ 7. I will therefore proceed to the consideration of the 
positive part of the happiness of the righteous. This is 
called by the Lord Jesus Christ, "Eternal Life." Matt. 
25 : 46. And in many other parts of the Scripture the fu- 
ture happiness is called Life, by way of eminence, as op- 
posed to this present state of mortality, and denotes the af- 
fluence of all that can render our being and state truly de- 
sirable. Matt. 7 : 14. 19 : 17. John, 3: 36. 10 : 10. The 
blessedness of their heavenly and happy life results partly 
L From the perfection of our nature, and the most vigorous 
exercise of our perfected powers upon the noblest and most 
agreeable objects. How great will be the change with 
respect to the soul and all its rational powers ! The per- 
fection of our knowledge is by the Apostle Paul plainly in- 



Let. 4.] FUTURE HAPPISLSS OF THE RIGHTEOUS. 379 

timated to be the noble and peculiar privilege of our hea- 
venly state. 1 Cor. 13 : 10, 12. Our knowledge w'lW then 
be large in its compass and extent, and conversant about 
the most glorious objects, the contemplation and discovery 
vhereof is capable of yielding the highest satisfaction to 
our minds. We shall then fully " know the only true God, 
and Jesus Christ whom he hath sent," whom to know 
fully, is indeed "life eternal." John, 17 : 3. 

§ 8. Next to the understanding, is the perfection of the 
will, as another source of happiness. Our will will be en- 
tirely moulded into a sinless conformity to the nature and 
will of God ; this being the happy and necessary result of 
our perfect vision of him. 1 John, 3:2. 2 Cor. 3:18. 
Oh ! happy souls, Avhose wills are thus entirely moulded 
into the perfect will of God ! If the perfect fulfilling of our 
wills can make us happy, those must needs be so who have 
no will different from his ; for his will shall always stand. 

As the philosophers say, the reason that iron cleaves to the 
load-stone so constantly, is because the pores of both ar© 
alike, and there are affluxes and emanations that slide 
through and unite them together ; so will be this magnetism ; 
our wills shall perfectly fall in with the divine will, and 
nothing will appear good to us but what is good in God's 
esteem ; so that we shall then need no threatenings to drive 
us, no promises to draw us; but divine goodness will so 
attract us, that we shall be naturalized to God and good- 
ness : and be no more able to turn off from that ineffable 
sweetness than the loadstone to point to the west* 

Here grace is very imperfect. We cannot write a copy 
of holiness without blotting it. Believers are said to re- 
ceive but the first fruits of the Spirit. Rom. 8 : 23. But in 
heaven the saints shall arrive at perfection. Their life clear, 
their sanctity perfect, their sun shall be in his meridian 
splendor ; they need not then pray for an increase of grace ; 
ihey will then love Christ as much as they would love him. . 



380 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part 6. 

and as much as he desires them to love him. They shall 
be then, in respect of holiness, as the angels of God. 

§ 9. As the understanding will be light without dark- 
ness, and the will conformed to that knowledge, so all the 
powders of the soul will be engaged in cheerful exercise. 
Here our souls are miserably impotent, weak and slug- 
gish, being imprisoned in a frail and feeble body, and clog- 
ged with an unwieldy lump of clay. But how great will 
be the vigor and activity of the soul, when disencumbered 
from this load of flesh and re-united to a body whose 
agility is suited to the quickness of its motions ! We shall 
then be like the angels, those swift messengers of the hea- 
venly King ; we shall then, indeed, in the highest sense, 
"mount up with wings as eagles; we shall run and not be 
weary, walk and not faint." Isaiah, 40 : 13. 

^ 10. The perfection of our nature relates to our body 
as well as our souls. At death the happiness of the right- 
eous is merely begun ; but, after the general resurrection 
and judgment, it will be completed. One part of the right- 
eous still remains the spoils of death and the prey of the 
grave; till then, that last enemy continues his seeming 
victory and triumph, out bodies being detained as captives 
in his dark prison and ignominious chains ; and it is not 
till this last enemy is conquered, and our bodies rescued 
from his dominion and power, that " mortality is entirely 
swallowed up of life," and the happiness of a glorified 
saint fully consummated. The glory and nature of this 
change, as far as revealed to us in Scripture, I have 
a;lready considered in a former letter on the general resur- 
rection ; and therefore proceed to mention another part of 
ihe happiness of the righteous, arising from 

^ 11. The society of the heavenly inhabitants. Man is 
a social creature, framed for converse, and capable of re- 
lishing all the entertaining pleasures of it. The more ex- 
cellent and communicative those are with whom we con- 



Let. 4.] FUTURE HAPPINESS OF THE lllGHTEOUS. 381 

verse, the greater are the advantages of it : now there is 
every thing in the heavenly state that can conspire to ren- 
der the converse of it beneficial and pleasurable to us. 
There we shall be admitted to the most intimate and en- 
deared communion with the blessed God, the fountain of 
all light and life, love and joy. We shall then satiate our 
souls with the " fullness of joy " that is in his beatific 
•' presence," and let them run adrift in that *' ocean of plea- 
sure that is at his right hand for evermore." All the in- 
fluences and effects of the felicitating love of God which 
we now partake of, are but like the glimmering light of 
the sun that pierces through some crevices of the closed 
windows. But there, all obstruction shall be removed, our 
own capachies enlarged, and we shall with open eyes be- 
hold the face of glorifying love for ever. Oh ! what a life 
of inconceivable and unknown delight we shall live for 
ever, in the presence and bosom, and under the incessant 
influence of his diffusive, eternal love, the true source of 
all perfection and blessedness ! Besides, my dear Benja- 
min, how great will be the joy and felicity of the righteous, 
when admitted to the presence and converse of the exalted 
Redeemer, as clothed in our nature. If good old Simeon 
was so transported at the sight of our blessed Lord in the 
flesh, that he was willing to close his eyes on this world 
when he had " beheld the salvation of God," Luke, 2 ; 28, 
30, how much more ravishing then will it be to behold him 
enthroned in heaven, when he has completed that great work 
of the salvation of his Israel which he here came to lay 
the foundation of ! If Peter, when he beheld but a tran- 
sient glimpse of the glory of Christ in the transfiguration 
on the mount, felt such an astonishing transport as made 
him forget the world and himself, and speak he knew not 
what ; how much more surprising and ravishing will his 
glory appear, when we see it in its brightest lustre, and we 
ourselves shall feel the transforming efficacy of that glori- 
ous sight, to render us like to him ! 1 John, 3 : 2. 



S82 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Part 6 

The righteous will also be blessed with the company of 
angels and saints. Although the nature, order, and rank 
of the angels is superior to that of men, yet they will not 
disdain our company. Those that now account themselves 
our fellow-servants will not refuse to make us their happy 
associates in heaven. Those that now^ rejoice in our con- 
version will then triumph in our final salvation. There 
also we shall be admitted to the society of the patriarchs, 
prophets and apostles, and all those eminent servants of 
God who, in every successive age, have shone as lights in 
this dark world, and are now translated to a higher orb. 
There we shall also regain the society of our Christian re- 
lations and friends that have been our fellow-soldiers here 
in the same spiritual warfare, but are now possessed of the 
immortal crown, and have before us entered into everlast- 
ing rest. O the joyful meeting, when all the children 
of God that were dispersed abroad shall be gathered into 
one general assembly and church ! when the vast conven- 
tion of all whose names are listed in the heavenly rolls 
shall be completed, not one member being wanting in the 
mystical body of Christ ! If now it be so " pleasant to be- 
hold brethren dwell together in unity " on earth, how much 
more to behold the perfect unity of the concordant, hea- 
venly society, when the prayer of Christ for them shall be 
fully answered, "that they may be all one in God and 
him." John, 17 : 21. 

^ 12. Another part of the future blessedness of the 
righteous will result from the noble employment and work 
of the heavenly society. Angels and saints are frequently 
represented in the Scriptures as joining in joyfully cele- 
brating the divine praises. See Rev. 5 : 8-14. 7 : 9, 10. 
19 : 19. " Methinks," says the pious Mr. Baxter, ''when 
we are singing or speaking God's praise in the great as- 
semblies with joyful and fervent souls, I have the liveliest 
foretaste of heaven upon earth : and I almost wish that our 



Let. 4.j FUTURE HAPPINESS OF THE RIGHTEOUS. 383 

voices could reach through all the world, and to heaven 
itself. Nor is there any exercise in which I would rather 
end my life." And if it be so sweet to join in the imperfect 
praises of the church here below, how ravishing will it be 
to bear our part in the triumphant hallelujahs of the hea- 
venly community. How justly may we say with the 
Psalmist, " Blessed are they that dwell in thy house ; they 
will be still praising thee." 

And no doubt there are various works besides, in which 
the heavenly King will employ all that are the happy at- 
tendants at his throne above. It is expressly mentioned as 
one part of the felicity of heaven, that " there the servants 
of God shall serve hirn." Rev. 22 : 3. And these services 
will be as much more honorable and delightful than those 
on earth, as their capacity and zeal to perform them shall 
be greater. But I proceed to name, 

§ 13. Another part of the future happiness of the right- 
eous, as resulting from the beauty and glory of the place 
where they shall enjoy it. The future habitation of the 
righteous is called by different names, such as the paradise 
of God, the third heaven, the heaven of heavens, a building 
not made with hands, into which our blessed Savior has 
entered to prepare mansions for his faithful followers ; the 
Jerusalem above, a city whose builder and maker is God. 
*' And if there be such a ravishing beauty," says Dr. Boyce, 
"in the accurate frame of this lower world; if this earth, 
which is but comparatively as the sink of this inferior cre- 
ation, be full of the glory of God ; what must we conceive 
that highest heaven to be, which is as it were the court of 
the eternal King, the place of his peculiar abode, and the 
seat of his glorious empire!" Well may it be called, "the 
heaven of heavens." To represent its amazing amplitude 
and splendor, he employs the lively emblem of his im- 
mensity and glory who dwells there, (i. e. there peculiarly 
manifests himself) "and who would not long to see the 



3S4 JOSLPII AND BENJAMIN. [Part 6. 

beauty and glory of God shining with the brightest rays 
in that eternal sanctuary ! Who would not account it the 
highest honor to be admitted into the presence-chamber, and 
to stand before the *' blessed and only Potentate, the King of 
kings, and Lord of lords !" 

^14. To what has been said, my dear Benjamin, I will 
add but one thought more, viz. that the future happiness of 
the righteous arises from its duration. It is " Eternal 
Life," both w^ithout interruption' and without end. It is an 
immortal crown, whose glory never fades ; an *' inherit- 
ance incorruptible," that suffers no diminution by the long- 
est possession of it. There are none of those alloying in- 
gredients in the heavenly felicity that abate and extinguish 
the pleasure of our sensual enjoyments. Glorified saints 
have no temptation to be weary of their heavenly work 
and joys, either from any defects in the objects they enjoy, 
or any weakness in their OAvn perfected faculties. Their 
felicity is, in a lower degree, like that of it? blessed author, 
fixed and invariable. 

t Thus, my dear Benjamin, I have endeavored to give you 
a description of the future happiness of the righteous, but 
let us be more anxious to realize it than simply to know it; 
may it be our felicity to know and serve God here below, 
and afterwards to be permitted to sit down with our vene- 
rable fathers, Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, and all the pro- 
phets, in the kingdom of God ; and join with all the re- 
deemed in singing " the song of Moses and the Lamb, for 
ever and ever. Amen." 

Farewell. 



Let. 5.] coKcLusio-N. 385 



I^eUer V. 



CONCLUSION. 



Dear Benjamin^ 

§ 1. By the good hand of Providence I have been up- 
held and enabled to complete the series of letters on the 
controversy between our dear people and Christians. I 
have endeavored to lay before you the evidences which 
convinced me that the Bible, i. e. the Old and New Testa- 
ments, is a book of divine revelation, worthy of God to re- 
veal, and absolutely necessary and perfectly sufficient to 
make us wise unto salvation, by faith in the Lord Jesus 
Christ. I have given you an account of the necessity, ap- 
pointment and revelation of a Messiah, or Mediator. I 
have endeavored to illustrate and confirm, both from the 
sacred volume and from the writings of our Rabbins, of 
blessed memory, all the prophecies contained in the law, in 
the prophets, and in the book of Psalms concerning the 
Messiah, and shown their literal accomplishment in the per- 
son of Jesus of Nazareth, both in his state of humiliation 
and exaltation. I have further detained you with several 
letters on the all-important subject of the divinity of the 
Messiah, and I hope that, instead of being " a stone ol 
stumbling and rock of offence," it will be " for a sanctuary " 
to your precious soul. In conformity with your repeated 
solicitations and my frequent promises, I have endeavored 
to give you a brief statement of the different sentiments and 
opinions on the interesting but most difficult subject, the se- 
cond advent of the Messiah, or the millennium, and have 
concluded the series by a few letters on the subjects gene- 
rally called the " four last things," i. e. the resurrection of 



JOSEPH AND BLNJAMIN. [Part 6. 

the dead, the general judgment, the misery of the wicked, 
and the happiness of the righteous. I have also endeavored 
to answer the few objections which you have been kind 
enough to suggest, and hope that, instead of making an 
apology for troubling me with them, you will read over 
carefully the whole series in its connection, and let me 
know all your doubts and objections on the different sub- 
jects ; and if life and health be spared, I will with plea- 
sure endeavor to remove them out of the way of your em- 
bracing Jesus Christ as your Lord and your God. At the 
close of the first series I mentioned that it was my inten- 
tion to add a few select sermons to this work ; but as 
the matter necessarily connected with the one great object, 
the Messiah, has already exceeded the proposed limits, I 
must defer them until a more convenient opportunity. 

^ 2. I cannot lay down my pen without addressing a few 
words to you, 

My beloved brethren and kinsmen after the flesh. Al- 
though these letters are addressed to Benjamin, my natu. 
ral brother, yet at no time during the composition of them 
did I lose sight of you and your precious souls ; " for my 
heart's desire and prayer to God for you is, that you might 
be saved.'' And now, brethren, permit me to propose them 
to your careful perusal and attention ; and after you have 
read them dispassionately and attentively, and properly re- 
flected on the many and important truths which they pre- 
sent to your view, tell me candidly whether they do not 
clearly prove that Jesus Christ is the Messiah ; not in- 
deed such an one as you have figured to yourselves, but 
such an one as the prophets describe ; who was to be born 
in Bethlehem of Judea, in an humble condition, " like a 
root out of a dry ground," to become " a man of sorrows and 
acquainted with grief," who u^as to suffer and to die, being 
*' smitten and stricken of God, wounded and bruised for our 
Iransgressions, that b^^ his stripes we might be healed." 



Let. 5.] CONCLUSION. 387 

It is an unquestionable truth, that you all expect a Messiah 
and Redeemer ; you daily pray for salvation through him, 
and you have prayed for his coming for nearly two thou- 
sand years ; but when the precious cup is presented to you, 
you dash it from your lips ; when Jesus Christ appeared to 
our fathers, they rejected and crucified him exactly as it was 
foretold by the prophets, merely because he came not in 
the manner in which they had imagined he would come • 
and you my beloved brethren continue to this day to do the 
same. That our forefathers thus treated Jesus of Nazareth 
is to me no such surprising thing as it appears to others. I 
mentioned in a former letter, that but few of our nation in 
Christ's time had an opportunity of knowing the Scrip- 
tures, being then only in manuscript, and therefore exceed- 
ingly scarce. But how diflferent are your circumstances! 
You have the means of obtaining a knowledge of the 
Scriptures both of the Old and New Testament, none dar- 
ing to disturb you. Compare then what I have written 
with the law, and the prophets, and the book of Psalms. If 
it does not agree with them, let the mistakes be publicly- 
pointed out in the spirit of meekness and brotherly love, 
and I will give them all the attention in my power. But, as 
I have reason to fear that comparatively few of you make 
a point of searching the Scriptures, permit me to ask you, 
to what purpose do you imagine did the prophets predict 
so clearly and circumstantially the coming of a Messiah, 
and foretell every event that should happen during his 
existence in this world, and every circumstance of his 
birth, his mission and death, if not to instruct and pre- 
pare us to receive such a Messiah as God taught them to 
describe ? 

I cannot but hope that if you will candidly read and 
examine the prophecies that I have presented to your view, 
which you profess to believe implicitly, you will see that 
Ji'sns Christ i.s the very Messiah they speak of; he who* 



388 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. fPail 6. 

was ill the world at the very time whea the Messiah was 
expected to appear, and no other either at that time or since, 
proved to be such ; he, who was born of the same family, 
and after the same manner, and in the same place, which 
the prophets foretold of the birth of the Messiah ; he who 
taught all those truths and wrought all those miracles ; he 
who suffered all those indignities ; received all that glory, 
which the Messiah was to teach, perform, suffer and re- 
ceive ; whose doctrine was received in all nations, accord- 
ing to the character given to us of the Messiah ; he was 
certainly the true Messiah ; and it having been demon- 
strated that all these things were exactly fulfilled in Jesus 
Christ, and in him alone, we surely must acknowledge 
him to be the promised Messiah. 

But if the prophets and the other sacred \vritings do 
not convince you, if you are determined to acknowledge 
no other Messiah but such as you have figured to your- 
selves, majestic and of resplendent glory, and will reject 
the true Messiah, the meek and lowly King of Zion, cer- 
tainly nothing I can say will make a sufficient impression 
upon your minds so as to remove your fatal infatuation. 
Yet, such is my earnest desire to promote your spiritual 
and eternal welfare, that I w^ould beg your attention a few 
moments longer. Suppose, for mere argument's sake, Jesus 
Christ to have been a mere man, and take his character as 
you find it, immaculate and replete with zeal for the service 
of God, and ever studying the good of mankind; who, 
after having taught a doctrine truly divine, was willing to 
confirm and seal it with his own blood; and exhibit to 
mankind, by his death, the brightest example of moderation, 
patience, charity, and many other sublime virtues ; can the 
reason of the greatest sceptic withhold itself from believing 
$\ich a man, one, too, of our own nation, not entitled to the 
warmest love and reverence? Surely not. We find the 
Grecians and many of the ancients worshiped the heroes 



Let. 5 ] CONCLUSION. 389 

who, during their lives, possessed extraordinary virtues, 
and in the end generously sacrificed their lives for the good 
of the country ; but when we read the sacred pages of the 
Old and New Testaments, and find the clearest and most 
evident proofs that Jesus Christ is the Son of God, the Cre- 
ator of the universe ; the object of worship of all the an- 
gelic hosts, who condescended to assume our nature, and 
make himself of no reputation ; that he was wounded for 
our transgressions and bruised for our iniquities ; suffered 
himself to be led like a lamb to the slaughter; was num- 
bered with transgressors, and poured out his soul unto 
death, even the ignominious and accursed death of cruci- 
fixion, to deliver us from the wTath to come, from the curse 
of the law, and free us from the tyranny of sin and Satan, 
to restore us to the image of God, and fit us for the enjoy- 
ment of eternal felicity and glory ; what impressions ought 
such transcendent goodness to stamp upon our hearts ? 
How greatly does it behoove us to offer up our most grate- 
ful thanks to the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, 
for the inestimable blessing thus bestowed upon us, in the 
redemption of the world by our Lord Jesus Christ ; for the 
means of grace and the hope of glory ! I close, my dear 
brethren, with my most earnest prayer, that the God of our 
fathers, Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, would incline your 
hearts to read and examine calmly, and without prejudice, 
those all-important truths which I have laid before you, 
that you may be enabled to reflect seriously upon them, and 
finally be convinced, like myself and many others of our 
dear people ; and thereby, at the coming of our blessed 
Savior, obtain the felicity of that kingdom promised to the 
believing Jews as w^ell as Gentiles. 

"Who is wise ? and he shall understand these things ; 
prudent ? and he shall know them ; for the ways of the 
Lord are right, and the just shall walk in them; but the 
transgressors shall fall therein." Hosea, 14 : 7. 



390 JOSEPH AND BENJAMIN. [Pari 6 

^ 3. Christian reader — You who profess to know and be- 
lieve that Jesus is " the Christ, the Son of the living God," 
permit me to close this letter with a word of exhortation. Let 
me recommend to you to read carefully and prayerfully 
the 1 1th chapter of Romans. Rejoice in the prospect of 
the Jews being grafted again into the good olive-tree, if 
they continue not in unbelief. "But how then shall they 
call on him whom they have not believed ? and how shall 
they believe on him of whom they have not heard ? and how- 
shall they hear without a preacher ? and how shall they 
preach except they be sent?" Rom. 10 ; 14, 15. But who 
shall send missionaries and the means of grace to the Jews, 
if Christians do not? Consider therefore the design of the 
rejection of my beloved people, and your adoption in their 
stead. " For as ye in times past have not believed God, yet 
have now obtained mercy through their unbelief; even so 
have these also now not believed, that through your mercy 
they also may obtain mercy." Rom. 1 1 : 30, 31. Remember 
also, that "salvation is of the Jews;" "who are Israel- 
ites : to whom pertaineth the adoption, and the glory, and 
the covenants, and the giving of the law, and the service of 
God, and the promises, whose are the fathers, and of whom, 
as concerning the flesh, Christ came, who is over all, God 
blessed forever. Amen." Rom. 9 : 4, 5. Should it be ask- 
ed in what way can we show mercy unto them ? What can 
we do to convince them that Jesus is the true Messiah ? I 
answer /<?r the present, you may aid the committee appoint 
ed by the board of the Jewish Society to carry into efTect 
their resolutions prefixed to this work ; namely, to circulate it 
amongst the Jews in this countr3% and in England, and 
to get it translated into the German language, for the use 
of the Jews in Europe. For this purpose, a distinct fund has 
been opened, and donations are thankfully received by the 
treasurer of this society, Mr. E. Burrill, No. 5 Broad-street. 
To promote this good cause, I have offered to the Society 



Let. 5.J CONCLUSION'. 391 

as many copies as they may want at cost, and should be 
happy once more to travel over the United States to solicit 
aid for this object, as I have heretofore for other objects. 
But I am now old and grey-headed ; and with the loss ot 
my hair I am losing my strength also, and shall have to 
spend the remainder of my days at home, in the publication 
of the Jewish Intelligencer.* But I hope many will send 
their mite to the treasurer of the Society, which will save 
traveling expenses. " And now unto him who loved us, 
and washed us from our sins in his own blood, and hath 
made us kings and priests unto God and his Father, to 
him be glory and dominion for ever and ever. Amen." 



♦ Note. — A Prospectus of which will be foimd prefixed to this 
work, the first No. of which has just been published. 



KN'i> OK VOL. II- 



To the Editor of tlio American Baptist. 

Sir, — Having had the gratification of perusing in manuscript the se- 
cond volume of Joseph and Benjarain, I am constrained to express my 
sentiments of its merits. To those uho have read the first volume, it 
may suffice to say, not only that it treats of similar topics in a like man- 
ner, that the plan there laid down has been completed, and the pro- 
mises there made have been fulfilled ; but, as these are deeper and more 
interesting subjects, they have been more labored, and deserve more the 
attention of the public; that they "vvill find the relish they gained in the 
first volume, satisfied by a full feast in this. 

I would say to those who have not seen the first volume, that if they 
w ish to see the subject of difference between Jews, the sons of Abraham, 
and Christians, treated fully, clearly, and convincingly— if they wish to 
see the fundamental truths of the Gospel exhibited in the best manner, 
they will consult these volumes, equally beneficial to the Jew and 
Christian. J- B« K. 



E.x.tract of a letter from James Millar, Esq., who acted as secretary for the Loudon 
Society for proinoting Christianity among the Jews, during the time that I preached 
the substance of these letters as lectures to my Jewish brethren in London. 

" I have received your first volume of letters from Joseph to Benja- 
min, for which I sincerely thank you. They appear to me well calcu- 
lated to excite the attention of the Jews; indeed, I always considered 
you as better qualified to deal with vour brethren than most of our 
Christian ministers, in consequence of your general acquaintance with 
their opinions and the traditions of the Jewish fathers. Could we per- 
Buade them to apply to the ' Ruach Hakkodesh ' for divine illumination 
in reading the prophets, with your observations,! should hope the veil 
that is yet on their hearts would be removed ; it will be taken away in 
due time : your letters at the same time appear to me to be well calcu- 
lated for the bulk of Christian readers, who appear to be too little ac- 
quainted with the prophecies relating to the future prospects of God'» 
ancient people." 



INDEX 

TO 

SUBJECTS 



A. Vol. 

I 

Abel, his sacrifice, 318 

Acceptance of Christ's sacrifice, 

Adam how created, 4 

a federal head, 55 

his fall. 61 

believed in the Messiah, 15(5 

a type of Christ, 85 

Advent of the Messiah, first 179 

second 
Advantages of the Seminary at 

Gosport, 14 

Altar of Christ's sacrifice, 360 

Angel-Jehovah, 

his appearances. 
Anointed, means Christ, 225 

Antiquity of sacrifices, 310 

Apostles, their character, 

witnesses to Christ's 
resurrection. 
Arguments to read the Scrip- 
tures, 32 
Ascension of Christ, 
Atonement, 325 
Attributes of God, incommuni- 
cable, 



Benjamin's letter of inquiry, 7 

Bible, the only rule, 11 

why called Testaments, 20 
its evidences, 21-30 

examination of its evi- 
dences, 1 3 
Birth of Christ, 256 
Blasphemy against the Holy 

Ghost, 
Branch means the Messiah, 426 

Burial of Christ, 392 



Cain, his sacrifice, 318 

Canaan, uot yet fully possessed, 
Ceremonial law could not atone, 114 
Change of human nature, 62 

called a fall, 63 
Character of the Messiah, 261 

Christ, why so called, 225 

God by nature, 
possesses all the divine 
criteria. 
Cock, sacrificed, 321) 

Concluding letter, 



Vol. 
II. 

318 



253 



249 



317 



I 385 

17 



Vol 
1. 

Condition of the covenant of 

works, 56 

Consecration of Christ, 356 

Consequences if Christ be not 
God, 

be God, 
Contract in the covenant of 

redemption, 128 

Controversy between Jews and 

Christians, 41 

how to decide it, 43 

Covenant of works, 50 

nature of a ibi. 

how made, 51 

Covenant of redemption, 124 

with Abraliam not yet 

fulfilled. 

Creation, an incommunicable 

work, 

of man, 46 

Credentials of the Messiah, 268 

Criteria of Divinity, 
Crucifixion of Christ, : 



D. 



Daniel's weeks fulfilled. 



Death of Christ, 
temporal. 



C 186 
< 192 
( 225 

387 
piritual, and 
eternal, 59 

Depravity, nature, proved, 72 

Desire of all nations means 

Christ, 1 

Destruction of Jerusalem C 199 

foretold, I 1 

Deut. 18 ; 15-lR explained, 5 

Divine revelation, possible, ne- 
cessary, 15 
Divisions of the Bible, 2] 
Divinity of Christ proved from 
his resurrection, 

its importance, 

the Holy Ghost, 

Doubts about the Bible, 13 



EflTects of the fall, 67 

Elect, interested in the cove- 
nant, 142 



VoL 
II. 



203 
219 



285 
150 

143 



54 

202 
334 



Elijah and John the Baptist, 
Elohim, plural, 



275 



I 131 



394 



INDEX. 



Vol. 
I. 

Error, duty of renouncing it, 11 
Evasions refuted, 202 

Ere believed in the Messiah, 150 
Events connected with tiie mil- 
lennium, 
Evidences of divine revelation, 
Exaltation of Christ, necessity, 

nature, 
Examination of Scripture, 
Expectation of a literal return. 
Extent of Christ's sacrifice, 366 



Faber's sentiment of the mil- 
lennium, 
Faith the channel of salvation, 

Messiah the object of 
Fall of Adam, 



Genealogy of Judah preserved, 239 
Matth. and Luke 
reconciled, 246 

General resurrection. 
Genesis 3 : 15 considered, 150 

49 : 10 considered, ^ gll 

Gentiles to be blessed in the 

Messiah, 172 

German Neologists, 205 



H. 

Hag. 2 : 1-9 considered, i 

Harbinger of the Messiah, 

Happiness, future, of the righ- 
teous, 

Heb.2:2,3 

14, 

11:4, 

Heresy charged on those who 
believe a literal restoration 
oflsrael. 

Holiness enforced by Christ's 
resurrection. 

Holy Spirit, his divini( j' proved, 

Human nature changed by sin, 
its cause unknown with- 
out divine revelation, 



Jacob's prediction, Gen. 49: 10^ 
fulfilled, 179 

Jehovah, an incommunicable 
name, 

Jerusalem to be rebuilt, 



332 



Vol, 

Jesus, why called so, 218 

his human existence proved, 212 
he is the promised Messiah 212 
why rejected by the Jews, 45 
still expected by them, 232 

Image of God, what, 48 

Immutability, prerogative of 

God, 61 

Importance of examining reli- 
gion, 

of the divinity of Christ, 
his resurrection, 
Imputation of Adam's sin, 

what it means, ibi. 

proved, 84 

Inability, 105 

Inspiration, the work of the 

Holy Spirit, 
Intercession of Christ, 
Introduction to the Series ol 

Letters, 

John the Baptist, 271 

Isaiah II : 2-5 considered, 263 

14 : 7, 243 

52 and 53, 341 

Judah, his genealogy preserved, 239 
Judaism to be re-established. 
Judge of the world is Christ, 
Judgment, general 
JoMification by faith only, 177 



Kingly office of Christ, 

L. 

Law, positive, moral, 54 

Lawgiver, 185 

Letter from " Benjamin to Jo- 
seph," 7 

circular, to omit things 
contained in the Talmud, 
&c. about Christ, 238 

Levi, David, quotation, 206 

Lying to the Holy Ghost, 



Vol. 
II. 



Man, his creation, 
the noblest creature on earth, 

Malachi 3 : 1 considered, < 

Mediator necessary, 
appointed, 

revealed in Scripture, 
Messenger means Christ, 
Messiah promised, proved, 

expected, \ 

revealed in paradise, 



47 
ibi 
190 
224 

46 
119 
120 
191 
144 
145 
232 
150 



INDEX, 



395 



Messiah promised to Abraham, 
must have come, 
not concealed, 
his nativity, 

his descent, nation, tribe, 
and family, 
his character, 
credentials, 
his miracles, 

compared with 



Vol. Vol, 
I. II. 



•234 
261 

268 
277 

286 
290 
30.3 
349 

28i 



to be a prophet like Moses, 

priest, ? 

his sufferings, death, and 
crucifixion, 
the Judge of the world, 
Messiaship of Christ proved by 

his resurrection, 
Millennium, difficult subject, 

tradition of 
Miracles of Christ, 
Misery of fallen man, 

its nature, 
future, of the wicked, 
Mission of Christ proved, 
Mosaic economy, design, 



N. 



Nativity of the Messiah, 229 

Nazareth, Jesus called so, 218 

Necessity of a Mediator, 46 

Neologisis in Germany, 205 

Newton, Bishop on the Millen- 
nium, 



Obedience required of Adam, 57 

in the power of Adam, ibi. 

insufficient to atone, 1 13 

Objections against the Geueal 

ogy, 236 

a literal restoration, 

11 

164 

304 

313 

71 



Origin of my conversion, 

our nation, 

the priesthood, 

sacrifices. 
Original sin, 
Observations on divine reveki 

tion, 14 



Parties in the covenant of re- 
demption, 125 

Penalty, none in the covenant 
of redemption, 142 

Perseverance of the saints se- 
cured, 139 



332 



365 



256 



Persons in the Triuity, 
Pharisee and publican, 
Philo, his character, 
Place of Messiah's birth, 
Plurality in unity. 
Predictions fulfilled in Jesus, 
Preparations made for the re- 
turn of the Jews, 
Preservation of Israel,' 
Priestley's Dr., assertion refu- 
ted. 

Priestly office of Christ, 5 

Prince, is Jesus, 

Promise of Messiah not condi- 
tional, 

Promises in the covenant of re- 
demption. 

Prophecies respecting the res- 
toration, 

Proj)het, Messiah was to be a 

Proverbs, ch. 8 explained, 

Proposition respecting the An- 
gel-Jehovali, 

Psalm 22 considered, 
110 

Punishment, future 



Vol. 

I 

320 
256 
212 



Reading the Scriptures, 32 

Reformation insufficient, 113 

Religion, its nature, 9 

Repentance insufficient to a- 

tone, 106 

Regeneration the work of the 

Spirit, 
Restoration of Israel, 
Resurrection of Christ, 

the righteous, 
general, 
Righteous, their character 
River Sambatyon, | 

Romans 2 : 3, 4 explained, 176 

5: 12-19, 85 



S. 

Sacrifice of Cain and Abel, 

Christ, 
Sacrifices, antiquity, &c. 



318 
358 
310 
106 
could not atone, 115 

331 

Sambatyon, the name of a river, 299 
Sanctification as necessary as 

justification, 116 

Sanction of the covenant of 

works, 58 

Satan to be bound, 
Sceptre means a tribe, 1851 



Vol 
II. 

124 

155 
122 



31S 



285 

156 
367 



243 

281 

19 

57 
332 
375 



396 



INDEX. 



Vol. 

Scriptures how to be read, 32 
Seed of the woman means 

Christ, 152 

Abraham, 166 

Seventy weeks, 194 

Shevet, not a rod of affliction, 205 

fulfilled in Jesus, ^21 

Shilo not a city, 205 

but the Messiah, 183 
Signs of Mesbiah's advent, 
Similarity between Christ and 

the Angel, 

Sin of Adam complicated, 69 

original, 71 
Situation of the Jews favorable 

to their return, 

Spirit Holy, truly God, 

Star at the birth of Jesus, 259 

Sufferings could not atone, 115 

of Christ described, 382 

vicarious, 339 



Temple, second, destroyed, 186 
atteoiplG to rebuild it, 228 



Vol. 
11. 



Vol. 
I. 

Temple, believers arc such, 
Tempter, Satan, 63 

his motive and subtilty, 64 
Ten signs of Messiah's advent, 

consolations, 
Time of Messiah's first advent, 180 
Jesus came at that time, 221 
Two Messiahs, a Rabbinical 
fiction, 180 



Unction of the Messiah, 269 

Union of the two natures in 

Christ, 930 

Unity of the Godhead, 

( 339 

Vicarious suflferings, i g-j 

Virgin, the mother of the Mes- 
siah, 240 

W. 

World, what it means, 174 

Worship diie to God (»ly, 



Vol. 
II. 

248 



274 
ibi. 



ISl 



INDEX 

TO 

PASSAGES OF SCRIPTURE 

ILLUSTRATED OR QUOTED IN THIS WORK. 



GENESIS. VOL. L 



Ch. Ver. 
1 26 
27 

26,27 
27 
16,17 

3 1-6 
11 
15 

16-19 
22 

4 2-6 
4 
25 

5 22 

6 5 
7 

8 24 

11 7 

12 1-3 

13 14,15 

15 1 
3 
9,10 

16 7-14 

17 8 

18 20-21 

19 17 
24 
32 

20 13 

21 13 
16 

22 15-18 
24 67 
26 3 

28-31 

28 10 
10-22 
13, 14 
22 

29 27 
32 24-30 

35 1-7 
8 
12 

36 14 

42 38 
45 14 
48 II 

43 8-12 
10 



Page. 



48 



54 88 
63 

150 167 302 
102 

318 

168 240 

77 



163 
348 



52 
347 



240 
148 



182 
184 



VOL. 11. 


GENESIS. 


VOL. I. 


VOL. 11. 


Page. 


Ch. Ver. 


Page. 


Page. 


131 


49 18 


145 




133 


18-28 


185 






50 24 




320 


132 344 


EXODUS. 






358 


3 1-5 




157 




2 14-18 




169 




7-10 




321 


132 


14 




188 




20 


285 




78 


4 1 5 




1€9 




31 


285 




68 


64 8 




285 




7 1 




184 


168 


14 13 




276 


61 


15 2 


232 




132 


9 




232 




20 3 




129 


285,286 


5 




137 




22,23 




166 




222 


236 






23 20-23 




170 178 


157 


28 29 




83 


285 


41 


358 




358 


33 14,15 




177 




34 2 




92 


132 164 


14 




153 




37 22 24 




92 


132 


LEVIT. 






219 








108 J 57 


9 32 




68 




16 15-17 




77 


358 


16 




80 




19 28 




21 




21 1 




21 


157 


23 10-12 




19 




24 29 


327 






15,16 




206 




26 42-45 




285 


157 


27 28 


327 




157 


NU»1B. 






.358 








358 


16 40 




80 


71 


21 14 


219 






23 8 


100 




68 


19 


208 






24 -7 


259 






17-19 




89 



3y8 




INDEX. 






DEUT. 


VOL. I. 


VOL. 11. 


2 SAM. 


VOL. I 


VOL.11. 


Cb. Ver. 


Pa^. 


Page. 


Ch. Ver. 


Page. 


P»ge. 


1 8 




288 


2 26 




167 


3 16 




169 


6 2 




167 


4 7 




158 


7 12,13 


124 169 




83,24 




143 


12 13 


108 




35-39 






18 33 




220 


5 26 






21 8 


249 




6 4 






23 3 




96 


6,7 


34 




24 13 


162 




13-15 




143 153 








17 


187 




1 KINGS. 






21 




160 








32 




143 


8 39 




149 


10 16 


9C 




18 24 




171 


17 




187 








20 




143 


2 KINGS. 






11 21 




286 








16 21 




143 


2 2 




75 


17 18,19 


35 




11 




61 


18 15-19 




227 


6 28,29 




288 


18 


271 




19 15 




161 


20 3-5 












22 28 


243 




1 CHRON. 






23 14 




199 








25 5 






17 11 


169 




27 26 


57 9§ 




21 12 


167 




28 


102 










15-20 


100 




2 CHRON. 






27 


298 










29 14,15 


56 




26 10 


299 




29 


39 










30 1-6 




282 289 330 


EZRA. 






20 




286 








32 35 






13 21 


195 




39 




345 


17 7 


195 




34 10-12 


293 




NEHEM. 






JOSHUA. 


















2 1 9 


16£ 




5 13-15 




157 170 








14 




160 


ESTHER. 






6 2 




157 








22 22 




138 


7 3 




81 


24 19 




176 


9 6 

27,28 




151 
166 


JUDGES. 






JOB. 






21 




170 








6 11-24 




157 170 


1 10 




117 


13 2-13 




157 


3 17 




377 








5 12,13 


198 


116 


RUTH. 






9 2 












8 


78 


151 


4 19 


24 




14 4 
14 


75 
75 




1 SAM. 






15 14 
17 9 


140 
25 




2 6 




345 


19 25 


146 




10 


289 




25-27 

25 4 

26 13 


198 


335 345 

840 







INDEX. 




39^ 


JOB. 


VOL I. 


VOL, II. 


PSALMS. 


VOL, T. 


VOL. IL 


Ch. Ver. 


Page. 


Page. 


Ch. Ver. 


Page. 


Page. 


28 12 




131 


51 16 




:2 


33 4 




240 


58 3 


75 




42 8 




87 


60 16 
633 


134 
99 




PSALMS. 






68 18 

4 8 17,18 




103 
187 


•2 


120 214 261 




32-35 




166 


l-€ 




110 233 


41 


249 




6 


127 135 


91 lOO 


69 21 


395 




7 


240, 241 262 


190 


72 10 


260 




7, 3 


129 




17 


169 257 




a" 




77 97107 259 


18,19 




234 


10, 12 




S30 


73 25,26 


140 




12 




120 177 


76 10 




117 


3 3 




14 


77 8,9 




376 


4 6,7 


19 




78 17,18 




235 


9 5,6 


376 


367 


82 6 




184 


16 




a51 


84 11 


142 




11 4 




246 


85 12 


240 




14 1 




129 


86 9,10 




130 


7 


146 




11 


39 




16 9.10 


397 




88 14,15 




re 


10 


135 


21 


89 3.4 


169 




10,11 




13 345 


19 -22 


134 




11 


69 141 


70 


27 




107 


18 2 




150 


29 .35,36 


169 




19 10 


33 




30 33 


140 




U 


35 




90 2 




192 


% 1 


3*5 




1» 


99 


35? 


6 8 12 


382 




94 9,10 




^ 


13 16 


382 




97 11 




10 


14-17 


389 




99 


121 




15 


397 




100 3 




106 


Id 


393 




102 25-27 




98 192 194 


25 3 


140 


114 


28 


158 




24 




187 


1M 30 




240 


10 




167 


109 6.7 




362 


11 




62 


110 


121 214 




25 9 14 


97 




1 


261 


517 63 117 
i233 278 


27 7-9 




376 


13 




245 


1-4 


308 


92 


305 


99 


10 


3 


135 240 


98 


33 6 




240 


4 


304 




9 


4^ 




118 18 


32 


1-29 


34 10 


142 




22 




22 


20 


396 




119 56 




116 


40 


131 366 




126 6 




10 


6 


332 




136 2 3 




187 


6,7 


159 




139 1-13 




150 2OT 


6 8 


128 




23 




194 


41 9 


363 




142 2 


114 197 




44 21 




194 


145 17 




97 


i5 6 




833 


147 -20 


37 






1.34 




N8 5 


47 




47 5 




€8 66 








SO 5 


52 




PROV. 






13 


35.3 










51 4 




3&4 


I 22-27 


127 




5 


74 




3 14 


33 




12 


90 




33 


19 





400 



INDEX. 



PROV. 


VOL. I. 


VOL.11. 


ISAIAH. 


VOL. I. 


VOL. II 


Ch. Ver. 


Page, 


Page. 


Ch. Ver. 


rage. 


~ Page. 


8 11 


33 




37 36 


297 




22-31 




200 


38 18 




21 


23 


127 




40 5 




279 


31 


128 




11 




98 


19 12 


99 




12-17 




241 380 


24 17 


357 




41 10 




150 


12 


360 




18 




278 


30 4 




177 


21-23 
42 1 


127 


239 150 


ECCL. 






1 4 

2,3 


122 


98 


6 24-26 




136 


6,7 


129 




7 20 


78 




6 




180 


11 9 




349 


7 


278 




12 1 




133 


21 


129 137 




14 




349 352 357 


43 5.6 
10,11 


135 


129 


CANT. 






25 
44 3 




195 
32 


8 6,7 




225 


3,4 
6 


136 


130 189 


ISAIAH. 






22 
24 




194 
151 


1 5,6 


70 




45 5 




185 


12 


357 




6 




130 


2 17,18 20 




217 


12 




151 


3 11 




260 


18 




194 


4 2 


126 




22 




185 


5 20 


117 124 




23 


136 


325 356 


6 1-10 




186 


24,25 


137 




3 




138 167 


25 


198 




7 14 


133 153 244 


185 


48 12,13 


152 


189 250 


8 13, 14 




186 


49 


122 




9 6 


134 233 122 


185 


8 


191 




6 




92 


10 




278 


7 


135 




50 4-9 


136 




12 




279 


5 


128 




11 2,3 


134 262 




5,6 


383 




1-7 




92 


52 7 


273 




9 




259 


53 


123 




10 


184 399 




2 


240 




14 13 




115 


4 


345 




19 1,2 


300 




4,5 


387 




21 13 


316 




5 


131 132,214 




23 24 




279 


7 


383 




25 8 


140 378 


279 


8 


387 




9 


146 




9 


397 




26 19 


136 


C 23 111 3.37 
i346 


10 
10 12 


384,335 


17 78 


27 3 




115 


11 


137 




13 




276 


12 


392 




28 11 


133 




.54 10 


125 




16 


192 




55 3,4 




34 


32 15 




22 


4 


197 




33 14 




367 


5 


136 




16 


142 




57 8 




575 


34 16 


35 




59 1,2 


99 




18 20 


52 




5,6 


312 




32,33 


208 




60 18 




192 


35 5,6 


278 


279 


61 1-3 


134 





INDEX. 



401 



ISAIAH. 


VOL. L 


VOL. IL 


DANIEL. 


VOL. I. 


VOL. U. 


Cb. Ver. 


Page. 


-^ f^Se. 


Ch. Ver. 


Page 


Page. 


63 9 




237 83 


56 




351 


10,1], 12 




235 


27 




358 


64 6 


69 


80 


7 13 


308 




65 20-22 




279 


14 


264 




66 2 


35 




13,14 




63 93 107 


4 


197 




25-27 
9 24 


148 196 347 


256 259 266 


JER. 






24-26 
25 


312 
137 




4 4 


176 




25-27 


194 225 




9 1-3 


327 




26 


366 




10 11,12 




151 


11 1 




274 


12 1-4 


344 




44,45 




264 265 275 


15 16 


40 




12 1 




265 


17 9 


38 




2 




279 339 


9,10 




129 150 


17 




256 


20 12 14 


344 




11.12 42 




266 275 


37,38 


344 




13 10 




275 


235 


126 










5,6 


233 


72 


HOSEA. 






6 


137 148 


79 








309 




304 


2 13 




275 


17 


240 




3 4,5 


229 


303 


18 




278 


6 2 




24 


21 


234 




8 12 


83 




31 




85 


12 1-5 




157 


31 21,22 


241 




13 14 




344 


22 


153 244 










32 40 


137 


115 


JOEL. 






33 15,16 


126 


92 145-147 








16 


137 158 




2 3 




277 


34 18-20 


52 




14 




274 


44 4 




222 


28 
32 




72 279 
186 


LAMENT. 






AMOS. 






4 10 




288 


3 3 


49 




EZEKIEL. 






4 13 




150 


U 11'^ 


138 


280 


MICAH. 






16 26 


138 










20 38 




275 


2 13 




64 278 


21 27 


183 




4 1 


154 




233 


241 




5 1 


353 




25 14 




279 


2 


256 


93 19S 


36 25-28 


139 


293 330 


7 


135 




37 

11-14 


139 


297 


6 6,7 


331 




26,27 


139 




HABAKK. 






38 6 8 15,16 




263 299 








22 




277 


1 12 


257 




39 2 




263 


2 2,3 


181 




DANIEL. 






ZEPH. 






2 34 
34,35 




118 

92 


3 9 20 




ii78,279 


44 




93 








45 




22 









lU5i 




INDEX. 






HAGGAI. 


VOL. I. 


VOL. II. 


MATTH. 


VOL. I. 


VOL. If 


Ch. Ver. 


,.« ^*8^*- 


Page. 


Ch. Ver. 


Page. 


Page. 


1 1 


249 




10 37,38 




224 * 


S 


224 




11 2-5 


44 181 235 




1-9 


187 




7-14 


274 




6 


148 




9 


275 




7 


184 189 




25,26 


143 




27 


276 




27 

29 




191 

98 19 


ZECH. 






12 18-21 
25 


122 


193 


1 12 




85 


31 




249 


25 




115 


36 




357 


3 1,2 5 




82 362 


39,40 


^ 


25 


8 


126 




13 19 


277 




4 7 


347 


232 


31-33 




119 


6 9-13 


125 




43 




13 342 


12 


240 




42-51 




368 


12,13 


305 




15 14 


18 




13 




71 


19 


361 




9 9 


214 2C3 


93 98 106 


16 16 




178 


14 




276 , 


17 




189 


11 12,13 


384 




26 


10 165 




12 10 


396 




17 5 


294 


227 


10-14 




313 329 


10-13 


274 




13 1 

7 


397 

233 385,386 




18 18 
20 




95 
192 


9 




275 


19 17 




376 


14 3 




277 


28 
20 28 


364 


355 


MALACHI. 






21 4,5 
21 24 


263 

277 




3 


24 




43 




111 


1 


191 322 




22 21 




97 


6 


61 


180 


29-32 




335 337 


15 




349 


37 


58 




4 5 


276 




37,38 




196 


5,6 


272 




23 17 

24 30 




197 
355 


MATTH. 






25 31 
34 41 




355,356 
73 365 


1 19 22,23 


243 




37,38 




373 


21 


218 




41 




347 


23 




185 


42,43 




357 


2 1-11 


260 




46 




357 37' 


5,6 


257 




31-46 




364 


22,23 


261 




26 15, 1« 




55 


27 


219 




64 




355 


3 1-3 


223 




62-66 




112 20 


5 


276 




27 43 




55 


16,17 


271 




52,53 




24 


17 


294 




62, 63 




26 


4 25 


225 




28 18 




17 97 10 


5 19 


59 




19 




136 ISl 


44 


100 




19,20 




226 


6 44, 45 


394 










15-17 




347 


MARK. 






33 


106 


103 231 








7 14 




378 


1 14 




111 


22 




362 


2 5-12 




195 


8 29 




178 357 


9 44 46 48 




368 371 


9 4 




193 


1 10 37 




196 







INDEX. 




403 


MARK. 


VOL. I. 


VOL. II. 


JOHN. 


VOL. I. 


VOL. II. 


Ch. Ver. 


Page. 


Page. 


Ch. Ver. 


Page. 


Page. 


12 29 32 




130 


5 23 
17-23 




196 224 
193 203 


LUKE. 






22,23 




353 


1 10 




79 


27-29 




C 195 338.339 
\ 343 354 


26,27 


252 




36 


278 




30-33 




94 


39 


40 




32 


124 




45 


174 


358 


35 




242 


6 14 


278 




2 13, 14 


259 286 




14,15 




190 


14 




66 


17 22 


367 




22 




25 


42 




242 


29-32 


174 




62 




64 


34 




186 


69 




188, 189 


3 3 


276 




7 27 


232 




9 26 




358 


31 


279 




55 




98 


34 




66 


10 9 




111 


37-39 




72 


20 




358 


40 


291 








C 367 342 
i 344 347 


8 21 




16 66 


13 28,29 




24 




228 


14 26 




186 


41 




190 


16 26 28 




360 366 


56 


145 




17 20 




94 


9 11 


218 




18 31-34 




27 


10 10 




378 


21 24 




324 


11 


360 




36 




356 


17,18 




26 


22 29 




95 


28 


115 




32 




82 181 


23-39 




204 


23 34 


100 




11 24 




337 


38 




95 


12 13 




94 


24 25-27 




10 


14,15 


263 




26 




15 


32 




75 


49 




72 


32,33 


390 




50-52 




65 


40,41 
41 




186 
236 


JOHN. 






48 
13 1 




358 

68 


I 3 




344 


7 


1 


117 


13,14 


234 


160 194 


18,19 


383 




13 




103 


19 


28 


25 


14 




177 


14 1 




196 226 


16 


165 




13 




80 


17 




181 


13,14 




88 193 


20 


276 332 365 




16 




81 


21 


291 




19 




58 177 


23 


233 




28 




16 


29 


175 




15 14 




226 


45 


212 




16 10 




69 


49 




178 


26,27 




79 


2 19 




193 


33 




344 


3 6 


78 




17 2 


373 


95 97 


13 




192 


3 




378 


14-16 




219 


4,5 




99 


36 


99 


228 378 


6 




211 


45 


334 




9 20 




79 


4 22 


235 




17 




81 


25 


147 291 




21 




382 


41 




198 


24 




73 78 8a 


5 17-19 




194 


18 33-37 




95 



404 



INDEX. 



JOHN. 


VOL. I. 


VOL. II. 


ROMu\NS. 


VOL. L 


VOL. IL 


Ch. Ver. 


Page. 


Page. 


Ch. Ver. 


Page. 


Pag«. 


19 7 




206 


2 5 




359 


19-22 




95 


11 




362 


34 


397 




7-11 




363 


36 


396 




12 




358 


£0 17 




64 75 


16 




357 


31 


285 


226 


3 5,6 
20 22 


198 


363 


ACTS. 






25 
25,26 


364 
359 




I 3 




32 


39,40 


174 




3 11 17 




67 


4 1-12 


178 




C 




94 


20 




57 


9-11 




65 


5 5-8 




220 


21.2-2 




36 


7,8 


32 




2 22 


286 




10 


363 


10 82 


24 




193 


12 


59 




36 




95 


6 3-6 




60 


39 




312 


23 


57 




3 22 23 


294 




31 




79 


23 


296 




7 18 


73 




21 25 


169 




24 




357 


26 




181 


8 1 




373 


5 3 




181 


11 




244 339, 343 


7 




249 


23 




379 


29-31 




95 


28 31 




116 


30,31 


211 




32 


166 


231 


7 17 




117 


33,34 




78 82 67 


55 




84 


33-39 




231 


9 10 




111 


9 1-5 


5 




14 21 




196 


4,5 


164 




20 




197 


5 


234,235 


185 


10 25,26 




198 


22 




369 


36-40 




54 


10 11 


319 




42 




352 


11-15 




196 


43 


169 




12 




207 


12 20 




80 


11 16 




20 


13 32,33 




21 


25,26 




259 


45-47 


174 




29 


208 




14 13-18 




174 


14 9, 10 




97 356 


17 




351 


10,11 




185 352 


17 11 


34 




12 




349 


28 




129 


17 




103 


20 28 




102 230 


22 




356 


22 16 




197 


16 24 




168 


24 15 




342 


27 




185 


25 




348 351 








20 8 




244 338 344 


1 COR. 






17,18 




217 








18 




108 


1 3 




197 


28 20 




338 


12 




196 


25-27 




246 


2 8 
. 9 


141 


15 187 


ROMANS. 






10,11 
14 


117 


238 


1 25 




186 


3 16,17 




248 


4 




54 344 


21 23 




231 


7 




197 


4 5 




357 


16 


7 


351 


20 




103 


18 32 


16 




6 2,3 




356, 357 


20 




151 


14 




343 



INDEX. 



405 



VOL. I. 


VOL.11. 


EPH. 


VOL. I. 


VOL. IL 


Page. 


... ^^Se. 


Ch. Ver. 


Page. 


Page. 




248 


3 18,19 




021 


304 




4 8 


167 


70 




130 


&-11 




72 187 




114 


10 




16 


57 




52 


358 


38 




379 


25 




181 




339 


25-27 




185 




24 


6 10-18 




105 


84 


339 
118 


PHILIP. 








13 


1 5 




231 


380 


339 
109 


2 5-11 


C 16 17 95 

i 100 120 


214 219 354 




341 344 


3 8,9 




226 


140 391 


346 


20 22 




340,341 343 




224 


21 
COLOSS. 


13 58 


193 




81 


1 13 




103 




379 


10,17 




194 344 




232 


19 


137 165 373 






343 


19,20 


303 






73 


2 9 




177 191 230 




334 356 


14,15 




30 344 




196 225 


3 2 




75 




81 


1-4 




59 


368 




4 




14 347 


338 




10 


48 






248 


16 


35 






199 


4 11 




111 




15 211 










79 


1 THESS. 








136 247 


1 7 

2 13 


38 


375 






14-16 


282 


206 




213 


4 16, 17 




195 


171 302 










172 




2 THESS. 






153 










100 113 




1 7-9 


60 




99 101 364 










171 




1 TIM. 






170 












207 


1 4 


245 




171 181 


213 


17 




185 196 360 


390 




2 6 

8 


360 


86 






8 16 


234 


58 






4 8 




116 231 




79 


6 15,16 




100 


45 142 


12 


16 




196 


373 


95 


2 TIM. 






?2o 




1 9,10 


137 


345 


172 




3 16 17 


36 


249 




88 


48 




348 356 



i06 




INDEX. 






TITUS. 


VOL. I. 


VOL. 11. 


1 PET. 


VOL. 1. 


VOL. 11. 


Ch. Ver. 


Page. 


Page. 


Ch. Ver. 


Page. 


Page. 


1 2 


136 




1 3-5 




59 


2 13 




185 348 


5 




82 


3 3 




111 


6 




114,115 


9 


245 




11 


135 171 










15 19 


364 


112 


HEB. 






20 
2 5 


127 


79 


1 1 




249 


7 




186 


2 




15 


22,23 


394 




1-3 




216 


24 


360 364 




3 




177 134 


3 11 




196 


5 




20 


18 


364 


244 


10 12 




192 194 


4 11 




196 


14 




104 181 


5 10,11 




!96 


2 3 




181 








7 




12 


2 PET. 






8 




18 109 








10 




10 181 


1 4 




81 


14 16 


352 375 




21 




249 


3 2 




15 


2 3-7 




351 356,357 


4 




151 


9 21 




120 


7-9 




235 


3 3-7 




348 351 


4 9 




•258 


8 




266 


13 




360 


16 




40 


4 14-lG 




( 80, 81 83 
^88 231 


1 JOHN. 






5 1 


358 










5,6 


354 




1 7 


71 


82 


20 


366 




2 1 




< 74 77 81 
i86 


6 2 




332 






7 14 


231,252 




2 4 10 


364 




17 24 




85 


20 




81 


25 




74 77 


23 




220 


25-27 
26 
8 3 


3.=>7 
359 


78 


25 
32 


137 


C 14 341 379 
^381 


9 13,14 
24 

25,26 
27 


333 361 


231 236 

77 


8 
9-13 




217 

228 




78 
369 


4 8,9 10 
15 




221 
226 


28 


:?64 




18 




376 


10 10 
10-12 


360 


78 


19 
55 




225 
226 


19,20 
27 




88 


JUDE. 






11 6 

17 22 

32 

35 

12 2 
24,25 

13 8 


363 
377 


116 
345 

347 
70 


I 
6 

13-15 




115 
357 

C 352 355, 
) 356, 357 




78 192- 
87 192 


24,25 
REV. 




234 


JAMES. 






1 4 




136 


2 10 

4 7 


57 


357 


5 
8 11 




69 196 
189 






18 




13 17 








2 8 




189 








10 




in 







INDEX. 




REV. 


VOL. I. 


VOL. n. 


REV. 


\ 


Ch. Ver. 


Page. 


rage. 


1 Ch. Ver. 




223 




193 


i 14 13 




3 5 




358 


! 18,19 




21 




17 


15 3 




55 


235 




17 12 14 




6 




78 


19 20 




6 9 
8-14 


365 


96 382 


11-2) 




13 
6 15 17 




196 
347 


20 7-11 




7 9,10 




196 382 


13,14 




16 




341 


12-15 




8 3 




79,80 


21 4 




9 11 


376 




8 27 




11 2,3 




256 


22 1 


137 


14 




263 


2 


374 


12 G 14 




256 


3 




13 5 




256 


20 




14 11 




371,372 







VOL. I 

Page. 



407 



VOL. II. 

Page. 
377 
117 
103 

117 187 
163 174 

C 99 108 167 
) 2:.8 382 
5 262 355 
) 357 367 

118 339 343 
358 

377 



383 





DATE DUE 


















































































































































1 


CAYLOND 











Frey, 


J. S. 239 

Trfin'7 4 




\ 


^4F*'S>§ph and Benjamin v. 2 






TITLE 




DATE DUE 


BORROWERS NAME 








/ 















239 
F89TJ 
V. 2 



1i',)'i 



(.